2Who are we?Find someone who…Mnemonic technique in action
3Essential Questions What does the IB psych course look like? What are my responsibilities as an IB Psychology student?What is the definition of psychology?What are the main areas of psychology and how has it developed over time?
4Course expectations On the card, write down: 1)Your name, and some important information about yourself you feel I should know?2) What you expect to gain from this course?3)What you think your responsibilities are as a psychology student?4)What personal learning strategies will you use to ensure you do well in this course?
5What's psychology all about? On a piece of binder paper:-1)Write a definition of psychology2)Write down three things that you know about how we behave3)Write down how you know those things?You can work in pairs
6What is psychology?In threes – discuss what this microscope symbolizes, and summarize on the samesheetExtension activity : sketch this diagram
7What is psychology?Psychology is the systematic study of behaviour and mental processes. Psychology has its roots in both the natural and social sciences, leading to a variety of research designs and applications, and providing a unique approach to understanding modern society.IB psychology examines the interaction of biological, cognitive and sociocultural influences on human behaviour, thereby adopting an integrative approach.Understanding how psychological knowledge is generated, developed and applied enables students to achieve a greater understanding of themselves and appreciate the diversity of human behaviour.The ethical concerns raised by the methodology and application of psychological research are key considerations in IB psychology.
8Classroom scavenger hunt Look at the posters and articles in 3018 and answer the following:What are some of the important questions surrounding the study of cognition?What are some of the functions of the frontal lobe of the brain?What are our five senses?How many neurons are there in the brain?What is the myeline sheath?What are two key social psychological questions?What is abnormal psychology?How might brain imaging be used in criminal cases?What is at the middle of every neuron?Who was the 1st psychological humanist?Name two early child psychologists.What are “smart” drugs?What is cognition?What part of the brain might shrink after PTSD?
11What Psychology isn’t…. Open your textbooks to page 8 and read the section ‘Pop Psych & Psychobabble’ and answer these questionsHow is the term pop psych used?What is psychobabble?What is the difference between scientific psychology and pop psychology?What type of psychology will we be studying on this course?
12Some pop psych myths…. Myth #1 : We Only Use 10% of our Brains Myth #2 : Human Memory Works like a Video CameraMyth #3 : Opposites AttractMyth #4: Full Moons Cause Crimes and CrazinessMyth #5: People with Schizophrenia Have Multiple Personalities
13The History of Psychology Monday: group poster production and researchTuesday & Thursday: mini presentations on the postersThursday: paragraph summary – minor assessment
14The History of Psychology Where did psychology come from?philosophyDefinition of psychologyHow did psychology develop?physicsWhen didpsychologystart?1879psychoanalysiscognitivebiologybiologicalBehaviorismsociocultural1800ss1940s present
15APA format citations….Check your planners (p68) for information about APA formatting. Here’s an example: Hill, G. (2001). Psychology Through Diagrams. Oxford: Oxford University Press You can also use – this is a piece of software which creates references for you
16Writing a summary…Your task is to write two paragraphs (approximately 300 words total) the first paragraph should be a summary of the History of Psychology based on the work we have done as a class:Make sure you have a clear topic sentence at the beginning of your paragraph which states what you will write about in that paragraphThe paragraph on the history of psychology is a ‘sequential paragraph’ - Start with the earliest influences on psychology and then take it through the three main levels of analysis studied today (about 200 words)The second paragraph should be a reflection on the first two weeks of psychology in terms of the process of completing the poster task and presentation and your general feelings about the course at this stage. (about 100 words)You can write the paragraphs in MS word, and then to
19Quick Quiz What is the definition of psychology? What date is commonly seen as the start of modern psychology?State how Philosophy has influenced PsychologyGive one major contribution from the field of Biology to the psychologyThe psychoanalysts emphasized the importance of the u__________s mind when attempting to understand human behaviorName a famous Psychologist from the psychodynamic approach to understanding behaviorWhat did the behaviorists emphasize the need to study?What are the three main levels of analysis in modern psychology?When did cognitive psychology begin to develop?What are the differences between the three levels of analysis?
21DEFINTION: Science(from Latin: scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise of gathering knowledge about the world and organizing and condensing that knowledge into testable laws and theories. (Wilson, 1999)
22Research in Psychology Psychology is one of the human sciences, so psychology uses empirical (scientific) methodology in order to gather data about behaviorQuestion – looking at the history of psychology which areas do you think use the scientific method?Psychologists apply the scientific method to the study of behavior – but it is not without its problems……..
23Chocolate increases cognitive performance A West Virginia professor has good news for chocoholics -- eating chocolate improves memory, reaction time and cognitive ability.In 2006 Dr. Bryan Raudenbush of Wheeling Jesuit University led the study, "Effects of Chocolate Consumption on Enhancing Cognitive Performance," Reliable Plant reported. He found that subjects who had consumed either milk chocolate or dark chocolate 15 minutes before they were tested performed better than those given carob or nothing at all."These findings provide support for nutrient release via chocolate consumption to enhance cognitive performance," Raudenbush said.
24Carrying out psychological research So now in groups, imagine you want to carry out an experiment to investigate the effect of ‘chocolate on STM performance’How would you carry out research to find out about this?
25Short-term MemorySelective attention determines what information moves from sensory memory to short-term memory. STM is most often stored as sounds, especially in recalling words, but may be stored as images. STM can be transferred to LTM though rehearsal.Limited capacity and duration: Works like RAM memory in computers; provides a working space. Is thought to be 7 bits in length, that is, we normally only remember 7 items (Miller, 1956).Let’s try the STM Visual Memory Task to see if this is true. – You have 1 minuteto look at the following picture and remember as many objects as possible.
27Visual Short-term Memory Now write down the names of all the objects you can remember.How many objects did you remember?
28Evaluation in Psychology MCEGGenderEqual no of M & FPPs?Can results beGeneralised?MethodologyCultureControls?Variables?Reliability (is it replicable/ isit a consistent measure?)?Validity? (does it measureWhat it is supposed to measure?)Ecological andCross cultural) ?EthicsFrom whatculture arethe PPs?Is it generalisable?Are PPs protectedfrom psychologicaland physical harm?Informed consent & debreifing?APA Guidelines followed?
29Points to consider when evaluating research Is the study based on a representative group of people (sample)?Was the study conducted in a laboratory or in a natural setting?Where what the participants where asked to do far from real life?Are the findings of the study supported by the findings of other studies?Do the findings have a practical relevance?Ethical considerations
30Weekly Lesson Objectives Examine the schema theory from the cognitive level of analysis and a key study from this fieldDevelop your understanding of experimental and non experiential methods in psychologyPractice unpacking question and writing a response to an 8 mark SAQ question
31Sampling Methods What are participants? What is a representative sample?What is opportunity sampling & what are its strengths and weaknesses?What is a self selected sample and what are its strengths & weaknesses?What is snowball sampling and what are its strengths and weaknesses?What is random sampling & what are its strengths and weaknesses?What is stratified sampling & what are its strengths and weaknesses?
32APA (American Psychological Association) Ethical Guidelines Why are ethical guidelines particularly important when carrying out psychological research?What is informed consent and why is it important?What is debriefing and why is it important?What is the right to withdraw and why is it important?What is participant confidentiality and why is it important?What is protection from psychological and physical harm and why is it important?**use examples to enhance your explanation of these ethical guidelines**
33Reliability & Validity Why should we consider whether research has applications?What is cross cultural validity?What is ecological validity?What is reliability?**use examples to enhance your explanation of reliability and validity**
34Six questions to ask when evaluating research Is the study based on a representative group of people (sample)?Was the study conducted in a laboratory or in a natural setting?Where what the participants where asked to do far from real life?Are the findings of the study supported by the findings of other studies?Do the findings have a practical relevance?Ethical considerations**use examples to enhance your explanation of these questions**
35Research in Cognitive Psychology Copy the picture of a chair that the previous person has drawn…This is called serial reproduction… it changes… and our existing schemas influence these changesNow read the story on page 83 out loud…This is called repeated reproduction..
36Research Methods: Quick quiz What type of relationship between variables does an experiment aim to establish?What does IV and DV stand for? and what relationship between these is examined in an experiment?What is a hypothesis?Give one strength and one limitation of laboratory experimentsWhat is the difference between a field and laboratory experiment?Explain what is meant by demand characteristicsWhat are confounding variables, and why are they a problem for experiments?What is the difference between a positive and negative correlation?What is one of the main weaknesses of correlational studies?What is one of the strengths of qualitative research?What is a strength and a limitation of participant observations?How is a structured interview different from a unstructured interview?What are some of the limitations of interviews?What does triangulation mean?What is a case study?
37Key evaluation point: Culture Culture can be defined as the human made part of the living environment. It refers to shared values. Human beings create culture and are also influenced by it.(It is both subjective – attitudes, beliefs norms & objective – literature, poetry, cooking pots, weapons)In the psychology cultural bias can occur in may ways: Researchers/ theorists may ignore the influence of culture or see all of human life through the perspective of one culture.
38Cultural considerations in psychology Moghaddam (1993) Humans have an ‘interactive’ relationship with culture – we shape culture and we are also shaped by itJahoda (1978) believes that ‘Cultural Evolution’ rather than ‘Biological Evolution’ the reason for our progress and civilization todayThe danger is that many Psychologists adopt the ‘universal man’ assumption – We are all the same – culture does not influence our behaviourSmith & Bond (1998) found that Psychology is Ethnocentric (western centred)– they reviewed textbooks and found that only 10% of the world is sampled in psychological researchCultural relativists believe culture is important vs. absolutists believe that our biology most important in determining our behavior
39Most scientific research is carried out in the west…..
40Triandis (1990) ‘dimensions of cultural diversity’ Differences between cultures, that can be seen in terms of:1) Cultural complexityThe more complex/ industrialised/technological the culture, the more people must pay attention to time – west – time is linear, eastern cultures - circular2) Individualistic (independent) (behaviour based on likes & dislikes, identity defined by personal choices) vs. collectivist (interdependent) (saving face, self as an extension to the group, identity defined by the characteristics of the group) dimensions
41Triandis(1990) dimensions of cultural diversity 3) Tight (e.g. Japan, Korea - homogenous) vs. loose cultures (UK, America – multi-cultural)4) In addition to these, Triandis also discusses the more specific dimensions:emotional control vs. emotional expressivenesscontact vs. non contactHorizontal vs. vertical relationshipsEthnocentric research does not take these differences into account
42Culture: Quick Quiz – in pairs What is culture?What does Moghaddam (1993) say about an ‘interactive relationship’ with culture?What is Jahoda (1978) referring to when he mentions ‘Cultural evolution’?What did Smith & Bond (1998) discover about psychology textbooks? How does this relate to ethnocentrism?Give an example of an independent culture and an interdependent cultureWhat is the main difference between independent and interdependent cultures?What explanation did people from independent and interdependent cultures give for the fishes behavior in last lessons study? Explain why this is soWhat differences did Marcus & Kitayama find between American and Japanese students descriptions of themselves? What did they sight as some of the reasons for these differences?In what countries is most of the research carried out in psychology? Why might this be a problem?Do you think that psychologists should be aware of culture?why?