# Module 1 Introduction to Flight

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Module 1 Introduction to Flight
Aerospace Education Module 1 Introduction to Flight

Contents Chapter 1 – Flight
Chapter 2 – To Fly By the lifting Power of Rising Air Chapter 3 – Balloons, They Create Their Own Thermals Quiz Credits

Chapter 1 “Flight”

The Principle of Lift The principle of lift mainly owes it’s discovery to Daniel Bernoulli. Using a venturi, he discovered that when you increase the speed of a fluid, which behaves like the air around us, it’s pressure drops, this is known as Bernoulli’s Principle. It’s this discovery that is the main idea behind the theory of airfoil lift, the type of lift which modern aircraft use to fly. Airfoil lift works because when the air below an airfoil (a wing) is unaffect, but the air going over the top travels faster due to the wing, the wing will lift because the air beneath the wing has a higher pressure than the air going above it. Contents

The Principle of Lift Contents
Bernoulli used a venturi tube(right) to prove that air moving at a higher velocity has a lower pressure. The tube’s restriction in the middle is designed to speed up the air travelling through it. Contents

The Principle of Lift Bernoulli’s findings are not the only ones which affect an aircraft in flight. Sir Isaac Newton’s 3 Laws of Motion also affect an aircraft while it’s flying. Newton’s first law explains why an aircraft, which is sitting on a runway at an airport start’s moving when it’s engines start. Newton’s second law explains why we need control surfaces to change the direction the aircraft is flying. Finally, Newton’s third law explains why lift works, the oncoming air which flows over and under the wings is the action and the reaction to this action is the lift which is produced. Contents

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion
The Principle of Lift Newton’s Three Laws of Motion An object at rest will remain at rest until acted upon by some outside force. A force acting upon a body causes it to accelerate in the direction of the force. Acceleration is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the body being accelerated. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction. Contents

The Principle of Lift Engineers use a mathematical equation to determine how much lift is being produced. Lift = CL x R x ½V^2 x A CL = Coefficient of Lift, this takes into consideration the angle of attack and airfoil design. It’s best determined in a wind tunnel R = The density of the air, the greater density, the more lift is produced 1/2V^2 = The velocity of the air over and under the wing. If the velocity is doubled, the lift is quadrupled, in other words, it’s squared. A = Area of the wing, the larger the area is, the more lift is produced. Contents

The Forces Acting Upon an Aircraft
Natural Forces Artificial Forces Drag – Drag is caused by the air the aircraft is travelling through. The aircraft has to force it’s way through it as the air won’t simply move for the aircraft. Gravity – Earth’s gravity pulls everything around us down towards the Earth. Gravity is measured in “G’s” with 1 G being Earth’s regular gravity. Thrust – This is what pulls or pushes an aircraft through the air which in turn causes air to flow over the wings and create lift. Lift – Lift is what causes the aircraft to fly and break free of gravity’s hold. Contents

The Components of an Aircraft
Contents

The Three Axes The Lateral Axis The lateral axis is expressed in pitch, the higher the pitch, the higher the nose is pointing. Pitch is controlled using the elevator. Contents

The Three Axes The Vertical Axis The vertical axis is expressed in yaw. Yaw describes which direction the nose is pointing, left or right. Yaw is controlled by the rudder. Contents

The Three Axes The Longitudinal Axis The longitudinal axis is expressed using roll. Roll describes the angle of the wings in relation to the ground. Roll is controlled using the ailerons. Contents

To Fly By the Lifting Power of Rising Air
Chapter 2 To Fly By the Lifting Power of Rising Air

Glider Flight Gliders utilize the columns of rising air (thermals) that are created by the Sun’s heat. As the air closer to the ground warms up, it begins rising up as warmer air is less dense than colder air. Once the air cools again, it begins dropping back down to Earth. This creates a convective circulation within our atmosphere. Gliders use this rising air to receive their power rather than using an engine. Contents

Glider Design Gliders are naturally missing one major thing powered aircraft have: an engine. Also unlike most powered aircraft, most gliders have lift spoilers on top of their wings. These are used to increase the rate of descent by disrupting the flow of air over the wings, therein disrupting the production of lift. Contents

Balloons – They Create Their Own Thermals
Chapter 3 Balloons – They Create Their Own Thermals

How Balloons Fly Balloons achieve flight using the same principle that gliders use. The difference is that they create their own thermals. Because warmer air is more buoyant than cold air, the hot air in the balloons will rise. Other balloons use lighter-than-air gasses, such as hydrogen or helium to rise. Lighter-than-air gasses are just that, gasses that are lighter than air, and therefore, more buoyant. Contents

Components of a Balloon
When compared to a winged aircraft, balloons are very simple aircraft. The largest part of a balloon is always the envelope. Contents

History of Balloon Flight
The first balloon flight is one of the most important milestones in aviation history as it can be considered the first powered, manned flight. Hot air balloons like the one used during the first balloon flight do not rely solely upon their environment to fly, they create their own means to fly, which means the balloon flight was powered. The first balloon was performed by the Montgolfier brothers in France on November 21, It lasted 25 minutes and their balloon landed about 5 miles from where it was launched in Paris. Contents

Quiz

Question 1 What does Bernoulli’s Principle state? A) E=MC^2 B) When an airplane’s elevators are up, the nose goes down. C) When a fluid’s speed is increased, it’s pressure decreases. D) Temperature drops at an average rate of 3 1/2°F per 1,000ft of altitude

Correct! Bernoulli’s Principle states that as a fluid is accelerated, it’s pressure drops. This is one of the key principles in the operation of modern aircraft. Next Question

Incorrect Bernoulli’s Principle states that as a fluid is accelerated, it’s pressure drops. Next Question

Question 2 Which type of movement moves around the vertical axis?
A) Roll B) Dive C) Pitch D) Yaw

Correct! Movement around the vertical axis of an aircraft is known as yaw. Yaw describes the nose of an aircraft moving either left or right due to the movement of the rudder. Next Question

Incorrect Movement around an aircraft’s vertical axis of movement is known as yaw. Yaw is the movement of the nose either left or right due to the rudder. Next Question

Question 3 What mechanism enables glider pilots to overcome ‘Ground Effect?’ A) Tow Hook B) Spoilers C) Altitude Radio D) Stabilator

Correct! Gliders have a tendency to want to keep flying once they are within just a few feet of the ground. In order to overcome this tendency, glider pilots use spoilers to ‘spoil’ their lift and land. Next Question

Incorrect Gliders have a tendency to want to keep flying once they are within just a few feet of the ground. In order to counter act this, gilder pilots use spoilers to ‘spoil’ their lift and land their glider. Next Question

Question 4 What is the average lapse rate for our atmosphere?
A) 10°K per 10ft B) 2°C per 48m^2 C) 3 ½°F per 10,000ft D) 2°C per 1,000ft

Correct! The average lapse rate on Earth is approximately 2°C (3 ½°F) per 1,000ft. of altitude gained. It’s this temperature drop that causes air to begin sinking again once it has risen, creating the convective circulation within our atmosphere. Next Question

Incorrect The average lapse rate for our atmosphere is approximately 2°C (3 1/2°F) per 1,000 of altitude gained. This cooling air begins sinking once it cools which creates the convective circulation within our atmosphere. Next Question

Question 5 When was the first balloon flight conducted?
A) France B) China C) America D) German

Correct! The first balloon flight was launched from Paris, France by the Montgolfier brothers on 21 November, It flew for 25 minutes and travelled a distance of 5 miles. Next Question

Incorrect The first balloon flight was launched from Paris, France by the Montgolfier brothers on 21 November, It flew for 25 minutes and travelled a distance of 5 miles. Next Question

Question 6 What is the principle which states that something lighter than air will float on the air called? A) Law of Motion B) Theory of Relativity C) Buoyancy D) Angle of Attack

Correct! Buoyancy states that something lighter than something else (in this case, the air), the lighter material will float on top of the heavier. Hot air, hydrogen, and helium are all lighter than air and are used in balloon flight. Credits Contents

Incorrect Buoyancy is the principle which states that something which is less dense than another material will float on a material which is more dense. Credits Contents

Credits Created by Ryan Stanley
Based on “Aerospace Dimensions” Module 1 Contents