Presentation on theme: "P-N Junction Diodes (N.B. – log into SCHOLAR before viewing)"— Presentation transcript:
1P-N Junction Diodes (N.B. – log into SCHOLAR before viewing) Higher PhysicsP-N Junction Diodes(N.B. – log into SCHOLAR before viewing)
2P-N Junction 1Semiconductor material is doped so that half is p-type (+ve holes) and half is n-type (-ve electrons).In this form it is known as a p-n junction diode.Between each half the electrons and holes combine and cancel each other outThis creates the DEPLETION LAYERSCHOLAR LINK
3P-N Junction 2Depletion layer creates ions which produce a potential difference of a few hundred millivolts – POTENTIAL BARRIERFor current to flow through the diode the potential barrier must be overcome and the depletion layer removed.We know from SG Physics that a diode allows current to flow in only one direction.However, a p-n junction diode can be connected to a battery in two ways.
4Forward Bias 1p-type connected to the +ve side of the battery and n-type connected to -ve side.Diode is forward-biased.SCHOLAR LINK
5Forward Bias 2junction voltage, Vpn (potential barrier) opposes the applied voltage from the supply battery (for silicon diode Vpn ~ 0.6V)If Vs < Vpn , no current flowsIf Vs > Vpn , charge carriers (electrons and holes) can cross the junction, reducing the depletion layer until it disappears, allowing the junction to fully conduct.
6Reverse Bias 1p-type connected to the -ve side of the battery and n-type connected to +ve side.Diode is reverse-biased.SCHOLAR LINK
7Reverse Bias 2electrons in the n-type material are attracted by the +ve terminal of the batteryelectrons from the battery will enter the p-type end of the diode and combine with some of the holes.this removes some of the charge carriers from the diode, increasing the width of the depletion layer.the junction’s resistance becomes very large and so there is no current in the circuit.
8Rectification 1Common use of diodes is to rectify a.c. power supplies to produce d.c outputs (e.g. phone chargers, power adapters)This can be done with a single diodeOnly the positive half of the supply passesthrough, resulting in half wave rectification.
9Rectification 2A better solution is to use a rectifier bridge (a network of four diodes)This effectively changes the direction of the negative part of the a.c. input.Both halves of the supply pass through,resulting in full wave rectification.