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Implementation Demands of Professional Development From Research to Policy: The Implementation Demands of Professional Development Evidence Based Policies.

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Presentation on theme: "Implementation Demands of Professional Development From Research to Policy: The Implementation Demands of Professional Development Evidence Based Policies."— Presentation transcript:

1 Implementation Demands of Professional Development From Research to Policy: The Implementation Demands of Professional Development Evidence Based Policies July 2006 Philip Adey Developing Intelligence

2 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Overview Introduction An example of one effective programme Empirical studies The Literature Components of the model The complete model Implications

3 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Introduction to the issue Research in social science does produce results Policy makers often ignore or pervert these results WHY? Research counters received wisdom (e.g. streaming) Hard to sell (e.g. a ‘Thinking curriculum’) Difficult / expensive to implement …

4 Implementation Demands of Professional Development An Example: Introducing a “Thinking” Curriculum “Cognitive Acceleration” rests pillars derived from developmental and cognitive psychology, including: Social Construction Dialogue with others is essential Cognitive Conflict The mind develops in response to stimulation Metacognition Reflecting on how we tackled the problem This makes major demands on Pedagogy - it requires Heavy Duty Professional Development

5 Implementation Demands of Professional Development … but it does have a reliable effect on academic achievement: Many studies, present, show that classes which use Cognitive Acceleration methods show long term (3 years after the intervention) far-transfer (from science context to English grades) significant (effect sizes up to 1 s.d.) gains in academic achievement. E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E J J J J J J J JJ J J 2.5 E 3.5 D 4.5 C 5.5 B 6.5 A Mean Year 7 School Intake (percentile) St. Albans Chatham Girls George Abbott Sharnbrook Downend St. Edmunds Clapton Sion Manning South Camden Rokeby Downham Market Mean Grade, end of Y11 GCSE English 1999 E Control Schools B National average JCASE Schools B

6 Implementation Demands of Professional Development The “Heavy Duty” P.D. A two year programme, including: 7 days of inservice for 2 teachers from each school 5 half days coaching visit to schools Commitment by Head to find time for peer coaching and in-school P.D. What is the ‘Minimum Architecture’ of an effective Professional Development programme? - Building a model.

7 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Empirical studies - 1 Interviews, questionnaires with Teachers and Heads ‘94, ‘97 studies with Justin Dillon, Shirley Simon and others related Levels of Use (LoU) with cognitive gain, sense of ownership, etc.

8 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Empirical studies - 2 Long-term follow-up study Study with Marina Bailey, Jo Edwards, and Nasia Michael. In 1998 we visited schools which had participated in the PD from ‘94 - ‘96. What was left? PD is for people, not for schools The school needs structural changes Critical role of Senior management

9 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Empirical studies - 3 (iv) Case Studies Nicolette Landau followed 13 teachers of CASE and CAME over two years. She observed them in INSET and classroom settings, and continually interviewed them and their colleagues, triangulating data sources and amassing deep-level ethnographic understanding of each of them. School Ethos Teacher Stance Unsupportive Supportive Positive Negative Must fly! No hope! ??? … exploring the interaction: Rich stories emerge

10 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Empirical studies - 4 Gwen and John Hewitt collected quantitative and qualitative data from children, teachers, principals, and inspectors involved in an attempt to make PD in one London borough systemic - that is, built into the system, self-replicating, and less dependent on outside consultants. (v) Multi-method investigation of the System

11 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Examples: –Bruce Joyce at al. on coaching –Michael Fullan on the management of change, and leadership –David Hopkins, Louise Stoll, Peter Mortimore et al. on school effects, school improvement –Thomas Guskey, Michael Huberman, on evaluation –And many, many, more The Literature

12 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Collegiality, Communication, Mutual Reflection Building a model Factor 1:Working together for Ownership Teacher 1 Ownership Belief change Early practice Intuitive practice Teacher 2 Ownership Belief change Early practice Intuitive practice Teacher 3 Ownership Belief change Early practice Intuitive practice Change in students ….

13 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Factor 2: Senior Management Commitment I really want this to happen Shared vision … with HoD, Co-ordinator,... Prepared to make structural changes Time for in-school PD, appointment policy School Head (and and Governing Body?)

14 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Factor 3: Quality of PD Length, Intensity 30 hours of practice … over two years? PD pedagogy reflects target pedagogy Not “A lecture on making pupils active..” Coaching In-class support

15 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Factor 4: Quality of the Innovation Theory base Is there a reason why it should work? Evidence of effect Is there any research evidence? Materials Comprehensive? Flexible? User-friendly?

16 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Children’s Learning The Group Collegiality Communication Shared reflection T1 Ownership T1 Ownership T2 Ownership T2 Ownership T3 Ownership T3 Ownership T4 Ownership T4 Ownership T4 Ownership T4 Ownership T4 Ownership T4 Ownership T4 Ownership T4 Ownership A complete (?) model of effective PD Senior Management Committed Shared vision Structural change Senior Management Committed Shared vision Structural change A Sound Innovation Theory, Evidence, Materials A Sound Innovation Theory, Evidence, Materials Good Quality PD Duration, Pedagogy, Coaching Good Quality PD Duration, Pedagogy, Coaching

17 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Characteristics of the model Each of the four elements interacts with all of the others - including pupil response effects on teachers. Each element is important - if one is set negative, the whole system fails. It follows that PD programmes need to pay attention to all of the elements.

18 Implementation Demands of Professional Development Conclusion It is expensive Professionals are expected to act autonomously on the basis of their understanding of principles. PD is messy, uncertain in outcome, and cannot be easily codified or squeezed into a “Strategy”. Professional Development means the development of Professionals - not the provision of sets of instructions for technicians. So it is likely to be a stumbling block for policymakers because:

19 Implementation Demands of Professional Development The Professional Development of Teachers: Practice and Theory Philip Adey with Gwen & John Hewitt, and Nicki Landau Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004 Read all about it...


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