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Power Plant Construction and QA/QC Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Engineering Technology Division

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2 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Overview Generators are the production point for electricity Both Alternating and Direct Current is generated Alternating Current travels both directions Direct Current travels in only one direction DC was developed first in the mid – 1870 DC has a limited travel distance – requires high current AC has “no” distance limits in comparison Prime movers are needed to turn generators Prime movers are geared to match generator design 99.2% of the power generated today is AC

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3 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection AC vs. DC

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4 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Types - Synchronous 3 Phase AC 2 Pole, 3 Coil

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5 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Types - Synchronous Synchronous Generators are common for Power Plants Exciter Stator Rotor Voltage and current from Stator

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6 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Types - Synchronous Stator Rotor

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7 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Types - Induction Voltage and current from Rotor

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8 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Cooling Direct – Gas (Hydrogen) Indirect – Water, Oil Liquid Hydrogen = -423.17º F

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9 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Rating Over Excitation Under

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10 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Exciters DC Generator, Rotating AC, Brushless

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11 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Exciters DC Generator, Rotating AC, Brushless

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12 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Exciters DC Generator, Rotating AC, Brushless

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13 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Synchronizing Generator 2 Generator 1 Exciter Control Breaker Switch Exciter Control Breaker Switch Speed Control

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14 Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection Generator Protection Differential Current – fault between phases Voltage Regulation – generator control Stator Overcurrent – high operating levels Negative Sequence Current - phase imbalance Stator Ground Fault – stator ground Field Ground – rotor ground Loss of Excitation Protection – synchronization loss Motoring protection – loss of prime mover

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15 Questions? Section 4.1 AC Generators and Generator Protection

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