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Vivienne Conway, Dr Justin Brown Edith Cowan University, Perth W.A. OZeWAI 2011, Melbourne, Vic.

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Presentation on theme: "Vivienne Conway, Dr Justin Brown Edith Cowan University, Perth W.A. OZeWAI 2011, Melbourne, Vic."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vivienne Conway, Dr Justin Brown Edith Cowan University, Perth W.A. OZeWAI 2011, Melbourne, Vic.

2 First Stage Preliminary Review Preliminary Review of Websites for Accessibility – either for internal audit or preparation for conformance evaluation of audit/accreditation 3 Stages of Website Evaluation Second Stage Compliance Check Conformance Evaluation of Websites for Compliance with Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) A, AA, or AAA Third Stage Audit and Accreditation Full technical audit with or without accreditation, which includes user assessment copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

3 First Stage Preliminary Review Preliminary Review of Websites for Accessibility – either for internal audit or preparation for conformance evaluation of audit/accreditation Skills/Experience Required Basic HTML knowledge Need to know how to ‘view source’ and what they are looking for Basic CSS knowledge What should be in CSS, what should be in the HTML etc. Basic knowledge of online tools CMS editing, ability to turn off CSS, Accessibility tool bar etc. Familiarity with guidelines (e.g. WCAG 2.0 ) Basic knowledge of requirements for people with disabilities and how they use the Internet Basic knowledge of what Assistive Technology is used by people with disabilities and how they use it. E.g. JAWS or NVDA copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

4  1. Initial Visual Inspection  tab through the document from the top to see if you can access all the controls and elements without using the mouse (e.g. Prime Minister’s Contact page: your-pm - You can’t enter your State via the keyboard)http://www.pm.gov.au/contact- your-pm  see if any skip links are visible with keyboard focus and use them to see if they are active  look to see if there are items where it is difficult to locate the keyboard focus and then try it with a mouse to see if the focus is different with a mouse  look to see if the tabbing order is logical copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

5  see if images have alternative text (hover over) and if the choice of text makes sense (not dependent upon surrounding text)  check the link text to make sure that it is unique and that it is not generic such as ‘click here’. Make sure that if a general term such as ‘read more’ is used, that it is within the paragraph and not on a separate line.  use the mouse to see if the items receiving focus are shown differently with the mouse than with keyboard controls copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

6  Colour  Look at the use of colour on the page: ◦ does there appear to be sufficient colour contrast? ◦ are there any occurrences where colour alone is used to show links or other features? Are additional cues such as underlining used? ◦ do the borders on any controls such as buttons have sufficient colour contrast  Text Size  Can you increase the text size either with Ctrl++, or zoom, to 200% without having to scroll side to side to see the text copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

7  Forms  If there are forms, can you tab through them and select items from any drop-down lists with the down arrow or space bar for radio buttons and check boxes  If there are forms, enter incorrect information to ensure appropriate error message is given. Also, if the information is of a financial or legal nature, are you given an opportunity to change the information before submitting? copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

8  Links and Keyboard Traps  Follow the links and see if they take you to a new window or tab. If they do, can you get back to the home page by either: ◦ a home page link or breadcrumb ◦ the back arrow ◦ a common approach such as Alt+F to exit a new window ◦ If not, is there an explanation as to how to get out ◦ Does the link tell you it is opening a new window?  Are there any links to PDF Files without alternatives and/or warnings?  When you click on a link, does it do anything unexpected without warning the user?  Tables  If there are any tables, can you tab through the table in a logical or horizontal manner?  Is the table used for tabular information or merely for layout purposes? copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

9  Graphic Images  Are there any graphic CAPTCHA’s? If so, is a non-graphic choice provided?  Are there any animations, self-starting slide shows/banners, audio? If so, are there provisions to pause, stop or hide the images?  Are there any images of text? If so, if they are not logo’s or similar, do they have alternative text?  Multimedia Content  If there are any videos, are they captioned and is a transcript provided?  Are there transcripts for audio-only content?  If an item is provided in video-only format is it captioned, and is an alternative version provided? copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

10 Second Stage Compliance Check Conformance Evaluation of Websites for Compliance with Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG 2.0) A, AA, or AAA Skills/Experience Required Intermediate HTML and CSS knowledge Need to know how to fix some problems such as associating a label with a form control Intermediate knowledge of online tools More advanced use of the CMS, ability to assess the results of automated accessibility tools, Greater experience with guidelines (e.g. WCAG 2.0 ) Ability to understand W3C documents such as “How to Meet...”, “Success Criteria”, “Sufficient Techniques”, “Failures” Manual assessment skills to check compliance with Guidelines Intermediate knowledge of requirements for people with disabilities and how they use the Internet Intermediate knowledge of what Assistive Technology is used by people with disabilities and how they use it. E.g. JAWS or NVDA, voice-activation software, etc. copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

11  Only start this step after completing all of the Preliminary Check items.  Use an automated tool (or preferably 2 of these tools) that checks every page and can be configured for the level you require e.g. WCAG 2.0 AA  Check the results of the tools – look for trends.  Whole website scan tool can locate problems you might miss manually. ◦ E.g. SortSite is good for locating areas where there is an ONCLICK without an ONKEYPRESS complementary command – can create a keyboard trap copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

12  Manually assess individual pages that are: ◦ A template ◦ Typical for the website ◦ Include forms or other user interaction such as ‘Contact Us’ forms, registration forms etc. ◦ Contain images and multimedia elements ◦ Form part of ‘Complete Processes’ – a series of steps that need to be completed in order to accomplish an activity – such as a registration or shopping cart activity ◦ Form part of a ‘Key Functionality’ can be generally regarded as important functionality for users or visitors copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

13  How do you do this?  Use the WCAG 2.0 Guidelines, removing any from a level which is not within the scope i.e. AAA if that’s not part of your requirement.  Use the Guidelines, Sufficient Techniques, Advisory Techniques and Failures to guide your assessment copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

14  Use automated tools on these single pages to assist you, for example: ◦ aDesigner to check for vision problems – good for locating fixed and too small font sizes, finding redundant text information, reading order ◦ Web Accessibility Toolbar (WAT) to check for  code validation, structure, forms/fieldset, colour contrast, view images for alt text and remove image to see if what remains meets requirements, list links to see if text is appropriate, look for language declaration, titles, skip links etc. copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

15  Screenreader (e.g. JAWS, NVDA) ◦ tab through the document to make sure all elements are read out ◦ Access the controls (without mouse) and make sure there are no keyboard traps ◦ Check the captions for video, audio transcriptions, images for see if all necessary alternatives are keyboard accessible copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

16  WAVE (Firefox extension or from WAT)  Structure, forms/labels, alternative text, lists  FIREBUG – Firefox extension  An additional tool that you can use to check other results and locate line number and coding  TotalValidator  T.A.W. (now has a Beta version of the WCAG 2.0 tool but only for the online feature)  Functional Accessibility Evaluator (FAE) from the University of Illinois, now checks to WCAG 2.0 copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

17  If you claim a website meets WCAG 2.0 AA, you are saying that it meets all of A and AA for every page.  You can make a Statement of Partial Conformance due to third-party content outside of your control  Need to insert a list of web content technologies relied on  Conformance statement can be included in the metadata  Examples: WCAG20/conformance.html#uc-conformance- claims-head copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

18 Third Stage Audit and Accreditation Full technical audit with or without accreditation, which includes user assessment Skills/Experience Required Intermediate-advanced HTML and CSS knowledge knowledge of why coding is causing a problem how to find the error or problem in the code (understanding site structure and interaction between html, CSS and JavaScript files) knowledge of what needs to be done to correct the problem Intermediate knowledge of online tools Ability to use both manual and automated assessments along with use testing to audit/whole website standard Expert understanding of guidelines (e.g. WCAG 2.0 ) Ability to apply guidelines including Sufficient Techniques to make critical audit decisions on compliance copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

19 Expert ability to test and award compliance/accreditation status Includes reputation, skill and ability to justify level awarded Manual assessment skills to check compliance with Guidelines Intermediate knowledge of requirements for people with disabilities and how they use the Internet Intermediate knowledge of what Assistive Technology is used by people with disabilities and how they use it. e.g. JAWS or NVDA, voice- activation software, etc. copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

20  You are putting your reputation on the line and saying that this website meets all of the requirements for the level  Need to use a reputable accreditation procedure– not just copying and pasting the W3C Checkmarks  Meet the W3C Conformance Claim requirements  Sampling Methods – under review by Evaluation Methodology Task Force – two choices copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

21  Use of individual or team approach ◦ Paper by Giorgio Brajnik which looked at the number of novice assessors compared with expert assessors – team of 3 experts will usually pick up all errors compared with 14 novices  Involving people with disabilities ◦ Highly recommended by W3C, although not a requirement ◦ Can pick up items which other methods do not and also can make some good usability recommendations copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

22  Items which cause an automatic failure for any page: (All A level Requirements)  Audio Control  No keyboard Trap  Pause, Stop, Hide  Three flashes or Below Threshold copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

23  WCAG 2.0 Guidelines  How to Meet WCAG 2.0  Conformance Statements: verview.php#conformance-reqs verview.php#conformance-reqs  Statement of Partial compliance: /#conformance-partial /#conformance-partial  Web Accessibility National Transition Strategy: g-2-implementation/index.html g-2-implementation/index.html copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

24  It is important to understand how the different tools work  Where you need to use the tool and the purpose for the evaluation  3 Classes: ◦ Local machine – domestic, client-side ◦ Cloud-based – they do the work and send results ◦ Enterprise e.g. IBM Rational Policy Tester copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

25  Client-side tools: e.g. Total Validator, SortSite ◦ Easy to use ◦ Have difficulty with proxy and firewall settings ◦ Ties up the machine and connection while crawling the site ◦ Can run in the domain (for internal auditing) ◦ Can’t have a static site – needs to use a resolvable IP Address copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

26  Cloud-based tools ◦ They do the work and send the results to you ◦ Costly - # pages per month within a flat fee ◦ One said I’d need to pay for additional servers to do my PhD research ◦ Duty-Cycle – how many pages can they handle per month – some large organisations in Australia have sites with more than 500,000 pages and numerous CMS’s – not possible to crawl it in one go copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

27  Enterprise ◦ E.g. IBM Rational Policy Tester ◦ Large overhead - cost, server etc. ◦ Has to have a dedicated web server set-up ◦ Expensive ◦ Large commitment to training  Black-boxing a website ◦ Necessary if you need to prove the state of the website when it was audited ◦ Captures and mirrors the web pages for proof and compliance claims copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

28  Forms: ◦ Does not have a label, but has a title (Passes via H65) ◦ Doesn’t have either (fails G131: 1.3.1, 2.4.6, and 3.3.2) ◦ Has a label which is not programmatically determinable (e.g. Not linked with a ‘label for’ instruction) – F68 (fails and ) ◦ See H44 (1.1.1., , 3.3.2, and 4.1.2): Using label elements to associate text labels with form controls ◦ Also need to look at Guideline (H71): Groups of form controls using fieldset and legend elements copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

29  Current debate as to whether you can actually create an accessible CAPTCHA  Prime Minister’s website: ◦ You don’t know there is a CAPTCHA there until you try to submit a comment to the PM via the Contact page: ◦ Turn off CSS and you will see: copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

30  Web Accessibility Tool Bar – Vision Australia or Paciello Group: t-ie-about.html t-ie-about.html  aDesigner: free download, single page for blind or low-vision from eclipse (DOM): /aDesigner/ /aDesigner/  Total Validator: free download for basic assessment or paid versions: / copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

31  WAVE: from WebAim free extension for Mozilla Firefox, does single page link for FireFox add-on https://addons.mozilla.org/en- US/firefox/addon/wave-toolbar/ US/firefox/addon/wave-toolbar/  FireBug: free extension for Mozilla Firefox, single page  SortSite: low cost – does whole website: (free trial – download, online, basic and professional versions) copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

32  JAWS: screen-reader: from Freedom Scientific (free 40 minute-mode) s/jaws/jaws-downloads.asp s/jaws/jaws-downloads.asp  NVDA: screen-reader (free download)  TAW3online (free online tool for WCAG 2.0 Beta version):  Functional Accessibility Evaluator (FAE) from University of Illinois: free online tool: copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

33  HTTrack Website Copier for black-boxing a website available free from  YouTube clips worth watching:  Phillip Patston, Director of Diversity New Zealand: Go&feature=youtu.be Go&feature=youtu.be  Karen Plimmer, Adaptive Technology Instructor G9bo&feature=related G9bo&feature=related copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

34  Decide why you want to evaluate a website and that will help you decide what approach to use ◦ Are you ‘just checking’ prior to having a more thorough audit completed? ◦ Are you needing to make a compliance statement for your organisation or to include in your accessibility statement? ◦ Are you completing an audit and/or accreditation?  Choose tools and approaches that suit your task. copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

35 Headphones to listen to the page via a screenreader A computer with a fast and reliable network connection Perspiration and patience Time!!! This is not a quick and easy task Use the keyboard to navigate through the page copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011

36  Vivienne Conway    Dr. Justin Brown  copyright V.Conway & J.Brown, 2011


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