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AP BIO Review

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1 AP BIO Review http://www.angelfire.com/ga/sweetgeorgiapeach1/grandmom.html

2 Name the essential element that becomes part of the chlorophyll molecule ? Mg-Magnesium What role do nitrogen fixing bacteria play in the nitrogen cycle? Convert atmospheric nitrogen into ammonia (NH 3 )

3 Name the 4 groups of plants you learned about Bryophytes (mosses, hornworts, liverworts) Seedless Vascular plants (ferns) Gynmosperms (naked seed) Angiosperms (flowering plants) The idea that no two species can share the same niche is called the ________________________ Competitive Exclusion Principle Nephridia, flame cells, and Malphighian tubules function in which body system? excretory

4 Name the plant hormone that results in the Triple Response when growing plants encounter an obstacle ethylene The involuntary muscles that cause wave like contractions to push food through the digestive system are _________ muscles. cardiac striated smooth smooth

5 American Bald eagles became endangered when the pesticide DDT concentrated in their bodies causing them to lay eggs with low calcium levels. This concentration of a toxin in greater amounts at upper levels as it moves through a food chain is called ___________________ Biological magnification In vascular plants, the ___________ conveys water and dissolved minerals upward from roots to shoots. phloem xylem XYLEM

6 Write the 2 equations need to solve Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium problems p 2 + 2pq +q 2 = 1 p + q = 1 If 9% of an African population is born with a severe form of sickle-cell anemia (ss), what percentage of the population will be more resistant to malaria because they are heterozygous? 9% =.09 = ss = q 2 q = Square root of.09 =.3 p = 1 -.3 =.7 2pq = 2 (.7 x.3) =.42 42% of the population are heterozyotes (carriers)

7 ___________ cells help load sugars into sieve-tube members. Companion Name the animal phylum that includes the ONLY INVERTEBRATE DEUTEROTOMES. Echinodermata (Echnioderms) Which of the following bonding combinations is always found in a DNA molecule? Purine-purine Pyrimidine-pyrimidine Purine-pyrimidine →

8 Protein synthesis is also called ___________ translation _________ is when a gene at one locus alters the phenotypic expression of a gene at another locus. Epistasis Name a genetic disorder you learned about caused by nondisjunction Turner syndrome Down syndrome Klinefelter syndrome Triple X syndrome

9 Name the conditions that must be met for a population to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Name the macromolecule formed by dehydration synthesis of amino acid monomers No mutation No natural selection No movement in or out Random mating Large population protein

10 Tell the number of chromosomes in a human egg cell. 23 Fish have a ___ chambered heart and a ___ loop circulatory system. (Add a number to each blank) 2 1 Which type of muscle tissue is multinucleated? Striated smooth cardiac →

11 Describe several characteristics of mitochondia and chloroplasts that support the Endosymbiotic theory Contain DNA that is different from that of the cell nucleus and that is similar to that of bacteria (in being circular and in its size). Surrounded by two or more membranes, and the innermost membrane shows composition like that of a prokaryotic cell membrane. Form only through a process similar to binary fission. Much of the internal structure and biochemistry of plastids, for instance the presence of thylakoids and particular chlorophylls, is very similar to that of cyanobacteria. Organelle ribosomes are like those found in bacteria (70s). Organelle proteins, like those of bacteria, use N-formylmethionine as the initiating amino acid

12 _________________ are found in the FIRST TROPHIC level of all food chains Producers (autotrophs) Name the plant polysaccharide made with α-glucose monomers joined with 1-4 linkages Starch (amylose & amylopectin) http://www.sciencecollege.co.uk/SC/biochemicals/starch.jpg

13 Name some types of passive transport you learned about Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, ion channels, osmosis, aquaporins, Name the polysaccharide made with β -glucose monomers joined with 1-4 linkages Cellulose http://www.fibersource.com/f-tutor/Images/Cell.GIF

14 Name the following functional groups Carbonyl (aldehyde) amino Carbonyl (ketone) carboxyl Hydroxyl sulfhydryl phosphate

15 Name this subunit Amino acid Joining these together will make which macromolecule? protein Name the organelle which modifies and packages molecules for transport. Golgi apparatus

16 ACOELOM Playtehelminthes (flatworms) Match the coelom with the correct worm Phylum Pseudocoelom Nematoda (round worms) Eucoelom Annelida (segmented worms) http://web.nkc.kku.ac.th/images/lean/1-1.jpg

17 Lichens are the result of a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and algae. The fungal partner benefits by getting sugars, produced by the algae during photosythesis.The algal partner gets protection against the weather as the fungi normally forms the outer surface. This is an example of ____________ mutualism Birds and mammals have a ___ chambered heart and a ___ loop circulatory system. (Add a number to each blank) 4 2

18 Why does spermatogenesis produce 4 haploid cells, but oogenesis produces only one? Concentrates all nutrients and cell components into “one good egg” for the greatest chance of success for the new zygote Amphibians and most reptiles have a ___ chambered heart and a ___ loop circulatory system. (Add a number to each blank) 3 2

19 Give an example of an amniote Reptiles, birds, mammals Amniote embryos, whether laid as eggs or carried by the female, are protected and aided by several extensive membranes. In humans, these membranes include the amniotic sac that surrounds the fetus. Organisms that thrive in very hot environments are called ____________ and would be placed in the Domain ______________ thermophiles ARCHAEA

20 Autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by a single substitution in the genetic code for hemoglobin which causes a change in the shape of red blood cells in low oxygen conditions Sickle cell anemia Persons who are heterozygous for the above disorder have increased resistance to this disease caused by a parasitic protozoan. malaria

21 Organisms are placed into DOMAINS based on which characteristic? Ribosomal RNA α-helix and β-pleated sheet are examples of ___________ structures of proteins. primary secondary tertiary quaternary secondary Add your ? here

22 Name the protein molecule that assists in the folding of other proteins chaparonin Tell the place where H + ions build up as electrons pass down the electron transport chain in mitochondria during cellular respiration Intermembrane space Image from: AP BIOLOGY by Campbell and Reece

23 Hemoglobin molecule is composed of two α and two β protein chains. This is an example of ____________ protein structure. primary secondary tertiary quaternary quaternary Tell where this molecule might be found and give its function Found in red blood cells Carries oxygen http://fig.cox.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/chemistry/hemoglobin.jpg

24 Cellular Respiration Photosynthesis Where does energy come from? Where do H + ions build up? Final ETC electron acceptor ? Location of ETC ? In plants ? In animals ? COMPARE THE FOLLOWING : Glucose SUNLIGHT Intermembrane space Thylakoid space NADPHOxygen In plants and animals Only in plants Cristae Thylakoid membrane

25 Name the three kinds of nitrogen waste excreted by animals Ammonia, urea, uric acid Which of these is excreted by most aquatic organisms? ammonia Which of these is excreted by reptiles & birds? Uric acid

26 Name the protein hormone that causes liver and muscle cells to store glucose as glycogen insulin This hormone is produced by the _____ cells found in the islets of _____________ in the ______________ pancreas Name the disorder caused by a deficiency of this hormone or a decreased response in target tissues. Diabetes mellitus Langerhans beta

27 Tell whether the following carry highly oxygenated or deoxygenated blood? right atrium left atrium right ventricle left ventricle pulmonary artery pulmonary vein deoxygenated Highly oxygenated deoxygenated Highly oxygenated deoxygenated highly oxygenated

28 During replication which strand is synthesized in pieces? Lagging strand Name these pieces Okazai fragments Which enzyme joins the fragments together ? DNA ligase

29 What will happen to this animal cell? It will shrink It will swell and burst It will same the same size This cell is in a(n) ______ tonic solution This process is called ________________ hypo It will swell and burst cytolysis

30 Which of the following would probably be a response(s) to a drop in body temperature? Vasodilation of capillaries in skin Constriction of capillaries in skin Erection of hairs/fur on skin Increased sweating Nonshivering thermogenesis Shivering →→→→→→→→

31 COMPARE THE FOLLOWING : Mouth Anus Determinate spiral Indeterminate radial Vertebrates plus echinoderms All triploblastic invertebrates except echinoderms PROTOSTOMESDEUTEROSTOMES Blastopore becomes ? Type of cleavage Animal groups seen in?

32 Tell the body part responsible for the following: Thermoregulation Chyme is mixed with pancreatic enzymes Produces bile Stores bile Monitors CO 2 concentration in blood hypothalmus Duodenum (small intestine) liver Gall bladder Medulla oblongata

33 Tell the body part responsible for the following: Contains alveoli Processes toxins Activates pepsinogen oogenesis pulmonary artery pulmonary vein lungs liver stomach ovary deoxygenated highly oxygenated

34 What will happen to this cell? It will shrink It will swell and burst It will same the same size This cell is in a(n) ______ tonic solutioniso Stay the same size

35 Activation of pepsinogen is an example of ______________ feedback because once some pepsinogen molecules are activated by acid in the stomach to pepsin, activation occurs at an increasingly rapid rate because pepsin can activate additional molecules of pepsinogen. POSITIVE _________ connect arteries and capillaries Arterioles

36 This part is a muscle cell releases Ca ++ when the cell receives the stimulus to contract. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Name the neurotransmitter released into the synaptic cleft when a nerve signal is transmitted acetylcholine The rise in levels of which ion through voltage gated channels causes the fusion of vesicles and the release of the neurotransmitter above. Ca ++

37 Removal of introns/joining of exons Poly A tail added 5’ guanine cap added ____________ is a molecular tag added to proteins that marks them for degradation by proteosomes UBIQUITIN Describe some of the post transcriptional modifications on eukaryotic DNA prior to leaving the nucleus

38 spliceosomes RNA molecules that function as enzymes are called ___________ ribozymes During replication, which strand is synthesized continuously? Leading strand Name the complex that recognizes slice sites, removesintrons, and combines exons during mRNA processing ?

39 Name the enzyme whose function is to: Attaches the correct amino acid to a tRNA Starts a DNA strand by putting in a short stretch of RNA Adds protective ends onto DNA to prevent loss of the message when its copied Amino acyl t-RNA synthase primase telomerase

40 DNA replication can be described as ____________________ Dispersive conservative semi-conservative Semi-conservative Name 3 ways bacterial DNA can be changed in nature. Transformation conjugation (bacterial sex) transduction

41 Bacterial “sex” is also called ___________________ conjugation Small circular self replicating DNA separate from the bacterial chromosome that often carry genes for antibiotic resistance are called ____________ plasmids Name the molecule in the cell walls of most Prokaryotes but missing in archaeans. peptidoglycan

42 Tell some differences between the following: MONOCOTSEUDICOTS One cotyledon Two cotyledons Veins parallel Veins netlike Vascular tissue scattered Vascular tissue in ring Fibrous roots Taproot (main root) Pollen grain w/1 opening Pollen grain w/3 openings Flower parts in Flower parts in multiples multiples of 3 multiples of 4 or 5

43 Which of the following is found in all triploblastic animals other than worms? Eucoelom OR true coelom http://web.nkc.kku.ac.th/images/lean/1-1.jpg

44 What will happen to this cell? It will shrink It will swell and burst It will same the same size In an animal cell, this process is called ________________ hyperThis cell is in a(n) ______ tonic solution It will shrink crenation

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