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U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA Altruism, Selfishness, and Destructiveness on the Social Web GroupLens Research University of Minnesota John Riedl.

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Presentation on theme: "U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA Altruism, Selfishness, and Destructiveness on the Social Web GroupLens Research University of Minnesota John Riedl."— Presentation transcript:

1 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA Altruism, Selfishness, and Destructiveness on the Social Web GroupLens Research University of Minnesota John Riedl

2 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA Bowling Alone (Amazon reviews)

3 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA

4 Adaptive Hypermedia Tags scale: Library of Congress: 20M books in 200 years. 22M books in 3 years. Tag draw relevance from “the wisdom of crowds” Tags scale: Library of Congress: 20M books in 200 years. 22M books in 3 years. Tag draw relevance from “the wisdom of crowds”

5 Adaptive Hypermedia Messages Community-maintained Artifacts of Lasting Value o Requires User Modeling and Adaptive Hypermedia Key Research Challenges: o Attract contributions o Maintain quality o Achieve agreement

6 Adaptive Hypermedia Alexa Germany

7 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA 1. Google (German) 3. Google (English) Search

8 Adaptive Hypermedia

9 9 Google PageRank Value of a page is the value of the pages that link to it Recursive! Algorithms and Psychology The Rich get Richer

10 Adaptive Hypermedia Web Structure

11 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA (Web Search) shared Maurice Coyle and Barry Smyth AH’08

12 Adaptive Hypermedia Research Questions How can we mine free activity? What are the risks in these data?

13 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA 2. YouTube Video by Amateurs

14 Adaptive Hypermedia Chocolate Rain by Tay Zonday Adam Bahner, a Ph.D. student in American Studies at the University of Minnesota Number 2 hottest viral video in history o Hottest viral video of Summer 2007 o Over 26 million views

15 Adaptive Hypermedia Videos Life Fast, Die Young

16 Adaptive Hypermedia

17 Adaptive Hypermedia Huberman Dynamics of Viral Marketing The Dynamics of Viral Marketing, ACM TWeb 2007, Leskovec et al., HP

18 Adaptive Hypermedia Maximizing the Spread of Influence through a Social Network, David Kempe, Jon Kleinberg, Éva Tardos, KDD’03 Independent Cascade Model o Information diffuses over time o Each neighbor who converts has a one-time chance to convert others Linear Threshold Model o Each node considers the preferences of all neighbors o If total weight passes threshold, a node converts

19 Adaptive Hypermedia Video suggestion and discovery for YouTube: Taking random walks through the view graph Shumeet Baluja, et al., Google, WWW 2008

20 Adaptive Hypermedia Research Questions How do preferences propagate naturally? What predicts fads? How do recommenders influence propagation?

21 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA 4. Ebay Online Auctions Customers Selling to Customers

22 Adaptive Hypermedia Google Trends Front Page

23 Adaptive Hypermedia

24 Adaptive Hypermedia Chan vs. eBaumsWorld 4Chan o Google Trends Hack o Chocolate Rain eBaumsWorld o Many other hacks o “copyright” fight with 4chan

25 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA

26 The Internet is Serious Business “A phrase used to remind those who voluntarily leave the house that being mocked on the Internet is, in fact, the end of the world.” - Encyclopedia Dramatica

27 Adaptive Hypermedia Amazon Robertson shilled

28 Adaptive Hypermedia The Information Cost of Manipulation- Resistance in Recommender Systems Resnick and Sami. ACM RecSys 08. The Social Cost of Cheap Pseudonyms Friedman and Resnick, Journal of Economics and Management Strategy, 2001

29 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA Increasing Contributions

30 Adaptive Hypermedia What Theory Tells Us… Collective Effort Model o People will contribute more if:  They believe their effort is important to the group  They like the group Smaller is Better o Slovic, Fischhoff, & Lichtenstein, 1980 o People feel greater concern when the reference group they’re part of grows smaller. Specificity Matters o Small & Loewenstein, 2003 o Specific identity of those helped is important in drawing people’s support.

31 Adaptive Hypermedia CommunityLab Research Social science to increase contributions o Accessible to designers o Algorithms, interfaces, toolkits Minnesota o Recommender algorithms and interfaces o John Riedl, Joe Konstan, Loren Terveen Bob Kraut and Sara CMU o Social psychology of computer use Paul Resnick and Yan Michigan

32 Adaptive Hypermedia VOICE 2 Screen shot Numerical values are represented by smilies Who the contribution helps Value of each contribution

33 Adaptive Hypermedia Results Want Smilies on the regular interface? Self-report Self 3.87 All MovieLens 3.13 Similar Group 2.97 Dissimilar Group 2.94 Control 2.68 Probability of rating a movie Behavioral data Self 7.2% All MovieLens 10.2% Similar Group 15.8% Dissimilar Group 5.9% Control 7.4%

34 Adaptive Hypermedia Research Questions How can contributors be motivated? How can social attacks be mitigated? o Mail list “unsubscribe” How does social psychology interact with defense algorithms? o Can the griefers be encouraged to give up? Can freedoms be preserved?

35 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA 5. Yahoo! Everything

36 Adaptive Hypermedia Flickr Popular Tags

37 Adaptive Hypermedia Tag Selection Algorithms “The Quest for Quality Tags” S. Sen, F. Harper, A. LaPitz, J. Riedl GROUP 2007

38 Adaptive Hypermedia Catcher in the Rye Huge number of tags RQ: How can a tagging system show users tags they want to see?

39 Adaptive Hypermedia Users don’t agree Most controversial tags (Bayesian expected entropy): tagentropy # # comedy classic stylized nudity (full frontal) romance quirky magic animation Steven Spielberg sci-fi

40 Adaptive Hypermedia Tag Prediction Random baseline: 21% Implicit features: number of applications (39%) number of users (51%) number of searches for a tag (44%) number of users who searched for a tag (48%) length of tag (42%) Moderation-based features: global average rating for a tag (59%) user-normalized global average rating for a tag (62%) tag reputation (57%) Hybrid combinations: logistic regression, decision trees (67%)

41 Adaptive Hypermedia Research Questions How can a system distinguish between “good” tags and “bad” tags? How should quality control work? Can folksonomy be encouraged? o Showing users more tags leads to more vocabulary reuse o How much convergence is valuable?

42 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA 6. Wikipedia Next slide, please!

43 Adaptive Hypermedia Wikipedia on Wikipedia

44 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA Wikiality on MySpace 1:20 – 2:15: edit wikipedia to make truth “What if the number of elephants in Africa were increasing?”

45 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA Creating, Destroying, and Restoring Value in Wikipedia Group 2007 Reid Priedhorsky Jilin Chen Shyong (Tony) K. Lam Katherine Panciera Loren Terveen John Riedl

46 Adaptive Hypermedia

47 Adaptive Hypermedia

48 Adaptive Hypermedia

49 Adaptive Hypermedia Who contributes Wikipedia’s value? User:Maveric million least frequent editors 0.5% of value14% of value Wales Swartz

50 Adaptive Hypermedia PWV contributions of elite editors

51 Adaptive Hypermedia

52 Adaptive Hypermedia

53 Adaptive Hypermedia Research Questions How can vandalism be detected? How efficient is Wikipedia? How much conflict is valuable?

54 U NIVERSITY OF M INNESOTA 7. Studiverzeichnis Social Network

55 Adaptive Hypermedia

56 Adaptive Hypermedia

57 Adaptive Hypermedia

58 Adaptive Hypermedia The Predictive Power of Online Chatter Gruhl, Guha, Kumar, Novak, Tomkins Yahoo ACM KDD 2005 Volume of blog postings predict sales rank of books Queries can be automatically generated in many cases. Can sometimes predict spikes in sales rank.

59 Adaptive Hypermedia Anti-aliasing on the Web Jasmine Novak, Prabhakar Raghavan, Andrew Tomkins. WWW 2004

60 Adaptive Hypermedia Zip Birthdate Sex Story: Finding Medical Records (Sweeney 2002) Medical Data Ethnicity Visit Date Diagnosis Procedure Medication Total Charge Voter List Name Address Date registered Party affiliation Date last voted Zip Birthdate Sex Former Governer of Massachussetts!

61 Adaptive Hypermedia Risk of Information Exposure (Frankowski et al., SIGIR ‘06) Sparse Dataset 1: private YOU Sparse Dataset 2: public YOU + + = Your private data revealed! Combining algs Keep private information within domain!

62 Adaptive Hypermedia MovieLens Forums -Started June Users talk about movies -Public: on the web, no login to read -Can people identify these users in our anonymized dataset?

63 Adaptive Hypermedia Research Questions Can users be identified from the personal recommendation data? YES Can the datasets be redacted to protect the users? UNKNOWN Can the users be warned in time? OPEN QUESTION

64 Adaptive Hypermedia

65 Adaptive Hypermedia

66 Adaptive Hypermedia Quantity Quality Tags Social Identity ResearchPractice ConceptUnderstanding

67 Adaptive Hypermedia Messages Community-maintained Artifacts of Lasting Value o Requires User Modeling and Adaptive Hypermedia Key Research Challenges: o Attract contributions o Maintain quality o Achieve agreement

68 Adaptive Hypermedia Acknowledgements GroupLens o John Riedl, Joe Konstan, Loren Terveen o Dan Cosley, Shilad Sen, Tony Lam, Rich Davies, Dan Frankowski, Max Harper, Sara Drenner, Al Mamunur Rashid, Sean McNee, Reid Priedhorsky, Aaron Halfaker CommunityLab o Sara Kiesler, Bob Kraut, Paul Resnick, Yan Chen NSF o DGE , IIS , IIS , IIS , IIS , IIS , IIS , IIS


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