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Treatment and Prevention of Opportunistic Infections: Options for the Caribbean Region Excerpted from presentation by Jonathan E. Kaplan, M.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Treatment and Prevention of Opportunistic Infections: Options for the Caribbean Region Excerpted from presentation by Jonathan E. Kaplan, M.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Treatment and Prevention of Opportunistic Infections: Options for the Caribbean Region Excerpted from presentation by Jonathan E. Kaplan, M.D.

2 What is the most frequent serious opportunistic infection in HIV-infected adults in the Caribbean region? A..Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis B..Tuberculosis C..Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) D..Cryptosporidium spp. infection E..Hookworm infection

3 Can you confirm the diagnosis of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in your practice setting? A.Yes B. No C. Don’t know

4 What clinical specimens are collected to diagnose Pneumocysis infection? Expectorated sputum Induced sputum Bronchial washings Lung biopsy Blood cultures

5 How you confirm cryptococcal infection in your practice setting? A.India Ink stain B.Culture C.Cryptococcal antigen test

6 Chemoprophylaxis against Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP- SMZ) can also reduce the incidence of: A.Non-typhoidal Salmonella disease B.Toxoplasmic encephalitis C.Bacterial pneumonia D.Isosporiasis E.All of the above

7 Natural Course of HIV Infection and Common Complications CD4+ cell Count Asymptomatic HZV OHL OC PCP CMV, MAC TB TB Months Years After HIV Infection Acute HIV infectionsyndrome Relative level of Plasma HIV-RNA Relative level of Plasma HIV-RNA CD4+ T cells

8 Caribbean Guidelines for the Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Adolescents Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus


10 Mucocutaneous Candidiasis: Treatment Oral candidiasis (thrush) Esophageal candidiasis Clotrimazole troches, 10 mg 5 times/day for 7 days Fluconazole, 3-6 mg/kg/day for 1-2 weeks. Chronic maintenance therapy suggested for several months (fluconazole, 200 mg/day)



13 Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) Pneumonia (PCP) History: subacute onset (days to weeks) of shortness of breath, dry cough, fever Physical exam: tachypnea and hypoxemia CXR typically shows bilateral, diffuse, interstitial pulmonary infiltrates Diagnosis difficult: requires bronchoscopy or sputum induction and special stains Treatment: TMP-SMZ (cotrimoxazole, CTX), mg/kg/day for 3-4 weeks For severe cases, add prednisone, 40 mg/day tapering over 3 weeks Chronic maintenance therapy required (CTX 160/800 mg/day)


15 AFB Smear AFB (shown in red) are tubercle bacilli

16 Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Persons Causes 11% of HIV-related deaths worldwide Can occur at any CD4 count Clinical presentation increasingly atypical as CD4 count declines In resource-poor areas, a significant percentage of newly-diagnosed HIV-infected persons will be found to have active TB Should always consider TB in an HIV-infected persons with a pulmonary infiltrate



19 Bacterial Pneumonia in HIV- Infected Persons About 8 times more common in HIV- infected vs non-HIV-infected persons Pneumococcal bacteremia about 100 times more common Can occur at any CD4 count Common etiologies: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus Treatment: penicillin/ampicillin +/- aminoglycoside; or cephalosporin


21 Cryptococcal Meningitis History: severe headache, fever, mental disturbance Physical exam: no focal neurological signs Differential: bacterial, TB LP: high opening pressure, elevated protein, low glucose, organisms Treatment: amphotericin x 2 wks, then fluconazole x 8-10 weeks Chronic maintenance therapy: fluconazole, 200mg/day


23 Cerebral toxoplasmosis History: headache, fever, confusion, motor weakness Physical exam: focal neurological signs Diagnosis: demonstration of multiple mass lesions on CT or MRI Treatment: pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine plus folinic acid for 8 weeks Chronic maintenance therapy: same

24 WHO Integrated Management of Adolescent and Adult Illness Consists of 4 modules: Acute Care, Chronic HIV Care with ARV Treatment, General Principles of Good Chronic Care, Palliative Care Posted on WHO website in Dec 2003 (available at Acute Care: syndromic treatment of illness - appropriate for all patients, but with attention to HIV; - oriented to Health Center level

25 Immune Reconstitution Syndromes Tuberculosis (“paradoxical reaction”) Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) Toxoplasmosis Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Cryptococcosis Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML)

26 Caribbean Guidelines for the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Adults and Children Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

27 What diseases may be prevented? Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) Cerebral toxoplasmosis Tuberculosis Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease Disease caused by S. pneumoniae

28 Prophylaxis against PCP Survival benefit demonstrated; first recommended in 1989 Eligibility criteria: CD4 count <200 cells/uL or <14% or history of oral candidiasis Drug of choice: TMP-SMZ (CTX) 160/800 (1 double-strength tab) qd

29 Cotrimoxazole Prophylaxis Can prevent: Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia Cerebral toxoplasmosis Disease caused by S. pneumoniae Disease caused by non-typhoid Salmonella Nocardiosis Isosporiasis Malaria

30 CTX Prophylaxis: Other Advantages Cheap ($1 US/month) Easy to administer: only contraindication is history of sulfa allergy Main adverse reaction is skin rash, but uncommon in dark-skinned persons Clinical monitoring is adequate Adherence is not critical Experience taking daily medication; good preparation for ART

31 Isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) International “best practice” If skin testing available, may reserve for persons with positive tuberculin skin test (> 5 mm induration) Otherwise, IPT suggested for all HIV-positive patients living in countries with high prevalence of TB IPT also suggested for HIV-positive persons exposed to case of active TB Give isoniazid (INH), 300 mg per day for 9 mo EXCLUSION OF ACTIVE TB IS CRITICAL

32 Preventing Disease Recurrence: OIs that Require Preventive Therapy for Life PCP Cerebral toxoplasmosis Systemic (deep) fungal infections: cryptococcosis, histoplasmosis Disseminated MAC infection CMV disease

33 Prophylaxis against First Episode of Opportunistic Disease in HIV- exposed/infected Infants and Children Pathogen Pneumocystis jiroveci Mycobacterium tuberculosis Indication HIV-exposed/infected children 1-12 months; older HIV-infected children with CD4 < 15% Contact with person with TB Drug Cotrimoxazole Isoniazid

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