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Warm Up Pick up your pot of gold off of the overhead and write a serious wish in the middle, decorate it, cut it out and hand it to me Pick up your pot.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm Up Pick up your pot of gold off of the overhead and write a serious wish in the middle, decorate it, cut it out and hand it to me Pick up your pot."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm Up Pick up your pot of gold off of the overhead and write a serious wish in the middle, decorate it, cut it out and hand it to me Pick up your pot of gold off of the overhead and write a serious wish in the middle, decorate it, cut it out and hand it to me

2 Warm Up 1. How do Binet and Terman differ in their views on IQ? 2. How do the General IQ and Multiple IQ theories differ? 3. What is a savant? 4. What are the best ways to neurologically measure IQ? 5. Why is the Weschler IQ test so popular? 6. What’s the difference between achievement and aptitude? 7. If a test is standardized, what does that mean? 8. If a test is reliable, what does that mean? 9. If a test is valid, what does that mean? 10. What factors may be contribute to the Flynn Effect? 11. How could a test be tested for bias?

3 Chapter 15 pt. 1: Personality and The Psychoanalytic Perspective

4 Personality and the Four Perspectives Personality refers to your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Personality refers to your characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting. Four Basic Perspectives on Personality: Four Basic Perspectives on Personality: 1. Psychoanalytic 2. Trait 3. Humanistic 4. Social Cognitive

5 The Psychoanalytic Perspective Mostly based on the ideas of Sigmund Freud. Mostly based on the ideas of Sigmund Freud. Freud argued that personality was mostly influenced by unconscious conflicts/motivations and early childhood sexuality/experiences. Freud argued that personality was mostly influenced by unconscious conflicts/motivations and early childhood sexuality/experiences. 2 most basic motives were sex and aggression. 2 most basic motives were sex and aggression.

6 The Psychoanalytic Perspective Psychoanalysis: specifically refers to Freud’s theory on unconscious motivations influence on our personality and to the techniques used to uncover and interpret unconscious conflicts and tensions which may be causing a psychological disorder. Psychoanalysis: specifically refers to Freud’s theory on unconscious motivations influence on our personality and to the techniques used to uncover and interpret unconscious conflicts and tensions which may be causing a psychological disorder. From this viewpoint, only through understanding your unconscious conflicts can you overcome psychological problems like depression, anxiety, etc. From this viewpoint, only through understanding your unconscious conflicts can you overcome psychological problems like depression, anxiety, etc.

7 Methods for Tapping Into the Unconscious 1. Hypnosis: Freud “discovered” the unconscious when hypnotizing his patients. Under hypnosis patients would talk freely about the onset of their symptoms and their lives which allowed Freud access to “unconscious conflicts.” Freud eventually turned away from hypnosis since not all patients reacted to it. Freud eventually turned away from hypnosis since not all patients reacted to it.

8 Methods for Tapping Into the Unconscious 2. Dreams: considered the “royal road to the unconscious.” Manifest content (dream sequence) was a censored expression of the dreamer’s unconscious wishes called latent content which can be analyzed by psychoanalysts. Manifest content (dream sequence) was a censored expression of the dreamer’s unconscious wishes called latent content which can be analyzed by psychoanalysts.

9 Methods for Tapping into The Unconscious 3. Free Association: technique in which patients relax and say whatever comes to their mind without censoring themselves no matter how trivial or embarrassing the flow of thoughts is.

10 Methods for Tapping into The Unconscious To Freud nothing you did or said was ever accidental; Everything offered insights into the unconscious. To Freud nothing you did or said was ever accidental; Everything offered insights into the unconscious. 4. Freudian Slips: slips of the tongue or actions which may illustrate unconscious motives/feelings. 4. Freudian Slips: slips of the tongue or actions which may illustrate unconscious motives/feelings. Ex: Accidentally calling your wife “mom” Ex: Accidentally calling your wife “mom” Man sending a post card to his wife while on vacation which reads: “Wish you were her.”

11 Unconscious vs. Preconscious Unconscious: According to Freud is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories we are unaware of. According to Freud is a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories we are unaware of. Contemporary viewpoint- information processing of which we are unaware Contemporary viewpoint- information processing of which we are unaware Preconscious: information that is not conscious, but is retrievable into conscious awareness. Ex: phone number, best friend’s last name, etc.

12 Structure of Our Personality According to Freud To Freud, Personality is like an iceberg. To Freud, Personality is like an iceberg. Only can see very small part of it (conscious) while most of it is unseen (unconscious) Only can see very small part of it (conscious) while most of it is unseen (unconscious) Id Superego EgoConscious mind Unconscious mind

13 Parts of Personality According to Freud 1. Id: largest part of your personality that is unconscious, largely instinctual, and purely operates to satisfy biological, sexual, and aggressive drives. 1. Id: largest part of your personality that is unconscious, largely instinctual, and purely operates to satisfy biological, sexual, and aggressive drives. Seeks immediate gratification and operates according to the pleasure principle. Seeks immediate gratification and operates according to the pleasure principle.

14 Parts of Personality According to Freud 2. Superego: part of personality that develops around the age of 4 to Superego: part of personality that develops around the age of 4 to 5.. Is your voice of conscience and focuses on how you ought to behave according to the ideal. Provides standards for judgment and future aspirations; pushes you towards perfection. Provides standards for judgment and future aspirations; pushes you towards perfection.

15 Parts of Personality According to Freud 3. Ego: the largely conscious part of your personality that mediates conflict between your id and superego. 3. Ego: the largely conscious part of your personality that mediates conflict between your id and superego. Operates according to the reality principle satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain. Operates according to the reality principle satisfying the id’s desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.

16 Your Personality Arises From Conflict Between Pleasure Seeking Impulses and Internalized Social Restraints Against Them

17 Personality Development According to Freud, personality developed during the life’s first few years. He believed that Adult’s conflicts are rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhood which were often related to conflicts in psychosexual development. According to Freud, personality developed during the life’s first few years. He believed that Adult’s conflicts are rooted in unresolved conflicts from early childhood which were often related to conflicts in psychosexual development. Psychosexual Stages: childhood stages of development during which according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies are focused on distinct erogenous zones. Psychosexual Stages: childhood stages of development during which according to Freud, the id’s pleasure seeking energies are focused on distinct erogenous zones.

18 Know the Psychosexual Stages Freud’s Psychosexual Stages Stage Focus Oral Pleasure centers on the mouth-- (0-18 months) sucking, biting, chewing Anal Pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder (18-36 months) elimination; coping with demands for control Phallic Pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with (3-6 years) incestuous sexual feelings Latency Dormant sexual feelings (6 to puberty) Genital Maturation of sexual interests (puberty on)

19 Conflict During the Phallic Stage The Oedipus Complex: boys develop sexual desires towards their mothers and feelings of jealousy and hatred towards their father The Oedipus Complex: boys develop sexual desires towards their mothers and feelings of jealousy and hatred towards their father Fear of punishment from their father leads to castration anxiety and eventual repression of feelings towards mother and identification with rival parent (father). Fear of punishment from their father leads to castration anxiety and eventual repression of feelings towards mother and identification with rival parent (father). Electra Complex: similar process some psychoanalysts feel women feel towards their fathers and mothers. Electra Complex: similar process some psychoanalysts feel women feel towards their fathers and mothers.

20 Personality Development and Conflict Identification: process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos. Identification: process by which children incorporate their parents’ values into their developing superegos. Fixation: refers to a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage. Occurs when those sexual needs are overindulged or deprived. Fixation: refers to a lingering focus of pleasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage. Occurs when those sexual needs are overindulged or deprived. –Ex: Anal Retentive, etc.

21 Personality and Dealing with Anxiety The ego has to deal with a variety of forms of anxiety based on unconscious conflicts and the conflicting desires of id and superego. At times to avoid anxiety it looks to protect itself by using: The ego has to deal with a variety of forms of anxiety based on unconscious conflicts and the conflicting desires of id and superego. At times to avoid anxiety it looks to protect itself by using: Defense Mechanisms: methods that the ego uses to reduce anxiety. Involves unconsciously distorting reality to make itself feel better. Defense Mechanisms: methods that the ego uses to reduce anxiety. Involves unconsciously distorting reality to make itself feel better.

22 Examples of Defense Mechanisms 1. Repression: banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. 1. Repression: banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness. –Ex: Child Sexual Abuse is “forgotten.” 2. Regression: when an individual retreats to an earlier more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. 2. Regression: when an individual retreats to an earlier more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated. –Ex: When stressed someone may smoke or drink more (oral fixation).

23 Examples of Defense Mechanisms 3. Reaction Formation: when the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People will express opposite of their anxiety arousing feelings. 3. Reaction Formation: when the ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites. People will express opposite of their anxiety arousing feelings. Ex: Those with Unacceptable homosexual impulses may become gay bashers. Ex: Those with Unacceptable homosexual impulses may become gay bashers. 4. Projection: when people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. 4. Projection: when people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others. Ex: Husband who is cheating may constantly accuse wife of the behavior. Ex: Husband who is cheating may constantly accuse wife of the behavior.

24 Examples of Defense Mechanisms 5. Rationalization: offering self- justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. 5. Rationalization: offering self- justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one’s actions. Ex: Justifying Cheating on Taxes by saying the government would use $ to create nuclear weapons. Ex: Justifying Cheating on Taxes by saying the government would use $ to create nuclear weapons. 6. Displacement: shifting one’s sexual or aggressive impulses to a more acceptable or less threatening object or person…redirect anger at “safer outlet.” 6. Displacement: shifting one’s sexual or aggressive impulses to a more acceptable or less threatening object or person…redirect anger at “safer outlet.” Ex: Angry at boss or supervisor and you take it out by yelling at spouse. Ex: Angry at boss or supervisor and you take it out by yelling at spouse.

25 Examples of Defense Mechanisms 7. Sublimation: when people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities. 7. Sublimation: when people rechannel their unacceptable impulses into socially approved activities. Ex: Playing football to rechannel aggressive impulses. Ex: Playing football to rechannel aggressive impulses. *8. Intellectualization: separating oneself from emotional impact of a situation by focusing on problem in systematic factual way or in the abstract. *8. Intellectualization: separating oneself from emotional impact of a situation by focusing on problem in systematic factual way or in the abstract. Ex: A wife who learns her husband is dying tries to learn all she can about the disease, prognosis, treatment options. Look at it in scientific way to avoid emotion. Ex: A wife who learns her husband is dying tries to learn all she can about the disease, prognosis, treatment options. Look at it in scientific way to avoid emotion.

26 Examples of Defense Mechanisms *9. Denial: when person denies threatening behavior or events are taking place. *9. Denial: when person denies threatening behavior or events are taking place. Ex: Person who is in a horrible accident states emphatically “I will walk again!” Ex: Person who is in a horrible accident states emphatically “I will walk again!” *10. Undoing: idea that if you have unacceptable impulses/behavior you can undo or make it up by doing something. *10. Undoing: idea that if you have unacceptable impulses/behavior you can undo or make it up by doing something. Ex: After cheating on wife, husband buys her jewelry. Ex: After cheating on wife, husband buys her jewelry. DEFENSE MECHANISM HANDOUT. DEFENSE MECHANISM HANDOUT.

27 Psychoanalytic Personality Tests: Assessing the Unconscious Projective Tests: test which presents ambiguous (unclear) stimuli which is designed to get at one’s inner/unconscious dynamics when you interpret it. Projective Tests: test which presents ambiguous (unclear) stimuli which is designed to get at one’s inner/unconscious dynamics when you interpret it. WHAT DO YOU SEE?

28 Types of Projective Tests Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): test where people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes. Thematic Apperception Test (TAT): test where people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.

29 Types of Projective Tests Rorschach Inkblot Test: most widely used projective test, looks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of blots. Rorschach Inkblot Test: most widely used projective test, looks to identify people’s inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of blots.

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31 Neo- Freudians Supporters of Freud Supporters of Freud Had 2 major differences with Freud Had 2 major differences with Freud 1. They placed more emphasis on the conscious mind 2. Doubted the role of sex and aggression

32 Neo-Freudians Alfred Adler: emphasized the importance of SOCIAL tensions in childhood rather than sexual tensions to explain personality development. Alfred Adler: emphasized the importance of SOCIAL tensions in childhood rather than sexual tensions to explain personality development. Proposed idea of inferiority complex: feeling of inferiority during childhood which causes individuals to overcompensate and either have significant achievements or develop antisocial tendencies. Proposed idea of inferiority complex: feeling of inferiority during childhood which causes individuals to overcompensate and either have significant achievements or develop antisocial tendencies.

33 Neo-Freudians Carl Jung: Came up with several important Psychoanalytic ideas including: Carl Jung: Came up with several important Psychoanalytic ideas including: 1. Collective Unconscious: idea that humans have a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history. 1. Collective Unconscious: idea that humans have a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species’ history. 2. Complex: unconscious impulses that lie behind an individuals mysterious behavior. At core of complex was idea known as Archetype: universal pattern of experience. Example of Archetypes: 2. Complex: unconscious impulses that lie behind an individuals mysterious behavior. At core of complex was idea known as Archetype: universal pattern of experience. Example of Archetypes: –A. Anima/Animus: feelings towards opposite gender

34 Criticism of Psychoanalysis? Development is not just in childhood Development is not just in childhood Overestimated parental involvement Overestimated parental involvement Might have created false memories in patients Might have created false memories in patients

35 Personality Inventories Step One- Pick a BRHS teacher, friend or TV character/personality that you feel like you know pretty well and who you feel has a strong personality and write a detailed (must provide specific examples) and cohesive summary describing their personality. When writing your summary consider the following questions: 1. Is the person an optimistic or pessimistic person? 2. How does the person respond to stressful situations and change? 3. Is the person individualistic or collectivist? 4. Does the person have good interpersonal skills? 5. Does the person have good intrapersonal skills? 6. Does the person get stressed out or angry easily? 7. Is the person emotionally stable? (Able to correctly regulate their emotions?) 8. Is the person an introvert or extrovert? 9. Is the person intrinsically or extrinsically motivated? 10. Is the person an open book or are they guarded with their thoughts and feelings? 12. Is the person conscientious of others or do they typically display selfish behaviors? 13. Does the person have a high or low self esteem? 14. Is the person self-actualized? 15. Is the person judgmental or do they have unconditional positive regard towards others? 16. Does the person typically express an external or internal locus of control when they face a problem?

36 Step 2: Psychoanalytic- Pretend you are Freud and write an analysis of your person based off psychoanalytic ideas. Your analysis must contain a minimum of 10 vocabulary words and specific examples to illustrate the vocabulary terms. You may want to focus on the strongest elements of your person's personality and remember, a key component of the psychoanalytic perspective is that they try to come up with causes for the major personality traits/problems. Your grade will depend on the quality of your analysis (using clear and specific examples of the theory) and your ability to present a well-organized and thorough response. Underline the vocabulary terms. Step 2: Psychoanalytic- Pretend you are Freud and write an analysis of your person based off psychoanalytic ideas. Your analysis must contain a minimum of 10 vocabulary words and specific examples to illustrate the vocabulary terms. You may want to focus on the strongest elements of your person's personality and remember, a key component of the psychoanalytic perspective is that they try to come up with causes for the major personality traits/problems. Your grade will depend on the quality of your analysis (using clear and specific examples of the theory) and your ability to present a well-organized and thorough response. Underline the vocabulary terms.

37 Step 3- Trait- Pretend you are Gordon Allport and write an analysis of your person based off of the ideas of the Trait Perspective. Your analysis must contain a minimum of 7 vocabulary words and specific examples to illustrate the vocabulary terms. You may want to focus on the strongest elements of your person's personality and remember. Your grade will depend on the quality of your analysis (using clear and specific examples of the theory) and your ability to present a well-organized and thorough response. Underline the vocabulary terms. Step 4: Humanistic- Pretend you are Carl Rodgers and write an analysis of your person based off Humanistic ideas. Your analysis must contain a minimum of 6 vocabulary words and specific examples to illustrate the vocabulary terms. You may want to focus on the strongest elements of your person's personality. Your grade will depend on the quality of your analysis (using clear and specific examples of the theory) and your ability to present a well-organized and thorough response. Underline the vocabulary terms

38 Step 5: Socio-Cultural- Pretend you are Albert Bandura and write an analysis of your person based off Socio- cultural ideas. Your analysis must contain a minimum of 7 vocabulary words and specific examples to illustrate the vocabulary terms. You may want to focus on the strongest elements of your person's personality. Your grade will depend on the quality of your analysis (using clear and specific examples of the theory) and your ability to present a well-organized and thorough response. Underline the vocabulary terms. Step 5: Socio-Cultural- Pretend you are Albert Bandura and write an analysis of your person based off Socio- cultural ideas. Your analysis must contain a minimum of 7 vocabulary words and specific examples to illustrate the vocabulary terms. You may want to focus on the strongest elements of your person's personality. Your grade will depend on the quality of your analysis (using clear and specific examples of the theory) and your ability to present a well-organized and thorough response. Underline the vocabulary terms.


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