Presentation on theme: "Mr. McNutt 2011-12 Have you ever wondered… Why do I like the people, food, or music that I like? (you fill in the blank) Or, why do I not like certain."— Presentation transcript:
Have you ever wondered… Why do I like the people, food, or music that I like? (you fill in the blank) Or, why do I not like certain things or have an irrational fear of certain things (like _____ (you fill in the blank) )? Why do I get down or up when my favorite song comes on the radio? Why did I cheat on my test…my boyfriend…my girlfriend…? (of course not in psychology though) Why do I get so tired or maybe bored in a class? (of course not in psychology though)
Or…Have you ever wondered?? Should we trust childhood sexual abuse memories that get “recovered” in adulthood? Are first-born children more driven to achieve? Does handwriting or the way I position myself in bed offer any clues to my personality? Do my dreams really mean anything? Does hypnosis really work? Why my family or my relationships look so dysfunctional at times and what to do about it?
Many people turn to “Psychology” in search of answers… We watch Dr. Phil or Oprah or listen to Dr. Drew We read articles on psychic powers We try hypnosis We buy books on self-help, the search for love and the meaning of dreams “Pop” Psychology This is often referred to as “Pop” Psychology
We also will turn to Psychology but a different kind and in a different way How does this psychology actually differ? It is not built on fads or what is popular on tv but it relies on research and science It is not built on fads or what is popular on tv but it relies on research and science It attempts to figure out why people think, feel, and do what they do It attempts to figure out why people think, feel, and do what they do Hopefully this course will give you the tools to answer many questions and maybe by the end of the year, you will be able to tell me why you behave the way you do!
What is – AP Psychology? AP Psychology is intended to be equivalent to an introductory college level course in psychology So, does this mean it will be hard??
Why take AP Psychology? See which one works for you..... I have a desperate curiosity to learn the inner workings of human behavior. I want to take as many AP courses as I can so my transcript makes me look really smart. I want to learn to pick up chicks / guys. I want to skip a course in college and save myself (really my parents) some money I heard this was an easy class with a really cool teacher (I know this is a given)
Why – AP Psychology …on a serious note… You should take this class if you are interested in the field of psychology or just knowing more on why people act the way they act You should take this class if you are thinking of taking psychology in college You should take this class if you want a challenging and exciting experience You should take this class if you are willing to work hard
Who?? Who will you be dealing with this year… ME!
How – can you survive AP Psychology?? #1 - Set Expectations of yourself Figure out what you want out of this class and why you are here A good score on the test and college credit for the class? A good grade on your report card? A good gpa? A challenging experience? If none of these fit…maybe try another class
How – can you survive AP Psychology?? #2 – Learn the Expectations of your teacher What does your teacher expect from you? Come to class everyday prepared to work hard, learn about psychology, and have fun Come to class everyday open to new ideas, concepts, and activities Come to class everyday being honest to your teacher, your classmates, and yourself – what does this mean?? - “But I did study!! Really!!”
When – AP Psychology If you decide that this class is what you expected and you can meet both my expectations and yours, you will be taking an AP Exam Two parts – Multiple Choice and Essay - “free response” The AP exam for this class is Monday, May 7 nd at 12 p.m. For those of you that complain about the exam, just know on average a student saves around $3000 per AP exam passed.
The exams are scored on a scale 1 through 5. A five means you say to yourself "I am a psychology god and should be worshipped daily with sacrifices of small animals" A four means you say to yourself "I know my stuff and can manipulate people and bend them to my will A three means you say to yourself " I know just enough to get a solid C in college", (this (a 3) is the last of the non-embarrassing scores) If you get a 2 you will say "I could have passed if I didn't spend the night before the exam watching Project Runway“ If you get a 1 you will probably say "What is sicologi?"
If you really want to know what scores your college of interest accepts just click here.click here. AP Credit PolicyUVA AP Credit Policy
So….. Finally to what you are all here for… What exactly is Psychology?
What is Psychology? Two competing views Two figures in the history of psychology had different ideas on how to define it… “what goes on inside our minds” William Wundt “what goes on inside our minds” “not what is in our heads, but what behavior do you display” John Watson- “not what is in our heads, but what behavior do you display” Observable behavior – you cannot observe thoughts but you can observe how someone responds to situations Inner sensations or mental processes - “what feelings or thoughts does someone have?”
Psychology: Modern Definition and The science of behavior and mental processes. Behavior – anything an organism does- any action we can observe and record Mental Processes – internal subjective experiences we infer from behavior
Four goals in Psychology To describe what people do Sometimes this is hard to do - why? Sometimes this is hard to do - why? We all view the world differentlyWe all view the world differently We see each other through the filters of our prior experiences, our cultural values, and our beliefs (what we will later call a schema)We see each other through the filters of our prior experiences, our cultural values, and our beliefs (what we will later call a schema) To explain why people think, feel, and act the way they do What are the motives and how do people respond to things that happen? What are the motives and how do people respond to things that happen? Why is this an important goal?? Why is this an important goal?? Even if we can’t change what has happened, understanding the reason why it happened can give people a sense of comfort and control and maybe we can prevent it from happening again Even if we can’t change what has happened, understanding the reason why it happened can give people a sense of comfort and control and maybe we can prevent it from happening again
Four goals of Psychology To predict what and when something will happen Maybe stop something bad before it happens…however… Maybe stop something bad before it happens…however… real life doesn’t always cooperate with psychologyreal life doesn’t always cooperate with psychology Why is this an important point to keep in mind??Why is this an important point to keep in mind?? Some of the best theories and ideas don’t always work in the real world - with real people and real situationsSome of the best theories and ideas don’t always work in the real world - with real people and real situations To change the parts of human behavior that cause us pain Refer to last point…but remember this is a goal Refer to last point…but remember this is a goal
Psychology’s Big Issues Besides the four goals of psychology, there are several issues that we will address and debate all year long Stability vs. Change Rationality vs. Irrationality Nature vs. Nurture
Stability v. Change Do we change over time in distinct and universal stages or do we basically remain the same drooling, slobbering, simple beings of our beginnings? Do these things change? Personality traits, sense of humor, tastes, etc… Can a shy child become the teenage class clown? Do we become adults or are we always just big kids? Do our personalities change in different situations?
Rationality vs. Irrationality Are we wise or not? Why do we do things that are bad for us when we know they are bad? We screw up, we make mistakes, and we lose sight of good judgment But, we often don’t change behavior, we don’t seem rational
Nature vs. Nurture Am I the way I am because I was born that way or because of my surroundings? Biology (genes) vs. Experience Can I ever be like these people, or does nature give me limitations?
Now what?? Historical Background
History of Psychology The study of psychology began with men such as Socrates and Aristotle
Philosophy was foundation for Psychology Dualism vs. Monism Dualism Socrates Mind and body are separate Monism Aristotle Mind and body are one
Rene Descartes Believed in natural instincts in the physical world However he believed that humans were different and they have a mind to guide the body.
Thomas Hobbs Believed there is no mind/soul and that only energy and matter exists and that everything is shaped by brain machinery.
William Wundt Founder of the science of Psychology be opening the first psychology lab in Germany
John Locke Empiricism The belief that humans are born with a blank slate and learn only through experience (nurture over nature)
Edward Titchner Structuralism The idea that contemplation finds answers to the brain by breaking it into parts and focusing on what each part does.
William James Functionalism Focuses on how the mind as a whole fulfills its purpose through adaptation