Presentation on theme: "Presented by: Jeff Mushkin, M.P.H. Project Specialist/Trainer The SPARK Programs."— Presentation transcript:
Presented by: Jeff Mushkin, M.P.H. Project Specialist/Trainer The SPARK Programs
Objectives Attendees will learn about: The differences between PE and PA The need for quality PE and ample PA PE and PA’s relationship to academic achievement Maintaining support for programs by showing the importance and relevance of PE: Strategies for linking PE, classroom, and PA
Last Month’s Webinar Attendees learned: Strategies to help students feel more comfortable learning dance Alternative styles of teaching dance Several dances from SPARK that can be taught right away!
SPARK Resources Why do we offer the Free Webinar Series?
SPARK Background Originally funded in 1989 by Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of N.I.H. SPARK is the conduit that moves research to practice Over 40 publications proving SPARK programs work and last! “ Children are our most valuable natural resource.” Herbert Hoover
Today’s Topic! What role does Physical Education (PE) and Physical Activity (PA) play in the academic success of students? PE and Academics
PE vs. PA What is the difference? Physical activity is: A behavior A voluntary movement of any type Unstructured Physical education is: A curricular area that teaches about PA Teaching skills to participate lifetime activities Specific, structured, and progressive
Recommended vs. Reality NASPE Recommendations for PE Elementary School: 150 minutes per week Middle school & High School: 225 minutes per week Reality A recent CDC report found daily PE in only: 4% of elementary schools 8% of middle schools 2% percent of high schools
PE Dosage PE is being Reduced and Eliminated No Child Left Behind PE mandates have bark but rarely bite Budget cuts PE perceived as less important than other subjects *The 2006 CDC’s School Health Policies and Programs Study showed that only 4% of elementary children participated in daily PE down from 42% in 1991
Effect on the Health of Children 20% of children categorized as obese (4x rate in 1970’s) 70-80% chance an obese child will become an obese adult $14 billion spent annually on child obesity-related health care costs Today’s American children may be the first generation to live shorter lives than their parents Today’s Kids
Increasing the Opportunities for Physical Education Improve the quantity and quality of PE Data showing effects of PE on learning Integrate activity into academic lessons Maintain support by showing the importance and relevance of PE:
Space – Ensure facilities are accessible Time – Assess minutes then set goals to increase Movement – 50% of class time in MVPA Equipment – MSPAN study showed increasing equipment increased PA time Supervision – MSPAN showed activity time increased when supervision increased
“Exercise itself doesn't make us smarter. Instead, exercise makes us more able to learn and focus and optimizes the brain for learning." John Ratey, author of: Spark: The Revolutionary New Science of Exercise and the Brain Effects of PA on Learning
Children who are physically active may have: Improved attention span Improved attendance Improved behavior Increased concentration Reduced disruptive behaviors Healthy Children are Better Learners Effects of PA on Learning
What benefits have been researched? Effects of PA on Learning ++Psychological well-being – –Anxiety and depression ++Self-esteem –Overweight and obesity +HDL cholesterol –Blood Pressure ++Skeletal health +Musculoskeletal injuries
Encourage Opportunities for PA Effects of PA on Learning Before school Recess Lunch break Classrooms Physical education After school
What Does the Data Show? Most research addresses two questions: Does PE have a positive effect on academic performance? Does PE take away from academic time?
What Does the Data Show? We’ll share a few studies: California Study Comparing academic & fitness scores of students grades 5, 7 & 9 North Carolina Study Effects of a Classroom-Based Program on PA SPARK Study Effects of PE program on PA and Fitness in elementary students
CA Dept. of Ed Study A California study compared academic and fitness scores of students grades 5, 7 & 9. Results: Schools with more fit students experienced higher gains Higher achievement was associated with higher levels of fitness at each of three grade levels measured Physical activity had beneficial results for academic progress in both low- and high-performing schools
North Carolina Study Title: Effects of a Classroom-Based Program on Physical Activity and On-Task Behavior Purpose: to evaluate the effects in-school PA levels and on- task behavior during academic instruction. Study: K-4th grade students participated in a classroom- based physical activity program called Energizers. Matithew T. Mahar, et al. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 38, pp. 2086-2094, 2006.
North Carolina Study Results found that: Program was effective for increasing daily in-school PA Intervention group took significantly more steps throughout the day Improved on-task behavior during academic instruction Significant improvement especially in the students who were the least on-task
SPARK Study Design (McKenzie, Sallis, Lewis, Rosengard,et al, RQES, 1999) Intervention schools received: Curricula Training On-site follow up, phone/e-support Equipment sets (also provided to control schools) Elementary schools randomized to 3 conditions: 1. SPARK PE instructed by classroom teachers 2. SPARK PE instructed by PE specialists 3. Controls – usual PE
4 better, 1 worse, 3 no difference Increasing PE from 32 to 98 or 109 min/week did not reduce academic performance 3-Year Changes in Percentile Rank Eight comparisons on standardized MAT tests: SPARK Study Design (McKenzie, Sallis, Lewis, Rosengard,et al, RQES, 1999)
Additional Studies Other research studies that have shown a connection between PE/PA and academic achievement Sample: CDC Youth Risk Behavior Survey (2003) http://www.cdc.gov/HealthyYouth/health_and_academics /index.htm
Additional Studies Canadian Study (Shephard, 1996) 546 elementary students Massachusetts Study (Tremarche, et al., 2007) 311 4th graders CDC Study (Carlson et al., 2008) 5,316 K-5 students Findings that achievement is positively affected by PE
Additional Studies Australian Study, (Dwyer et al., 1983) Sample size: 350 5 th graders Michigan Study (Coe et al., 2006) Sample size: 214 5 th graders British Columbia Study (Ahamed et al., 2007) 287 4th-5th students Evidence that PE Does Not Hurt Academics
Summary of Research Key Findings Limitations Source: Active Living Research Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Summary of Peer-Reviewed Research
Strategies to Integrate Activity into Academics Why? When? How?
Did We Reach Our Objectives? Did you learn: The differences between PE and PA Why ample PA is critical to quality PE PE and PA’s relationship to academic achievement Maintaining support for programs by showing the importance and relevance of PE Strategies for linking PE, classroom, and PA
More Information Jeff Mushkin firstname.lastname@example.org Contact SPARK: E-mail: email@example.com Phone: 1-800-sparkpe Register for a SPARK Institute: www.sparkpe.org/institutes.jsp Next Webinar: February 17 th, 3 pm PST