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1 Blueprint Planning in California: Forging Consensus on Metropolitan Development Elisa Barbour and Michael Teitz Public Policy Institute of California.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Blueprint Planning in California: Forging Consensus on Metropolitan Development Elisa Barbour and Michael Teitz Public Policy Institute of California."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Blueprint Planning in California: Forging Consensus on Metropolitan Development Elisa Barbour and Michael Teitz Public Policy Institute of California

2 2 Why Study Blueprint Planning? Major innovation in regional planning in California Major innovation in regional planning in California Emerged independently in largest metropolitan areas from late 1990s Emerged independently in largest metropolitan areas from late 1990s Now being systematized through state support Now being systematized through state support Blueprint Planning Program Housing bond

3 3 What is Blueprint Planning? Consensus-building process to define a preferred scenario for regional development Consensus-building process to define a preferred scenario for regional development Integrates transportation, land use, and environmental planning, regionally and locally Integrates transportation, land use, and environmental planning, regionally and locally Relies on Relies on Scenario modeling of measurable outcomes Broad-based “visioning” process Implemented through incentives Implemented through incentives Promotes local action with regional benefits

4 4 PPIC’s Blueprint Research Project For inter-agency advisory group and Blueprint Learning Network For inter-agency advisory group and Blueprint Learning Network Focus on four largest metro areas Focus on four largest metro areas Seeking “best practices” and lessons from blueprint planning Seeking “best practices” and lessons from blueprint planning Research based on 60 key informant interviews and a survey of planning directors Research based on 60 key informant interviews and a survey of planning directors

5 5 We Studied Four Major Blueprint Processes Association of Bay Area Governments, Metropolitan Transportation Commission et al. Association of Bay Area Governments, Metropolitan Transportation Commission et al. Smart Growth Strategy/Regional Livability Footprint Project ABAG’s policy-based projections Sacramento Area Council of Governments Sacramento Area Council of Governments Sacramento Region Blueprint San Diego Association of Governments San Diego Association of Governments Regional Comprehensive Plan Southern California Association of Governments Southern California Association of Governments Southern California Compass Project/2 Percent Strategy

6 6 Overview The origins of blueprint planning The origins of blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Visioning and scenario adoption Implementation and assessment Challenges in larger regions Challenges in larger regions Conclusions Conclusions

7 7 Traditional Planning System: Fractured Authority, Emerging Conflicts The post-WWII planning system fractured growth management at regional scale The post-WWII planning system fractured growth management at regional scale State: infrastructure and environment Locals: land use Conflicts emerged by the 1980s Conflicts emerged by the 1980s Environmental and economic goals “Pro-growth” and “anti-growth” forces

8 8 Blueprint Planning as a Framework for Coordination Fiscal and environmental constraint require coordinated actions Fiscal and environmental constraint require coordinated actions Land use and housing policy are key levers Land use and housing policy are key levers Presents a governance challenge Presents a governance challenge Collaborative regional planning can Collaborative regional planning can Match the scale of social and environmental outcomes Reconcile interests Re-connect land use, transportation, and environmental planning

9 9 COG/MPOs Are the Vehicle for Blueprint Planning Collaborative, consensus-building institutions Collaborative, consensus-building institutions Best connection among land use, transportation, and environmental authority Best connection among land use, transportation, and environmental authority Blend systems focus (MPOs) with broad participation (COGs) Blend systems focus (MPOs) with broad participation (COGs) But no land use control, and redistributing resources a challenge But no land use control, and redistributing resources a challenge

10 10 Overview The origins of blueprint planning The origins of blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Visioning and scenario adoption Implementation and assessment Challenges in larger regions Challenges in larger regions Conclusions Conclusions

11 11 Blueprint Planning Considers Land Use Regionally… Focuses on COG/MPO population and land use projections Focuses on COG/MPO population and land use projections But considering land use regionally alters the traditional relationship But considering land use regionally alters the traditional relationship Models land use alternatives to improve outcomes Models land use alternatives to improve outcomes

12 12 …And Requires Broad Consensus-Building Interacting land use and transportation requires a broad conversation Interacting land use and transportation requires a broad conversation Smart growth strategies depend on local support Smart growth strategies depend on local support Has prompted broad-based, multi-stage “visioning” processes Has prompted broad-based, multi-stage “visioning” processes

13 13 Best Practices in Preparation Stage Build technical capacity Build technical capacity Parcel-based maps and data Interactive modeling (e.g. PLACE 3 S) Build institutional capacity Build institutional capacity COG/MPO board commitment Integrated decisionmaking: COG/MPO, stakeholders, local planners and officials Identify values, objectives, and performance measures Identify values, objectives, and performance measures

14 14 Best Practices in Visioning Stage Build a preferred scenario in stages from local to regional scale Build a preferred scenario in stages from local to regional scale Workshop in each community Local planners engaged at all stages Consider trade-offs among alternatives Consider trade-offs among alternatives

15 15 Modeled Outcomes Differed Across Regions Bay Area: difficult trade-offs when accommodating all projected housing need Bay Area: difficult trade-offs when accommodating all projected housing need Los Angeles area: substantial air quality benefits Los Angeles area: substantial air quality benefits Sacramento area: dramatic benefits on multiple indicators Sacramento area: dramatic benefits on multiple indicators

16 16 Mapping the “Preferred Scenario”

17 17 Best Practices in Adoption Stage COG/MPO adopts preferred scenario COG/MPO adopts preferred scenario Integrated decisionmaking ensures no surprises Integrated decisionmaking ensures no surprises Public support builds momentum for change Public support builds momentum for change Manageable gap between preferred scenario and current plans Manageable gap between preferred scenario and current plans

18 18 Overview The origins of blueprint planning The origins of blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Visioning and scenario adoption Implementation and assessment Challenges in larger regions Challenges in larger regions Conclusions Conclusions

19 19 Blueprint Plans Implemented Through Incentives Requires strong institutional ties between transportation and land use Requires strong institutional ties between transportation and land use COG/MPOs have directed regional funds as incentives COG/MPOs have directed regional funds as incentives Process requires new criteria for allocating resources Process requires new criteria for allocating resources Can be contentious Produces a dilemma

20 20 Implementation Strategies Target priority development areas Target priority development areas Develop criteria for prioritizing resources Develop criteria for prioritizing resources Direct regional resources to priority areas Direct regional resources to priority areas Technical assistance Competitive grants Condition new investment

21 21 How to Turn Blueprint Planning Into an Ongoing Process? Coordinate planning processes Coordinate planning processes Ongoing, iterative planning Align RHNA, RTP, General Plan cycles Blueprint-style RHNA Develop sub-regional strategies Develop sub-regional strategies Corridor planning Coordinate with CTCs/CMAs, sub-regional COGs Incorporate key ingredients Incorporate key ingredients System focus + broad participation Performance criteria + flexible implementation

22 22 Best Practices in Assessment Produce “regional indicators” reports to evaluate progress Produce “regional indicators” reports to evaluate progress Integrate with RTP performance measures Integrate with RTP performance measures May help resolve conflicts over directing resources May help resolve conflicts over directing resources

23 23 Overview The origins of blueprint planning The origins of blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Visioning and scenario adoption Implementation and assessment Challenges in larger regions Challenges in larger regions Conclusions Conclusions

24 24 Larger Regions Face Organizational Challenges Much harder to have “one regional conversation” Much harder to have “one regional conversation” Can devolve to sub-regional scale, but must retain link between systems focus and broad participation Can devolve to sub-regional scale, but must retain link between systems focus and broad participation How to nest plans at different scales? How to nest plans at different scales?

25 25 Planners in Larger Regions Less Familiar with Blueprint Processes… Not familiarSomewhat familiarVery familiar Los Angeles and SF Bay Areas Sacramento and San Diego Areas Planning directors (%)

26 26 …And Less Engaged in Blueprint Implementation Los AngelesSan Francisco SacramentoSan Diego Planning directors (%)

27 27 Overview The origins of blueprint planning The origins of blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Stages in blueprint planning Visioning and scenario adoption Implementation and assessment Challenges in larger regions Challenges in larger regions Conclusions Conclusions

28 28 Blueprint Planning Shows Way Forward… We can’t yet determine outcomes on the ground We can’t yet determine outcomes on the ground Changing how people see urban development Changing how people see urban development Reinventing growth management Reinventing growth management Fits political reality Fits political reality

29 29 …But Substantial Obstacles Remain COG/MPOs have institutional weaknesses COG/MPOs have institutional weaknesses State support is necessary State support is necessary Development in greenfield areas has been neglected Development in greenfield areas has been neglected Environmental planning lags Environmental planning lags

30 30 Ingredients of Effective Regional Strategies Align and coordinate state, regional, and local incentives, priorities, and plans Align and coordinate state, regional, and local incentives, priorities, and plans Provide real incentives for local governments to participate Provide real incentives for local governments to participate Develop an ongoing process, not a static vision Develop an ongoing process, not a static vision System focus + broad participation Performance criteria + flexible implementation

31 31 Thank you Please continue exploring PPIC’s website at


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