Presentation on theme: "This is just some of the slides in our presentation. It may assist your new army of National Trust Beekeepers."— Presentation transcript:
This is just some of the slides in our presentation. It may assist your new army of National Trust Beekeepers
Health and Safety around Honeybees Living creatures will defend their home, only defence is sting Minimise –Wear correct PPE –Know what you are doing –Bring required equipment Neighbours, children, pets –Do not inspect during neighbours BBQ –Face hive away from neighbours/toward fence or hedge –Erect fence? Out apiary,? Allotment? Involve them? Avoid –Annoying bees –Bad weather –Jerky movements, vibration –Strong fragrance
Stings –Cannot be avoided, you are invading their home –Flight path –Swarming (very unlikely to sting) Normal Reaction - local pain, swelling, itching, and redness around the sting site. Mild Allergic Reaction - Some people will experience swelling in a larger area, not just immediately around the sting site, Severe Allergic Reaction - "anaphylaxis" or anaphylactic shock. Symptoms may appear immediately or within the first 30 minutes. The symptoms include: –hives, itching and swelling in areas other than the sting site, – swollen eyes and eyelids, –Wheezing, –tightness in the chest and difficulty breathing –hoarse voice or swelling of the tongue –dizziness or sharp drop in blood pressure –shock –unconsciousness or cardiac arrest
5 Honey bee - Development of Castes W Q D Egg Fertilisation Unfertilised Royal Jelly - 3days Royal Jelly until emergence then Pollen and Honey Royal Jelly - 3days then Extra Pollen & Honey Female larva (Diploid) Male larva (Haploid) Laid in drone cell Laid in worker cell (Parthenogenesis) 5 Laid in Queen Cell 21 days 24 days 18 days
Queen bee lifecycle Laid as a fertilised egg in queen cell Fed royal jelly by worker nurse bees Cell packed with royal jelly and sealed 16 days after egg laid queen emerges Stings/fights any other queens in hive Within days leaves hive on mating flight Returns to hive and begins to lay Lives approx 5 years – rate of lay deteriorates over time
Worker Lifecycle Laid as fertilised egg in worker cell Fed 3 days royal jelly by worker (nurse) bees Cell filled with pollen/nectar mix and sealed 21 days from egg laid worker emerges Cleans own cell Begins as nurse bee and wax maker Moves onto cell cleaning, feeding larvae and drones Hive cleaning continues, packing nectar and pollen Drying off nectar Becomes guard bee or forager Specialise in nectar, pollen, water or propolis Usually dies in the field
The Bee Keepers Year January – bees clustering, little activity; <1 hour for the month February – queen starts to lay; beekeeper prepares for the year ahead <1 hour March – risk of starvation, rate of lay increases, workers collect pollen; feeding maybe, <2 hours April – early blossom, workers gather pollen and nectar, rapid increase in lay rate; find queen, mark, q excluder and super, dust <3 hours May – drones increasing, watch for swarming, inspect weekly; dust <6 hours June – highest occupancy, lay rate decreasing; swarm control, feeding maybe, dust <6 hours July – main nectar flow, lay rate decreasing; add more supers, swarm inspections, unite colonies? <6 hours August – activity level starts to drop, lay rate drops; restrict entrance, wasp traps, take a holiday, dust <3 hours September – drones expelled, pop decreasing, q stops laying; harvest honey, give winter feed <3 hours (bottling could add an hour or so) October – bees and bee keeper preparing for winter, remove QE <2 hours November – bees start to cluster, clean/store equipment, oxalic acid treatment <1 hour December – bees clustering; beekeeper no work to do!
Parasites Pests and Diseases 9 SAD? Crab SpiderWoodpeckerWasp Small Hive Beetle Varroa MiteHornetBee-wolfNosemaAcarine The Beekeeper
Environmental Problems 10 CCD? Mobile phone base stations GM Crops Climate change Pollutants Change in agricultural methods Chemicals and pesticides Loss of habitat Garden Fashions The Beekeeper
UK losses 2006 – 20078,000 colonies (30%) UK losses ,000 (25%) UK losses 2008 – 20093,000 (20%) No wild colonies left - some escapees – not sustainable USA losses 2007 – ,000 colonies (30%) USA losses 2008 – 20091,000,000 If bees continue disappearing at this rate, it is estimated that by 2035 there could be no honeybees left in the USA. France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Greece, Brazil and Argentina reporting losses too Honey bee losses
Pollination is necessary for most plants to bear fruit, vegetables, and seeds. Upon fertilization, the flower begins to form fruit and seeds. In the case of apples or tomatoes, the seeds are inside the fruit. In the case of beans and peas, the fruit" is the seed. In the case of many flowers, edible fruit is not the goal. Instead, a pod may contain a few or many dozens of seeds. Pollination – sex for flowers! Why does it matter?