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Al Jazeera Means “the peninsula” or “the island” Means “the peninsula” or “the island” The most controversial television station in the world The most.

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Presentation on theme: "Al Jazeera Means “the peninsula” or “the island” Means “the peninsula” or “the island” The most controversial television station in the world The most."— Presentation transcript:

1 Al Jazeera Means “the peninsula” or “the island” Means “the peninsula” or “the island” The most controversial television station in the world The most controversial television station in the world Located in the Middle East, country of Qatar Located in the Middle East, country of Qatar

2 The station gained worldwide attention following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it broadcast video statements by Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leaders The station gained worldwide attention following the September 11, 2001 attacks, when it broadcast video statements by Osama bin Laden and other al-Qaeda leadersSeptember 11, 2001 attacksOsama bin Ladenal-QaedaSeptember 11, 2001 attacksOsama bin Ladenal-Qaeda Al Jazeera channel was started in 1996 Al Jazeera channel was started in 1996 Al Jazeera's availability (via satellite) throughout the Middle East changed the television landscape of the region. Al Jazeera's availability (via satellite) throughout the Middle East changed the television landscape of the region.

3 Before Al Jazeera, many Middle Eastern citizens were unable to watch TV channels other than state-censored national TV stations. Before Al Jazeera, many Middle Eastern citizens were unable to watch TV channels other than state-censored national TV stations. Censorship…The control of what people read, write, see, or hear. Censorship…The control of what people read, write, see, or hear. Done to protect a ruling authority from possible downfall Done to protect a ruling authority from possible downfall Done to protect people from the wrong ideas and messages. (As claimed by certain governments) Done to protect people from the wrong ideas and messages. (As claimed by certain governments)

4 Also done to protect your rights of not being exposed to indecent and obscene material Also done to protect your rights of not being exposed to indecent and obscene material Carrollton High School does not censor Carrollton High School does not censor Censorship in the USA is illegal. Control over indecent material is acceptable. Complete banning of obscene material is acceptable. Censorship in the USA is illegal. Control over indecent material is acceptable. Complete banning of obscene material is acceptable. Censorship was made illegal in the Communications Act of 1934 Censorship was made illegal in the Communications Act of 1934 Side note….Communications Act of 1934 was updated with the Communications Act of Side note….Communications Act of 1934 was updated with the Communications Act of 1996.

5 It is widely believed internationally that inhabitants of the Arab world are given limited information by their governments and media, and that what is conveyed is biased towards the governments' views. It is widely believed internationally that inhabitants of the Arab world are given limited information by their governments and media, and that what is conveyed is biased towards the governments' views.biased Beware of governments that control all the media and don’t allow free press. Example is Zimbabwe. There is only one point of view, one truth, one reality…what the government says. Beware of governments that control all the media and don’t allow free press. Example is Zimbabwe. There is only one point of view, one truth, one reality…what the government says.

6 Al Jazeera is an international Arabic-language 24h news channel …the CNN of the Middle East. Al Jazeera is an international Arabic-language 24h news channel …the CNN of the Middle East.Arabic-languagenews channelArabic-languagenews channel Al Jazeera introduced a level of freedom of speech on TV that was previously unheard of in many middle east countries. Al Jazeera introduced a level of freedom of speech on TV that was previously unheard of in many middle east countries.freedom of speechfreedom of speech Al Jazeera is popular because of its bold, uncensored news coverage, its unbridled political debates, and its call-in-show formats that tackle a range of sensitive social, political, and cultural issues. Al Jazeera is popular because of its bold, uncensored news coverage, its unbridled political debates, and its call-in-show formats that tackle a range of sensitive social, political, and cultural issues.

7 Al Jazeera was the only station allowed to have live coverage of the USA attack on Afghanistan. All other stations were told to get out. Al Jazeera was the only station allowed to have live coverage of the USA attack on Afghanistan. All other stations were told to get out. Al Jazeera’s reporter Tayseer Allouni is in jail for helping Al Qaeda. Al Jazeera’s reporter Tayseer Allouni is in jail for helping Al Qaeda. The USA may have tried to get him in Afghanistan by accidentally blowing up Al Jazeera’s Kabul Bureau. The USA may have tried to get him in Afghanistan by accidentally blowing up Al Jazeera’s Kabul Bureau. We also may have tried to get him when the USA accidentally blew up Al Jazeera’s Baghdad Bureau. (Along with silencing the station) We also may have tried to get him when the USA accidentally blew up Al Jazeera’s Baghdad Bureau. (Along with silencing the station)

8 It was later reported that President Bush had wanted to bomb al-Jazeera's headquarters in Qatar too, but had been discouraged from doing so by the British prime minister, Tony Blair. It was later reported that President Bush had wanted to bomb al-Jazeera's headquarters in Qatar too, but had been discouraged from doing so by the British prime minister, Tony Blair.

9 What is a Television Bureau Where a tv station or tv network will set up an office in another country. Done for better news coverage. Al Jazeera has a bureau in Washington DC Where a tv station or tv network will set up an office in another country. Done for better news coverage. Al Jazeera has a bureau in Washington DC

10 CNN Bureaus Amman, Jordan (small bureau) Amman, Jordan (small bureau) AmmanJordan AmmanJordan Athens, Greece (small bureau) Athens, Greece (small bureau) AthensGreece AthensGreece Baghdad, Iraq Baghdad, Iraq BaghdadIraq BaghdadIraq Bangkok, Thailand Bangkok, Thailand BangkokThailand BangkokThailand Berlin, Germany Berlin, Germany BerlinGermany BerlinGermany Beijing, China Beijing, China BeijingChina BeijingChina Beirut, Lebanon Beirut, Lebanon BeirutLebanon BeirutLebanon Bogotá, Colombia (small bureau) Bogotá, Colombia (small bureau) BogotáColombia BogotáColombia Brussels, Belgium (small bureau) Brussels, Belgium (small bureau) BrusselsBelgium BrusselsBelgium Buenos Aires, Argentina Buenos Aires, Argentina Buenos AiresArgentina Buenos AiresArgentina Cairo, Egypt Cairo, Egypt CairoEgypt CairoEgypt Dubai, United Arab Emirates Dubai, United Arab Emirates DubaiUnited Arab Emirates DubaiUnited Arab Emirates Frankfurt, Germany (small bureau) Frankfurt, Germany (small bureau) FrankfurtGermany FrankfurtGermany HavanaHavana, CubaCuba Hong KongHong Kong, China (Asian regional headquarters)China IslamabadIslamabad, PakistanPakistan IstanbulIstanbul, TurkeyTurkey JakartaJakarta, IndonesiaIndonesia JerusalemJerusalem, IsraelIsrael JohannesburgJohannesburg, South AfricaSouth Africa LagosLagos, NigeriaNigeria LondonLondon, United Kingdom(Eu headquarters)United Kingdom MadridMadrid, SpainSpain ManilaManila, Philippines (small bureau)Philippines Mexico CityMexico City, MexicoMexico MoscowMoscow, RussiaRussia NairobiNairobi, Kenya (small bureau)Kenya New DelhiNew Delhi, IndiaIndia RomeRome, ItalyItaly Rio de JaneiroRio de Janeiro, Brazil (small bureau)Brazil São PauloSão Paulo, Brazil (small bureau)Brazil SeoulSeoul, South KoreaSouth Korea TokyoTokyo, JapanJapan

11 Al Jazeera has tried to live up to its motto: "The Opinion and the Other Opinion" They also follow "We get both sides of the story." Al Jazeera has tried to live up to its motto: "The Opinion and the Other Opinion" They also follow "We get both sides of the story." Thanks to its aggressive coverage, Al-Jazeera claims at least 50-million viewers in the Arab world and 175,000 who pay to watch it it on cable in North America. Its Web site gets 17- million hits a day. Thanks to its aggressive coverage, Al-Jazeera claims at least 50-million viewers in the Arab world and 175,000 who pay to watch it it on cable in North America. Its Web site gets 17- million hits a day.

12 Possible problems Al-Jazeera's alleged anti-American editorial bias. Al-Jazeera's alleged anti-American editorial bias. The supposed connections of some reporters to Al-Queda The supposed connections of some reporters to Al-Queda Acting as a mouthpiece for Osama bin Laden Acting as a mouthpiece for Osama bin Laden The extremely graphic pictures and videos that are shown on the channel and how those images affect their home audience and the world audience. The extremely graphic pictures and videos that are shown on the channel and how those images affect their home audience and the world audience.

13 The CIA was concerned that bin Laden might be sending secret messages through his videotaped statements The CIA was concerned that bin Laden might be sending secret messages through his videotaped statements Condoleeza Rice, the national security adviser, called and visited with top American network and newspaper representatives, urging them to consider the dangers of airing bin Laden’s views. Condoleeza Rice, the national security adviser, called and visited with top American network and newspaper representatives, urging them to consider the dangers of airing bin Laden’s views. Condoleeza Rice requested networks not to air Al-Jazeera's bin Laden footage because he might be transmitting coded messages, they immediately said they wouldn't Condoleeza Rice requested networks not to air Al-Jazeera's bin Laden footage because he might be transmitting coded messages, they immediately said they wouldn't

14 U.S. government officials asked Al Jazeera to not air Osama’s videos in full as they may contain secret messages to terrorists. U.S. government officials asked Al Jazeera to not air Osama’s videos in full as they may contain secret messages to terrorists. Journalists and others in the Arab world see the United States as hypocritical for pressuring Al- Jazeera to modify its coverage. They say we represent no censorship yet we are asking Al Jazeera to censor. Journalists and others in the Arab world see the United States as hypocritical for pressuring Al- Jazeera to modify its coverage. They say we represent no censorship yet we are asking Al Jazeera to censor.

15 Al Jazeera English Al Jazeera English is the world’s first global English language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East. Al Jazeera English is the world’s first global English language news channel to be headquartered in the Middle East. The station claims to be the first global high- definition television network. The station claims to be the first global high- definition television network.high- definition televisionhigh- definition television The channel was launched on 15 November The channel was launched on 15 November November November 2006

16 The channel had expected to reach around 40 million households, but it far exceeded that launch target, reaching 80 million homes The channel had expected to reach around 40 million households, but it far exceeded that launch target, reaching 80 million homes The channel is now one of the three biggest global English language 24 hour news channels, the other two being BBC World and CNN International The channel is now one of the three biggest global English language 24 hour news channels, the other two being BBC World and CNN InternationalBBC WorldCNN InternationalBBC WorldCNN International Al Jazeera English has 21 supporting bureaux which gather and produce news. Al Jazeera English has 21 supporting bureaux which gather and produce news.

17 AJE will have broader horizons, aiming to draw a billion-plus English speakers from Madagascar to Maine -- for Muslims, yes, but also for anyone else who wants another perspective on the day's news. AJE will have broader horizons, aiming to draw a billion-plus English speakers from Madagascar to Maine -- for Muslims, yes, but also for anyone else who wants another perspective on the day's news. In other words, AJE is hoping to become the first non-Western source to challenge the global info-supremacy of CNN and the BBC. In other words, AJE is hoping to become the first non-Western source to challenge the global info-supremacy of CNN and the BBC.

18 Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld has accused al-Jazeera of "vicious lies" and "a pattern of playing propaganda over and over" in its coverage of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld has accused al-Jazeera of "vicious lies" and "a pattern of playing propaganda over and over" in its coverage of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. And U.S. officials have been upset by footage of American military deaths and al-Jazeera's unstinting coverage of the wars' effect on civilians. And U.S. officials have been upset by footage of American military deaths and al-Jazeera's unstinting coverage of the wars' effect on civilians. American news channels tend to "show the missiles taking off," "Al-Jazeera shows them landing." American news channels tend to "show the missiles taking off," "Al-Jazeera shows them landing."

19 Al Hurra Is a United States-based satellite TV channel, sponsored by the U.S. government. Is a United States-based satellite TV channel, sponsored by the U.S. government.United Statessatellite TVU.S. governmentUnited Statessatellite TVU.S. government Al Hurra (which means "the free one" in Arabic) started broadcasting Valentine's Day 2004 as an answer to Al Jazeera’s unfavorable reporting. Al Hurra (which means "the free one" in Arabic) started broadcasting Valentine's Day 2004 as an answer to Al Jazeera’s unfavorable reporting. The station is forbidden from broadcasting within the U.S. itself under the 1948 Smith- Mundt Act. The station is forbidden from broadcasting within the U.S. itself under the 1948 Smith- Mundt Act.Smith- Mundt ActSmith- Mundt Act 22 countries in the Middle East region 22 countries in the Middle East region

20 US Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 is also called the Smith-Mundt Act US Information and Educational Exchange Act of 1948 is also called the Smith-Mundt Act Signed into law by president Harry S. Truman on January 27, 1948 Signed into law by president Harry S. Truman on January 27, 1948Harry S. TrumanHarry S. Truman The legislation funded global propaganda outreach using all the latest communication technologies. The legislation funded global propaganda outreach using all the latest communication technologies. Prohibited US distribution of information intended for foreign audiences. Protection from our own propaganda. Prohibited US distribution of information intended for foreign audiences. Protection from our own propaganda.

21 Turned government-funded broadcasting and information programs into a Cold War classified weapon. Turned government-funded broadcasting and information programs into a Cold War classified weapon.Cold WarCold War Our international radio station the VOA or Voice of America may broadcast to other countries and not to our own. Our international radio station the VOA or Voice of America may broadcast to other countries and not to our own. Radio Sawa is our arabic language radio station in the Middle East. It falls under this act. Radio Sawa is our arabic language radio station in the Middle East. It falls under this act. TV/RADIO MARTI…our Anti-Castro station in Florida falls under this act. TV/RADIO MARTI…our Anti-Castro station in Florida falls under this act.

22 Alhurra has pledged to provide accurate and balanced news. Arab audiences have been skeptical of the channel's motives. Alhurra has pledged to provide accurate and balanced news. Arab audiences have been skeptical of the channel's motives.news Alhurra’s broadcasting is varied, targeted at the general public, particularly those under the age of 30. Programs include entertainment, documentaries, and news. Alhurra has expressed their intention to be as unbiased as possible. Alhurra’s broadcasting is varied, targeted at the general public, particularly those under the age of 30. Programs include entertainment, documentaries, and news. Alhurra has expressed their intention to be as unbiased as possible.

23 Propaganda Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people. Propaganda is a type of message aimed at influencing the opinions or behavior of people.messageopinionsmessageopinions Propaganda can be deliberately misleading Propaganda can be deliberately misleadingmisleading

24 "Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological, political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion." —R.A. Nelson, A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States, 1996 "Propaganda is neutrally defined as a systematic form of purposeful persuasion that attempts to influence the emotions, attitudes, opinions, and actions of specified target audiences for ideological, political or commercial purposes through the controlled transmission of one-sided messages (which may or may not be factual) via mass and direct media channels. A propaganda organization employs propagandists who engage in propagandism—the applied creation and distribution of such forms of persuasion." —R.A. Nelson, A Chronology and Glossary of Propaganda in the United States, 1996

25 Alhurra's reporters are told not to refer to the U.S. presence in Iraq as an occupation. Alhurra's reporters are told not to refer to the U.S. presence in Iraq as an occupation. Those who set off explosive devices attached to their bodies are called suicide bombers, not martyrs." Those who set off explosive devices attached to their bodies are called suicide bombers, not martyrs." Al Hurra reporters covering Iraq "focus on more human-interest and positive stories. For instance, 'electricity has arrived in this neighborhood,' not 'this neighborhood still doesn't have electricity'. Al Hurra reporters covering Iraq "focus on more human-interest and positive stories. For instance, 'electricity has arrived in this neighborhood,' not 'this neighborhood still doesn't have electricity'.

26 The channel sees its role as promoting democracy and winning over public opinion in the Arab world. The channel sees its role as promoting democracy and winning over public opinion in the Arab world. They have 20 million viewers They have 20 million viewers They are not really effective with their programming yet…still trying to figure out how to approach the culture of their audience. They are not really effective with their programming yet…still trying to figure out how to approach the culture of their audience.


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