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By: Darryl Jamison Macon County EMS Training Coordinator

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1 By: Darryl Jamison Macon County EMS Training Coordinator
OB/GYN EMERGENCIES By: Darryl Jamison Macon County EMS Training Coordinator

2 Objectives Describe fetal-maternal blood flow and the role of the placenta. Identify the details of the history that should be obtained from an obstetrical patient. Discuss the effects of pregnancy on pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, HTN, and cardiac problems. Define the following terms: Spontaneous abortion; criminal abortion; therapeutic abortion

3 Objectives cont Describe the pathophysiology and management of the following conditions: Ectopic pregnancy Abruptio placenta Placenta previa

4 Objectives cont. Distinguish between pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, eclampsia. Describe management of prolapsed cord. Describe management of breech presentation Describe management of multiple-birth presentation Describe the pathophysiology and management of the following conditions: Postpartum hemorrhage Uterine inversion Uterine rupture

5 Fetal-Maternal Blood flow
Blood flows from the placenta in through the umbilical vein which connects to the inferior vena cava then to the heart Routed around the lungs through the ductus arteriosus, into the aorta and then throughout the baby. Deoxygenated blood is filtered by the liver and then transported to the mother

6 Role of the placenta Provides for exchange of respiratory gases.
Transport of the nutrients Excretion of wastes Transfer of heat The placenta becomes an active endocrine gland, producing several important hormones

7 History Should include: Gravidity—number of pregnancies
Para—number of viable fetus delivered Length of gestation Estimated date of confinement Previous complications with pregnancies When did pain start Sudden or slow in onset Duration, location, radiation Is it regular Spotting Proper prenatal care If active labor, question push or bowel movement

8 Diabetes Patients have to be placed on insulin—medication will pass to the fetus Effects on baby—tend to be larger in size Tend to have trouble maintaining body temp. And subject to hypoglycemia

9 Hypertension Generally speaking bp is lower in pregnancy than non-pregnancy Preexisting hypertension is exacerbated Persistent HTN adversely affects placental size Leading to compromise of fetus and placing mother at risk for CVA or renal failure

10 Cardiac During pregnancy, cardiac output increases up to 30%
Can lead to CHF from preexisting

11 Spontaneous Abortion Commonly called a miscarriage
Occurs of its own accord Occur before the 12th week of pregnancy Many occur within 2 weeks after conception, being mistaken for menstrual cycle

12 Criminal Abortion Attempt to destroy fetus by one whom is not licensed to do so Amateurs Without aseptic techniques Leads to other complications

13 Therapeutic Abortion The pregnancy posed a threat to maternal well-being Judged to medically indicated

14 Ectopic Pregnancy Pathophysiology Predisposing factors—
Implantation of fertilized ovum outside of the uterus. Approximately 1:200 Most common site—fallopian tube Truly a medical emergency Causes extensive bleeding into the abdominal cavity and pelvis Predisposing factors— Previous pelvic infections Pelvic adhesions—previous abdominal surgery Tubal ligations IUD

15 Assessment of ectopic pregnancy
At risk for rapid development of shock Take VS frequently Abdominal—significant lower quadrant tenderness Avoid as much as possiblerupture of ectopic Bleeding can range from spotting  profuse

16 Management Difficult to diagnose
If suspected should care for as any shocky patient Emergent transport

17 Abruptio Placenta Third trimester bleeding
Premature separation of the placenta from the uterine wall. Partial or complete Complete often results in death of fetus Predisposing factors Preeclampsia Maternal HTN Multiparity Abdominal trauma Extremely short umbilical cord Vaginal blood loss is minimal due to blood collecting behind placenta

18 Assessment Have constant, severe abdominal pain
Feels like something is “tearing” Abdomen is very tender Bleeding will be dark in color PMH—abruptio placenta

19 Management COMI Large bore IV’s Rapid transport

20 Placenta Previa Attachment of the placenta that partially or completely covers the internal cervix Begins to bleed as the cervix thins out, spreading the placenta until it tears Precipitated by sexual intercourse or digital vaginal examination

21 Assessment Usually multigravida Third trimester
Most common—painless, bright red bleeding Uterus is soft Management— COMI High flow O2 Large bore IV’s Rapid transport



24 PIH Bp of 140/90 Early stage of disease process
Bp is normally low so 130/80 maybe high

25 Preeclampsia Characterized by: HTN Abnormal weight gain Edema Headache
Protein in urine Epigastric pain Visual disturbances

26 Eclampsia Characterized by the same as pre but includes seizures

27 Supine Hypotensive Syndrome
Occurs in the third trimester Marked decrease in blood flow to the heart due to increase mass in abdominal cavity Compresses on the inferior vena cava thus decreasing the blood flow back to the heart Assessment—be aware of signs of shock and verify previous problems with same Management—place in LLR, treat for shock if other signs of shock are present.

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