Presentation on theme: "HOW TO WRITE AN ARTICLE FOR PUBLICATION Leana Uys FUNDISA."— Presentation transcript:
HOW TO WRITE AN ARTICLE FOR PUBLICATION Leana Uys FUNDISA
STAGES 1. Choose a journal and study its guidelines 2. Study the journal format and plan your own format 3. Write the article 4. Get a colleague to read and give feedback 5. Submit 6. Work with editors to get to publication 7. Celebrate!
1. CHOOSE A JOURNAL Your topic falls within its scope Go for the highest impact journal you think you can make: International only if you add to international knowledge Circulation, audience, impact factor What is the quality of your work? Essential: what is the word count, table count and figure count they allow? International Nursing Review: only three tables and/or figures
2. PLAN A FORMAT IMRADIntroductionAlternatively IntroductionProblem statementIntroduction Materials and methodsBackground to the problem Problem statement Results Additions (figures, tables,) Discussion and conclusions
TWO JOURNALS J of Nursing ScholarshipSA Journal of Higher Education Introduction (often not as heading) Often starts with aim Then background Then conceptual of theoretical framework Introduction Purpose of article Problem and background to problem Literature review Setting or context Look at abstract format Purpose Designs Methods Findings Conclusions Clinical relevance Abstract Main arguments Methods Conclusions
3. WRITE THE ARTICLE From a doctoral study: Identify two or three possible articles. Start with the smaller pieces, and end with the largest Do not think about literature surveys, unless they were systematic reviews From a Masters study: Usually only one article, dealing with the study, not the literature From another study: Each phase could be an article.
HOW SHOULD YOU WRITE? A few general rules: You are writing for publication, so that your peers can understand what you did and possibly replication the study: - do not give too much research theory. Give enough detail - not too much, not too little Balance the sections, e.g. setting and methods.
WHAT ARE THE METHODS? Design of the study: what did you do? Sample: How did you select your respondents/sites/ etc? Intervention: If there is one, describe carefully Data collection instruments: How did you measure results? Provide reliability and validity data of each, as well as a format description. Data collection process: How did you collect the data, who did it? How were they prepared? How were respondents approached? Data management and analysis: Little here, since you will indicate statistics used in the results. Ethical issues: Where did you get ethical clearance, who gave permission and how did you deal with ethical challenges.?
HOW DO I DESCRIBE MY RESULTS? Describe your sample as it actually transpired Answer the questions you posed systematically Present only data in tables that are too complex to write in a sentence Display only figures that make complex data much clearer In writing, present only the noteworthy data from tables and figures – DO NOT: Repeat what is in the table/figure Discuss the results, or quote the results from other studies.
THEN THE DISCUSSION What are the main or significant findings? How do they compare with that of other studies? How do you explain them? In terms of theory? In terms of context? In terms of methodology? What were the limitations of the study?
CONCLUSIONS Use this section for recommendations for practice, education and research.
NOW THE TITLE Accurate, concise, specific Use key words specific for abstracting Resist abbreviations, brand names and jargon Examples of titles: A study on the effect of Pitocin on the uterus What effect does maternal analgesia in labour have on the newborn? Successful interventions in socioeconomically high-risk adolescent pregnancies using CNM, MC and a multidisciplinary team in an HMO.
THE ADDITIONAL BITS AND PIECES References Only significant, published references Carefully follow the journal’s prescriptions – use Endnote if you can! Check your references against an edition of the journal Abstract Format of the journal MORE WIDELY READ THAN THE ARTICLE!! Acknowledgements Sponsors Statistician Field workers
AUTHORSHIP Each authors should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for the content. Authorship credits should be based only on substantial constitutions to: Concept and study design, or analysis and interpretation of data; Drafting and revising the articles critically for important intellectual content; Final approval of the version to be published
PUBLISHING WITH OTHERS A supervisor should be co-author in most cases, with the student as first author; These issues should be clarified in your supervision policy and should be available in writing; No HOD or laboratory director’s name get on all articles published from that Department or laboratory; Field workers, language editors and statisticians are not co-authors.
4. CRITIQUE BY A COLLEAGUE If you have to explain and defend, change the article. If the first colleague asks for many changes, make the changes. And then ask another one to read and provide feedback
5. SUBMIT THE ARTICLE The editor does a quick review, and may decline the article after this, based on relevance, originality and conformity to requirements. An author acknowledgement it sent. The article is sent to two or more peer reviewers.
6. RESPONDING TO CRITIQUE BY REVIEWERS OR EDITOR Revising the paper is usually more productive than submitting to another journal; Submit revision with a cover letter, responding to each point raised – using a table format is useful; Keep the tone positive and courteous; Meet specified deadlines.
CONCLUSION Good quality can usually get published. You might have to do more than one revision. You might have to try more than one journal,