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David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DAML-S: Bringing Services to the Semantic Web David Martin SRI International

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Presentation on theme: "David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DAML-S: Bringing Services to the Semantic Web David Martin SRI International"— Presentation transcript:

1 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DAML-S: Bringing Services to the Semantic Web David Martin SRI International

2 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DAML-S Web Services Coalition BBN: Mark Burstein CMU: Massimo Paolucci, Katia Sycara ICSI: Srini Narayanan Nokia: Ora Lassila Stanford KSL: Sheila McIlraith* SRI: David Martin* Southampton: Terry Payne* USC-ISI: Jerry Hobbs Yale: Drew McDermott * Contributed to these slides

3 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Outline Motivation & Goals DAML-S technical overview Profile, Process & Grounding ontologies Achievements to date Releases, tools & applications Challenges Next Steps

4 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Convergence on Services Commercial vendors, media, forecasters, etc. –Intranets, not just internets W3C Web services efforts Semantic Web community –DAML-S; WSMF & other EU efforts –ISWC: 10 services-related papers, 7 posters Grid computing (OGSA) Ubiquitous computing (devices) –Mobile access to services  A remarkable opportunity –Bringing behavioral intelligence to the Web

5 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 What is DAML? A DARPA program An input to the W3C Semantic Web activity Draft for the Web Ontology working group A markup language

6 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Characteristics of DAML Based on XML & RDF(S) –Beyond RDF: properties of properties, equivalence and disjointness of classes, more constraints, etc. Feature comparison: https://www.daml.org/language/features.htmlhttps://www.daml.org/language/features.html –Layered approach XML => RDF(S) => DAML+OIL => (DAML-L) => DAML-S Semantics for Web resources from Knowledge Representation concepts –DAML+OIL: can be regarded as a description logic –Ontologies –Logical rules & inference DAML-S: Extension to Services

7 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 What is DAML-S? DARPA Agent Markup Language for Services A DAML+OIL ontology/language for (formally) describing properties and capabilities of Web services An approach that draws on many sources Description logic AI planning Workflow Formal process modeling Agents Web services

8 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Layered Approach to Language Development DAML-??? (Rules, FOL?) XML (Extensible Markup Language) RDF (Resource Description Framework) RDFS (RDF Schema) DAML+OIL  OWL (Ontology) DAML-S (Services) DAML-S: a major application of DAML+OIL Future versions will build upon emerging layers (e.g. DAML-Rules)

9 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DAML-S Objectives Automation of service use by software agents Ideal: full-fledged use of services never before encountered: discovery, selection, composition, invocation, monitoring Useful in the “real world” Compatible with industry standards Incremental exploitation Enable reasoning/planning about services e.g., On-the-fly composition Integrated use with information resources Ease of use; powerful tools

10 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Automation Enabled by DAML-S Web service discovery Find me a shipping service that transports goods to Dubai. Web service invocation Buy me 500 lbs. powdered milk from Web service selection & composition Arrange food for 500 people for 2 weeks in Dubai. Web service execution monitoring Has the powdered milk been ordered and paid for yet?

11 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Upper Ontology of Services Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne, University of Southampton

12 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 High-level characterization/summary of a service Used for Populating service registries A service can have many profiles Automated service discovery Service selection (matchmaking) One can derive: Service advertisements Service requests Service Profile: “What does it do?”

13 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Service Profile Non Functional Properties Functionality Description

14 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Service Profile: Capability Description Specification of what the service provides –High-level functional representation in terms of: preconditions inputs (conditional) outputs (conditional) effects Summarizes the top-level Process (described by Service Model)

15 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Service Profile: Functional Attributes –geographical scope Pizza Delivery only within the Pittsburgh area –quality descriptions and guarantees Stock quotes delivered within 10 secs –service types, service categories Commercial / Problem Solving etc –service parameters Average Response time is currently... Provide supporting information about the service, including:

16 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Class-hierarchical yellow pages –Implicit capability characterization –Arrangement of attributes on class hierarchy –Can use multiple inheritance Process summaries for planning purposes –More explicit –Inputs, outputs, preconditions, effects –Less reliance on formal hierarchical organization –Summarizes process model specs Service Profile: Styles of use

17 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Exploiting Taxonomies of Services ServiceProfile ProductProviding Service Manufacturing Transportation ActionService InfoService PhysicalProduct Service Repair Information Product+ physicalProduct+ manufacturer+ deliveryRegion* deliveryProvider* deliveryType Physical_ Product+ transportationMode+ geographicRegion+ physicalProduct+ Tie in with UDDI, UNSPSC, … DL Basis for matchmaking Multiple profiles; multiple taxonomies name provider role+ avgResponseTime? … FeeBased feeBasis+ paymentMethod+

18 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Upper Ontology of Services

19 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Service Model “How does it work?” Process –Interpretable description of service provider’s behavior –Tells service user how and when to interact (read/write messages) & Process control –Ontology of process state; supports status queries –(stubbed out at present) Used for: –Service invocation, planning/composition, interoperation, monitoring All processes have –Inputs, outputs, preconditions and effects –Function/dataflow metaphor; action/process metaphor Composite processes –Control flow –Data flow Process Model: “How does it work?”

20 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Service Model / Process Model

21 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Acme Book Truck Shipment Function/Dataflow Metaphor Input: confirmation no.... Output: failure notification … truck available + valid credit card Y N ? customer name origin destination weight pickup date...

22 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 AI-inspired Action/Process Metaphor Input: confirmation no.... Output: failure notification … truck available + valid credit card Y N ? Preconditions: customer name origin destination pickup date... knowledge of the input... goods at location if successful credit card debited... Effect: Output: Effect: Acme Book Truck Shipment

23 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 AcmeTruckShpng book flight service customer name flight numbers dates credit card no.... confirmation no.... failure notification errror information … ? book hotel service confirmation no. dates room type credit card no.... confirmation no.... failure notification … ? book car service customer name location car type dates credit card no.... confirmation no.... failure notification … ? Composite Process ? Input & Preconditions Output & Effects

24 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Simple and Composite Processes truck available + valid credit card Y N Confirm Shipping Region Get Quote Get Shipping Dates Book Truck Shipment Acme Truck Shipping Service expands AcmeTruckShpngExpandedAcmeTruckShpng

25 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Conditional outputs & effects Parameter bindings  Pushing the limits of DAML+OIL expressiveness Process Model: Recent evolution

26 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Upper Ontology of Services

27 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Service Grounding: “How to access it” Implementation-specific Message formatting, transport mechanisms, protocols, serializations of types Service Model + Grounding give everything needed for using the service Examples: HTTP forms, SOAP, KQML, CORBA IDL, OAA ICL, Java RMI

28 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DAML-S / WSDL Grounding Web Services Description Language –Authored by IBM, Ariba, Microsoft –Focus of W3C Web Services Description WG –Commercial momentum –Specifies message syntax accepted/generated by communication ports –Bindings to popular message/transport standards (SOAP, HTTP, MIME) –Abstract “types”; extensibility elements Complementary with DAML-S

29 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DL-based Types WSDL DAML-S Process Model Atomic Process Operation Message Inputs / Outputs Binding to SOAP, HTTP, etc.

30 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 DAML-S / WSDL Grounding (cont’d)

31 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 daml-property daml-s-process inputX daml-property outputY Atomic Process WSDL Document DAML-S / WSDL Grounding (cont’d)

32 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Review: Upper Ontology of Services

33 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Process Model Grounding Development … Deployment … Use … Publication Simulation Verification Discovery Composition Key: Selection Invocation, Interoperation Monitoring, Recovery Profile

34 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Path of Evolution Release 0.5 (May 2001) Initial Profile & Process ontologies Release 0.6 (December 2001) Refinements to Profile & Process Resources ontology Two approaches to formal semantics Sycara/Ankolekar, McIlraith/Narayanan Release 0.7 (October 2002) DAML-S/WSDL Grounding Profile, Process Model refinements More complete examples Towards 1.0 Expressiveness issues; process modeling; industry tie-in

35 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Related Activities Web site & mailing lists Users UMCP (Hendler/Parsia), UMBC (Finin), Manchester (Goble), CMU (Sadeh), Lockheed-Martin, Ultralog, beta-reviewers, … Tools DAML-S publications WWW10 SW Workshop (2), SWWS, WWW11, Coordination 2002, AAMAS, ICSW (4), IEEE Computer, IEEE Intel. Systems… W3C Web services activities Designated liaison for WS Arch. WG; Katia Sycara Experiment Use cases

36 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Tools and Applications DAML-S is just another DAML+OIL ontology  All the tools & technologies for DAML+OIL are relevant Some DAML-S Specific Tools and Technologies: Discovery, Matchmaking, Agent Brokering: CMU, SRI (OAA), Stanford KSL Automated Web Service Composition: Stanford KSL, BBN/Yale/Kestrel, CMU, MIT, Nokia, SRI DAML-S Editor: Stanford KSL, SRI, CMU (profiles), Manchester Process Modeling Tools & Reasoning: SRI, Stanford KSL Service Enactment /Simulation: SRI, Stanford KSL Formal Specification of DAML-S Operational/Execution Semantics: CMU, Stanford KSL, SRI

37 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Challenges Finding the “80/20” line Profiles: relationship with processes Process modeling: many issues –Variability of public/private aspects of Processes –Extending to offline (sub)processes –Generalizing to multiple roles –Failure, transactions Where and how to go beyond DAML+OIL? –Interface between DL ontology, logical expressions, algorithm/workflow representation Connecting with Industry –Showing compelling value –Not promising too much –Providing an incremental path

38 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Next steps / priorities Focus on use cases  architecture Joint committee forming … Move to OWL Model information services Profile: More substantial illustrative taxonomies Tie in with existing taxonomies where possible (e.g. UNSPSC) Process Model Evaluate potential tie-in with an existing effort (WSFL?) Support real-world use Describing and using public WSDL services Possible collaborations with other SemWeb projects Demos directed towards Web services community Tools DAML-S API

39 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 (Some) Related Work Related Industrial Initiatives UDDI ebXML WSDL.Net XLANG Biztalk, e-speak, etc These XML-based initiatives are largely complementary to DAML-S. DAML-S aims to build on top of these efforts enabling increased expressiveness, semantics, and inference enabling automation. Related Academic Efforts Process Algebras (e.g., Pi Calculus) Process Specification Language (Hoare Logic, PSL) Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) Business Process Modeling (e.g., BMPL) OntoWeb Process Modeling Effort

40 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Summary The service paradigm will be a crucial part of the Semantic Web DAML-S supports service descriptions that are integral with other Semantic Web meta-data DAML-S aims to enable automatic discovery, selection, invocation, composition, monitoring of services Initial versions of Profile, Process, and Grounding ontologies are available Many challenges remain We’re interested in synergy with related work

41 David Martin for DAML-S Coalition 12/18/2002 Acknowledgements Slides created by David Martin, Sheila McIlraith, Terry Payne Ontology images created by Terry Payne, CMU


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