Presentation on theme: "1 Authored by Randall Ireson and the Salem Oregon Composite Squadron PCR-OR-042 04-Sep-2012 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior."— Presentation transcript:
1 Authored by Randall Ireson and the Salem Oregon Composite Squadron PCR-OR Sep-2012 Modified by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron For Local Training Rev Jan-2014
This Training Slide Show is a project undertaken by Lt Colonel Fred Blundell of the TX-129 Fort Worth Senior Squadron, Fort Worth, TX for local use to assist those CAP Members interested in advancing their skills. The information contained herein is for CAP Member’s personal use and is not intended to replace or be a substitute for any of the CAP National Training Programs. Users should review the presentation’s Revision Number at the end of each file name to ensure that they have the most current publication.
Someone Will Be Looking Everyone should know what to do if they get lost. In CAP, if an Air Crew makes a forced landing, or if a Ground Team has a vehicle problem or goes missing on a search, they need to know the basic skills to stay alive and safe until they are rescued. Fortunately, CAP Air Crews and Ground Teams benefit from one special circumstance. Incident Command has a good idea where they are and will quickly notice when they do not report in. As a result a search for them will be begin in a timely and be relatively accurate.
This lesson covers the special needs of CAP Air Crews when they are downed, and Ground Teams when they are lost. They need to be capable of staying alive and safe for several days, but not likely for more than a week. The recommendations in this lesson are also relevant to anyone who gets lost, but do not discuss the special needs of long-term wilderness survival. Objectives
Outline Your survival chances will be greatly improved if you follow these three simple rules 1.Be Prepared 2.When something first goes wrong, STOP 3.Take care of the priorities first
Rule 1: Be Prepared The three essentials of being prepared are: 1.Knowledge 2.Attitude 3.Equipment
Knowledge Know the basic rules and skills for wilderness survival in the event of an accident. Be trained and know your team mates. You are all in the same situation, and cooperation will greatly improve your situation
Attitude Have a positive attitude. You know that someone will be looking for you soon, and that you have the knowledge and equipment to take care of yourself and others.
Equipment Always carry the essentials for wilderness survival in the region you are working in. Aircrew members should wear a vest with survival gear, so it will be with you after an emergency egress. Ground Team members can carry a personal emergency kit in a small bag. Consider putting a similar kit in your family car!
10 Essential Items There are 10 items you should always carry on a mission in case you are stranded. For your immediate care: 1. First aid kit For knowing your location: 2. Map (sectional, topo map,gazeteer) 3. Compass
For your health: 4. Water – including purification tablets or bleach and containers 5. Extra food – energy bars for short term use
For your shelter and protection: 6. Extra clothing – warm jacket and rain gear. Wool keeps you warm even when wet. Great lightweight options are aluminized mylar blankets or bags, a plastic garbage bag for a rain poncho. 7. Fire starter – matches, magnesium sticks, candles, wood pieces soaked in wax, cotton balls soaked in vaseline, fine steel wool (5-0) and 9 v. battery, a wire pull-saw 8. A good knife
For signaling and movement: 9. Flashlight – LED bulbs are brighter than incandescent and use less power. Consider a hand-crank flashlight. 10. Signaling devices – signal mirror or CD; whistle; pink surveyor’s tape or a signal tarp; a charged cell-phone; and don’t forget the radio!
Rule 2: STOP When something first goes wrong: - Stop what you are doing - Think about the overall situation - Observe the situation clearly - Plan what you are going to do about it
Don’t just react in a hurry. When you get rushed you make mistakes and your judgment is poor. If you are not in immediate danger of further injury (fire, landslide, fall, drowning, etc.), take time to assess the situation and discuss it with your crew mates. Use your training, knowledge and equipment correctly.
Rule 3: Remember the Priorities 1.First Aid: stop bleeding, restore breathing, attend to wounds and broken bones, get clear of damaged a/c or vehicle 2.Shelter: hypothermia or sunstroke happens faster than dehydration 3.Signal: stay put, near your vehicle/aircraft, but get somewhere you are visible. Use contrasting colors to the environment. 4.Water: You can survive a couple of days without water except in very hot environments 5.Food: Not a priority – you can survive a couple of weeks without eating
Be Prepared Take a first aid course, and have basic first aid equipment in your survival kit. We will not discuss first aid procedures in detail. If someone is injured, attend to the injuries first. STOP and consider whether you need to get the person clear of the vehicle or aircraft before caring for him/her. Priority 1 - First Aid
Stay dry. Stay warm in a cold climate. Stay cool in a hot climate. You need shade, protection from wind, rain, snow. Find a site that is not subject to flood, rock falls, excess wind, poisonous plants. On a mountain slope, shelter next to a large boulder that will absorb heat and block wind. Priority 2 - Shelter
Make it visible from ground and air – in open area, and of contrasting color. Do not leave the general area of your emergency landing or disabled vehicle unless absolutely necessary. Getting lost just makes it a bigger problem!
In a cold climate, make the shelter just big enough to trap and not dissipate body heat. Insulate the floor (with brush, pine needles, aluminized mylar) 20
In a hot climate, create shade and allow air movement. Desert environments can go from hot in the daytime to freezing at night. Shelter accordingly.
Fire: for heat in a cold climate, and as a signal source. Find a dry location, sheltered from wind. Don’t start a wildfire: build on dirt or rock.
Start fires small: Lay tinder (moss, dead grass, wood shavings, crumpled paper) and kindling (dry twigs, cardboard strips, wood strips) first. Lay a tepee or lean-to in order to focus heat. Light your candle and use the candle to light tinder; once the kindling is burning add fuel (small branches, fallen wood, grass twisted in bundles, etc.).
Priority 3 – Signaling The handheld radio is your best resource. Be sure you have it when you leave the airplane or vehicle. Call on and any commercial aircraft in range will hear you. Hold the antenna vertically, and do not point it at the aircraft.
Get as high as possible, in an open area. Deploy bright colors: spread out the mylar blanket; drape orange surveyor’s tape over branches. Flash a signal mirror or CD; make smoke (lots!); whistle.
Priority 4 - Water You need at least 2 liters a day to stay healthy and effective. If the temperature is 96°, you need 7.5 liters if resting in the shade! In a hot climate, water quickly becomes a high priority.
If there is a stream or lake nearby, use that, with purification tablets if available. If the water is murky, strain it through a shirt first. Ice & snow can be melted. (Ice is better than snow.) Catch rain in a tarp or your mylar blanket. Look for water in rock cracks, tree clefts, or some plants (cactus, bamboo).
Priority 5 – Food Food is the last of your worries Don’t spend time looking for food until everything else has been taken care of. Eat your energy bars, but be prepared to be hungry for a couple of days, if needed. Learn the edible plants of your region. Don’t waste energy hunting. If you’ve done everything else right, you will be located in a few days.
Extreme Environments Deserts In the desert, water and shade become the priorities. At 96°F, a person resting in the shade needs 7.5 liters of water a day. At 110°F, you need 11 liters (3 gallons). Any exercise or sun exposure will add 2 to 7 liters more to the need. Drink water regularly. If water is scarce, do not eat because that raises the need for water. Keep your clothes on, so that the sweat stays near your body and cools more effectively.
Extreme Environments Cold In a cold environment, shelter and warmth become the priority. Cold is insidious and dangerous. It decreases your ability to think and your will to survive. Protect your body. Cover your head and hands. Any exposed skin is a source of heat loss. Wear all your clothes, in layers. Avoid overheating and stay dry. Stay out of the wind.
Make a small shelter, just big enough for your crew. Insulate yourself from the ground (with branches, leaves, etc.). Don’t shelter in a bare metal fuselage that will conduct heat away. Keep any fire or candle properly ventilated to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. Put it out while you sleep.
Review Be Prepared Knowledge Attitude Equipment STOP Stop Think about the situation Observe the situation Plan what you will do
Review Follow the priorities 1. First Aid 2. Shelter 3. Signal 4. Water 5. Food Work together and you can stay safe!