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20 years of AO at ESO MACAO-CRIRES, or how to recycle a good idea
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 2 AO Department Multi-application curvature AO MACAO was developed initially for VLTI needs Two sisters of MACAO-VLTI benefited from it, SINFONI and CRIRES CRIRES could have been the first Coudé instrument, instead of the actual Nasmyth AO (f/15 focus)
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 3 AO Department CRIRES for dummies
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 4 AO Department MACAO and CRIRES in a nutshell: Near IR-spectrograph 1 =>5 m High resolution (10 5 ) 4x1k Aladdin detectors 0.2" slit width, 0.1" pixel Slit viewer, 0.05” pixel AO-assisted (MACAO-family) Curvature AO (robust, low maintenance, APDs) 60 element bimorph DM / lenslets 420 Hz loop frequency, 60 Hz bandwidth Strehl >50% for R<13 Off-axis guiding in a ~50" field of view Sub-arcsec resolution along the slit IR Slit-viewing guiding facility (1k detector)
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 5 AO Department High spectral resolution for one molecular species typically several hundred rotation transitions can be seen, sampling: - different zones spatially - different physical conditions, e.g. T Better isotopic separation A higher resolution allows filtering out many emission lines of the atmosphere High absolute accuracy (RV e.g. for embedded stars) See Käufl et al., SPIE, 2004
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 6 AO Department Higher spatial resolution MACAO provides an excellent image quality for the Paranal site Diffraction-limit imaging is routinely achieved, with a high loop robustness Ensquared energy (0.2”) higher than 50% in K-band for M R brighter than 14 (Paufique et al, SPIE, 2008) Spatial resolution goes from 0.4” in good seeing conditions down to 3.5 µm) (lesser) Correction on extended objects: comets nuclei, satellites, Mars features !! AO criterion: enslitted energy, expected up to 70% for bright stars Solar system objects tracking Elevation mode off-axis tracking AO criterion: enslitted energy, expected up to 70% for bright stars Io in K-band (raw), MACAO- CRIRES commissioning 2006
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 7 AO Department All together Both high spatial and spectral resolution allows retrieving exquisitely fine information on astrophysical objects Model-dependent: discrimination down to 0.8 mas has been reached, using spectro-astrometry (Pontoppidan et al., ApJ 2008) No competition existing in the 8-10 m class telescopes
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 8 AO Department Where did CRIRES come from? MACAO for VLTI and MACAO for SINFONI were the baseline for the MACAO projects Individual components were re-used for CRIRES => design and tests greatly simplified
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 9 AO Department Concepts, finite product
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 10 AO Department AO developments and recycling
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 11 AO Department MACAO-CRIRES milestones CRIRES FDR 2001 End of MACAO lab tests 02/2006 Reintegration in Paranal 03/2006 First light: 6 th 04/2006 CRIRES commissioning: 2007
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 12 AO Department
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 13 AO Department
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 14 AO Department MACAO-CRIRES first light Technical results (K-band) N Unidentified volcano ?
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 15 AO Department MACAO-CRIRES first light Conclusions Successful first light: 6 th 04/2006 performances in-line with specifications (>40% EqE R<15), Cold part reintegration is proceeding NIR High-resolution –spatial and spectral- available end 2006/beginning 2007 Many thanks to the CRIRES team and to the Paranal staff for all the good job done and the results.
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2009 Page 16 AO Department A jigsaw of SINFONI and VLTI
European Southern Observatory European Southern Observatory © ESO 2005 Page 1 AO Department Leiden, April 26th 2005 MUSE M ulti U nit S pectroscopic E.
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