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Patricia Engel & Katja Sterflinger

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1 Patricia Engel & Katja Sterflinger
Ethylene Oxide Residues in Fumigated Books - a First Result of the Project Men and Books : EU grant / Patricia Engel & Katja Sterflinger

2 In every archive/library in Europe we find - microorganisms - acidic paper - ink corrosion - vegetabil tanned leather Horn I conference 2011 confirmed the need for research in these subjects and defined even more urgent research subjects

3 Mould on paper, leather, siels, etc.

4 Reasons New infestation Old infestation Environment not clean enough
Environment too wet Environment too warm Microclimate Old infestation

5 Recommendation for the museum/library/archive
Good, i.e. individual house keeping policy Stop sorce: Renovation of building / wet areas etc. Cleaning of books by conservators or staff advised by conservators (health and safety measures!) Repacking Regular control in future - climate monitoring etc.

6 Active measures Dry cleaning (HEPA Filter) Alcohol Gamma rays
Energy Ethylene oxide But ethylene oxide treatment of paper is not allowed anymore in the EU since 1st September 2006. from 1st September 2013 on EO may only be used according to Article 56 of the BPR (research and development) If the use of EO as book fumigant on a regular basis is intended, ethylene oxide has to be included in. Annex I of the BPD and authorised as biocidal product first.

7 I Questions in this project
Does EO stay in the books, if so how long? Does off fuming dose pose a risk in readers? Did EO kill the mold? Did EO damage the material?

8 Compilation of Publications on Ethyleneoxide in Paper Conservation
Hanus, J., Mináriková, J., Ďurovič, M., Bacílková, B.: Influence of ethylene oxide fumigation on some properties of different types of paper. La Conservation: Une Science en evolution - Bilan et Perspectives. Actes des troisiémes journées internationales d'études de l'ARSAG, Paris, April 1997, p Hanus, J., Richardin, P., Bonnassies-Termes, S.: Influence of ethylene oxide sterilisation on some photographic papers. ICOM Committee for Conservation, 12th Triennial Meeting Lyon, 29 August - 3 September 1999, Preprints Volume II, p Hanus, J.: Determination of residual ethylene oxide and its desorption from different types of sterilized papers. Final Report. Centre de Recherches sur la Conservation des Documents Graphiques, Paris 1998, 100 p. Richardin, P., Hanus, J., Bonnassies-Termes, S.: Rétention de l'oxyde d'ethylene dans les documents graphiques et photographiques désinfectés. Colloque Huilles essentielles et conservation des oeuvres d'art. Musée National des Arts et Traditions Populaires, Paris, 2-3 décembre Abstracts of presentations, p. 11. Hanus, J., Richardin, P., Bonnassies-Termes, S., Ďurovič, M., Kubelka, V.: Comparison of two different methods by head space gas chromatography for determination of residual ethylene oxide in sterilized papers. ICOM Committee for Conservation, 12th Triennial Meeting Lyon, 29 August - 3 September 1999, Preprints Volume II, p Diplomarbeit Wien Flavia Pinzari, Katja Sterflinger, The revenge of time: fungal deterioration of cultural heritage with particular reference to books, paper and parchmentemi. Environmental Microbiology (2011) Christina Meier; Karin Petersen: Schimmelpilze auf Papier. Ein Handbuch fur Restauratoren, biologische Grundlagen, Erkennung, Behandlung und Pravention, Tonning [a. o.]: Der Andere Verlag, 2006 Manufacturers Association, 27-38, pp , HIMA Report No. 80-4, 1980 of ethylene oxide, Proceedings of the Educational Seminar, Washington DC, Health Industries Abrahams, R.H. Recent studies with workers exposed to ethylene oxide, in: Jorkasky J.F., ed., Safe use Adkins B jr, Van Stee EW, Simmons JE, Eustis SL (1986) Oncogenic response of strain A/J mice to Ethylenoxid (CAS-Nr.: ). Begrundung zur ERB zu Ethylenoxid in BekGS 910. AGS - Ausschuss fur Gefahrstoffe (2011): ERB (Exposition-Risiko-Beziehung)-Begrundung zu inhaled chemicals. J Toxicol Environ Health 17: 64A, pp , 2003 CASIMIR, J., BOYCE, J. Reevaluation of ethylene oxide hemolysis and irritation potential, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. ANAND, V.P., COGDILL, C.P., KLAUSNER, K.A., LISTER, L., BARBOLT, T., PAGE, B.F.J., URBANSKI, P., WOSS Alomar A, Camarasa JMG, Noguera J, Aspinolea F (1981) Ethylene oxide dermatitis. Contact Oxide- December CAS#: ATSDR –Agency of Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (1990) Toxicological Profile for Ethylene Dermatitis 7: test. Contact Dermatitis 35, ; and seasonal variability in irritant susceptibility of skin: the implications for a predictive human patch Basketter, D.A., Griffiths, H.A., Wang, X.M., Wilhelm,. K.P., Mc Fadden, J. (1996) Individual, ethnic Bokkers BG, Slob W A comparision of ratio distributions based on the NOAEL and the the benchmark dose approach. Crit Rev Toxicol (5): Bokkers BG, Slob W Deriving a data-based interspecies assessment factor using the NOAEL and benchmark approach for subchronic-to-chronic extrapolation. Toxicological Sciences 85, Bruch CW Factors determining choice of sterilizing procedure. In: Phillips GB, Miller WS, eds. patients: role of ethylene-oxide. Lancet 28: Bommer J, Barth HP, Wilhelms OH, Schindele H, Ritz E (1985). Anaphylactoid reactions in dialysis Industrial sterilization. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, Guidance on the application of ISO (ISO/TS :2008/Cor 1:2009) CEN ISO/TS :2008/AC:2009, Sterilization of health care products - Ethylene oxide - Part 2: (reviewed in ATSDR 1990) 485. hypersensitivity reactions. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Organs 32:482- Chapman J, Lee W, Youkilis E, Martis L (1986). Animal model for ethylene oxide (EtO) associated CICAD Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 54. Ethylene oxide. WHO 2003. Rat, Mouse, and Human: Formation of 2-Hydroxyethyl Adducts with Hemoglobin and DNA. Physiological Toxicokinetic Model for Exogenous and Endogenous Ethylene and Ethylene Oxide in Csanady GA, Denk B, Putz C, Kreuzer PE, Kessler W, Baur C, Gargas ML, Filser JG (2000): A DFG –Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (1984) Ethylenoxid 43 Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 165, 1–26 (2000) DFG –Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (1993) Ethylenoxid DGAUM (2008) Toxische Gefahrdung durch Hautresorption; Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Arbeitsmedizin DFG –Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (2002) Ethylenoxid MAK-Werte. 34. Lieferung. DFG –Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (1996) Ethylenoxid Nachtrag 1996. und Umweltmedizin e.V. (DGAUM) Drager (2012) Analysenbericht , unpublished tox-haut.html Dunkelberg H (1982) Carcinogenicity of ethylene oxide and 1,2-propylene oxide upon intragastric chloroethanol, 2-bromoethanol, ethylene glycol and diethylene glycol. I. Carcinogenicity of ethylene Dunkelberg H (1981) Carcinogenic activity of ethylene oxide and its reaction products 2- administration to rats. Brit J Cancer 46: Dunkelberg H (1979) On the oncogenic activity of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in mice. Brit J Abt Orig B 174: oxide in comparison with 1,2-propylene oxide after subcutaneous administration in mice. Zbl Bakt I, Cancer 39: ECETOC (1982) Technical Report Nr 11. Toxicity of Ethylene Oxide and its Relevance to Man. An Chemical Industry, Brussels. ECETOC (1982) Technical Report Nr 5. Toxicity of Ethylene Oxide and its Relevance to Man. European Relevance to Man. October European Chemical Industry, Brussels. ECETOC (1986) ECETOC document Nr 26 ECETOC statement on Ethylene Oxide toxicology and its updating of ECETOC Technical Report Nr 5. European Chemical Industry, Brussels. ECHA (2008): Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Part E: Risk ECHA (2009): Evaluation & Reporting of data: How to provide a (robust) study summary Characterisation Characterisation of dose [concentration]-response for human health. ECHA (2010a): Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R 8 – – Uncertainty analysis, ECHA (2010b): Guidance on information requirements and chemical safety assessment, Chapter R 19 EMEA (2006) Committee for medicinal products for human use. Guideline on the Limits of Genotoxic 44 impurities. CPMP/SWP/5199/02. pdf EU, (2008) SCHER/SCCP/SCENIHR (2008) Scientific opinion on use of the Threshold of Toxicological residuals (ISO :200 + Cor 1:2009) (consolidated version) EN ISO (2009): Biological evaluation of medical devices Part 7: Ethylene oxide sterilization Mixtures. ISBN DG for Health and Consumers. European Union. EU (2012) SCHER/SCCP/SCENIHR (2012) Scientific opinion on Toxicity and Assessment of Chemical Concern (TTC) Approach for the Safety Assessment of Chemical Substances. SCCP/1171/08 European Chemicals Bureau (ECB) (2003) Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment. 1:2007) development, validation and routine control of a sterilization process for medical devices (ISO EN ISO :2007, Sterilization of health care products - Ethylene oxide - Part 1: Requirements for Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Angelova-Fischer I, Tsankov N, Basketter D. (2008) Skin Irritation and Rat and Human. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmocology 173, , 2001. Fennell T.R, Brown C.D. A Physiologically based Pharmacokinetic Model for Ethylene Oxide in Mouse, Sensitization: Mechanisms and New Approaches for Risk Assessment. Skin Pharmacology and Ginsberg G., Foss B, Brown Dzubow R, Firestone M. Options for incorporating children´s inhaled dose GESTIS Stoffdatenbank: Physiology 2008, 21: Toxicology , 111, 1–3, 15–20. Graeter, L., Mortensen M.E. (1996) Kids are different: developmental variability in toxicology. into human health risk assessment. Inhalation Toxicology 22(8): Grammer LC, Roberts M, Nicholls AJ, Platts MM, Patterson R (1984). IgE against ethylene oxidealtered Greaves-Walker WJ, Greeson CE (1932). The toxicity of ethylene oxide. J. Hygiene 32, 409. Immunol 74: human serum albumin in patients who have had acute dialysis reactions. J Allergy Clin Hallier E, Langhof T, Dannappel D, Leutbecher M, Schroder K, Goergens HW, Muller A, Bolt HM lymphocytes. Arch Toxicol 67: dichloromethane in human blood: influence on the induction of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in (1993) Polymorphism of glutathione conjugation of methyl bromide, ethylene oxide and Hardt J., Schromer M.L., Angerer J. Untersuchung zur Exposition bei der Verwendung Ethylenoxidsterilisierter Ono,A.; Hirose; A Proposal of new uncertainty factor application to derive tolerable daily Hasegawa,R.; Hirata-Koizumi,M.; Dourson,M. L.; Parker,A.; Sweeney,L.M.; Nishikawa,A.; Yoshida; M.; Medizinprodukte im Krankenhaus. Arbeitsmed. Sozialmed. Umweltmed. 41, 5, 2006. experimental animals. AMA Archives of Industrial Health 13: Hollingsworth RL, Rowe VK, Oyen F, et al Toxicity of ethylene oxide determined on intake. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 58, 45 IARC (2008) 1,3-Butadiene, Ethylene Oxide and Vinyl Halides (Vinyl Fluoride, Vinyl Chloride and Vinyl Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 60) IARC (1994) Some industrial chemicals. Ethylene oxide, Lyons, pp (IARC Monographs on the Teratologic Evaluation of Ethylene Oxide (CAS No ) in New Zealand White Rabbits (Final report RB80- Jones-Price, C., Kimmel, T., Marks, T., Ledoux, T., Reel, J., Fisher, P., Langhoff-Paschke, L. And Marr, M. (1982): Bromide) (IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Vol. 97) EO, NIEHS Contract No. 1-ES-2127). Research Triangle Park, NC, National Institute of Environmental Health Kalberlah F. et al. Toleranz- und Akzeptanzschwelle fur Gesundheitsrisiken am Arbeitsplatz Sciences the European Union. No 1/ to risk assessment for plant protection products, industrial chemicals and biocidal products within KEMI (2003) Human Health Risk assessment. Proposal for the use of assessment factors. Application Oxide, Carbamazepine 10,11-Epoxide and Naphtalene, The Journal of Pharm & Exp Therapeutics, Vol. Interspecies Variation in Hepatic Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase Activity: Studies with cis-Stilbene Kitteringham N.R., Davis C., Howard N., Pirmohamed M., Park B.K. (1996): Interindividual and oxide dosimetry in the rat. Toxicology and Industrial Health, 8(3): , 1992. Krishnan K. Fennell T.R. Gargas M.L. Andersen M. E. A physiologially based description of ethylene 278(3): , 1996 Kroes R., Kleiner J., Renwick A. (2005) The Treshold of Toxicological Concern Concept in Risk oxide and propylene oxide on spermatogenic functions in Cynomolgus monkeys, Toxicologist., 3, p. Lynch, D., Lewis, T., Moorman, W., Sabharwal, P. and Burg, J. Toxic and mutagenic effects of ethylene Assessment. Toxicological Science 86 (2), Carcinogenic and toxicologic effects of inhaled ethylene oxide and propylene oxide in F344 rats, Tox. Lynch, D., Lewis, T., Moorman, W., Burg, J., Groth, D., Khan, A., Ackerman, L. and Cockerell, B. 60, 1982 Appl. Pharm., 76, pp , 1984 Parenter Drug Assoc 31:25-32. and subacute ocular toxicity for ethylene oxide, ethylene chlorohydrin, and ethylene glycol. Bull McDonald TO, Kasten K, Hervey R Acute ocular toxicity for normal and irritated rabbit eyes of inhaled ethylene oxide on spermatogenesis in rats, Br. J. Ind. Med., 48(4), pp , April 1991 Mori, K., Kaido, M., Fujishiro, K., Inoue, N., Koide, O., Hori, H. and Tanaka, I. Dose dependent effects Medical Management Guidelines for Ethylene Oxide: NIOSH conversion calculator: Online: Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program. 499 pp NTP, 2011: Report on Carcinogens, Twelfth Edition. Research Triangle Park, NC: U.S. Department of (CAS No ) in B6C3F1 Mice (Inhalation Studies) (NTP Technical Report 326, U.S. Department of NTP, 1987: National Toxicology Program, Toxicology and Carcinogenicity Studies of Ethylene Oxide 46 Health and Human Services, Public Health Services, National Institute of Health). Research Triangle Pemble S, Schroder KR, Spencer SR, Meyer DJ, Hallier E, Bolt HM, Ketterer B, Taylor JB (1994) Human OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) ethylene oxide standard [29 CFR ] Park, NC, NTP, 1987 glutathione S-transferase theta (GSTT1): cDNA cloning and the characterization of a genetic and ethylene oxide induced uterine neoplasms in B6C3F1 mice from 2-year NTP inhalation bioassays: Picut CA, Aoyama H, Holder JW, Gold LS, Maronpot RR, Dixon D (2003) Bromoethane, chloroethyne polymorphism. Biochem J 300: Pathology and incidence data revisited. Exp Toxicol Pathol 55: 1-9 Puringer J. DMEL-Werte als Grenzwerte fur Kanzerogene – Ein problematisches Konzept im with extrapolation across exposure duration. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 57, Pohl,H.R.; Holler,J.S.; Ruiz,P.; Chou,C.H Chemical risk assessment and uncertainty associated Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft 71 Nr. 11/12, 2011. Puringer J. „Derived Minimal Effect Levels“ (DMEL): Defizite ein Jahr nach der REACHRegistrierungspflicht. Windschatten von REACH. Gefahrstoffe – Reinhaltung der Luft 70 Nr. 5, 2010. RIVM report (2002) Children and Chemical Safety. An Inventory of Activities by ROEMPP (2006) CD Rompp Chemie Lexikon – Version 4.0, Stuttgart/New York: Georg Thieme Verlag Institute of Environmental Medicine Karolinska Institutet. International and National Organizations and Agencies Kristin Larsson and Mattias Oberg materials. Nephrol Dial Transplant 4: Rockel A, Klinke B, Hertel J, Baur X, Thiel C, Abdelhamid S, Fiegel P, Walb D (1989). Allergy to dialysis KG Rumpf KW, Seubert A, Valentin R, Ippen H, Seubert S, Lowitz HD, Rippe H, Scheler F (1985). Rusch GM, Bast CB, Cavender FL (2009) Establishing a point of departure for risk assessment using dialysis patients. Lancet 28: Association of ethylene-oxide-induced IgE antibodies with symptoms in Schneider et al Reg. Tox. Pharm. 44/2, and acute inhalation toxicology data. Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 54: Snellings W, Weil C Maronpot R (1984): A two-year inhalation study of the carcinogenic potential of ethylene oxide by inhalation, Toxicol. Appl. Pharamacol., 64, Snellings WM, Maronpot RR, Zelenak JP et al. (1982): Teratology study in Fischer 344 rats exposed to ethylene oxide in Fischer 344 rats, Tox. Appl. Pharm., 75, pp , 1984 47 SCOEL – Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (2012) Recommendation from the oxide by inhalation for one generation, Tox. Appl. Pharm., 63, pp Snellings W, Zelenak J, Weil C (1982b): Effects on reproduction in Fischer rats exposed to ethylene Scientific Committee onOccupational Exposure Limits.Risk assessment for ethylene oxide. Sci 2:80-91. and other commodities: Residues from fumigation or sterilisation, and effects of processing. Pestic Scudamore KA, Heuser SG Ethylene oxide and its persistent reaction products in wheat flour 32: Sexton RJ, Henson EV Experimental ethylene oxide human skin injuries. Ind Hyg Occup Med Sexton, R. J., E. V. Henson: J. industr. Hyg. 31, 297 (1949) SHUPACK, J.L., ANDERSEN, S.R. and ROMANO, S.J. Human skin reactions to ethylene oxide. J. Lab. metabolites of ethylene oxide. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 9:448 –453. Tardif R, Goyal R, Brodeur J, Gerin M (1987) Species differences in the urinary disposition of some Clin. Med., 98, pp , 1981 TGD (2003): Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment – European Communities 2003: dermal irritability of ethylene oxide and its reaction products. Jap. J. Med. Instrum. 52(1), pp , 1982 TANAKA, S., NAKAURA, S., KAWASHIMA, K., KASUYA, Y. and OMORI, Y. Studies on the hemolytic activity and glutathione transferases GSTT1 and GSTM1. Arch Toxicol (1999) 73: 197―202 acrylonitrile and ethylene oxide in acrylonitrile workers, dependent on polymorphisms of the Thier R; Lewalter J, Kempkes M, Selinski S, Bruning T, Bolt H (1999): Haemoglobin adducts of metabolism and toxicity of ethylene oxide and acrylonitrile, Mutat. Res., 482(1-2), pp polymorphisms of the human glutathione transferases and cytochrome P450 2E1 enzyme on the Thier, R., Balkenhol, T. Lewalter, J,. Selinski, Sl Dommermuth, A., Bolt, H.M. (2001) Influence of Thier, R., Bruning, T. Roos, P.H., RIHS, H.-P. Golka, K., Ko, Y., Bolt, H.M. (2003) Markers of genetic Thureen P.J., Hay W.W. Neonatal nutrition and metabolism. Cambridge University Press, 2006. genes, Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health., 206(3), pp susceptibility in human environmental hygiene and toxicology: the role of selected CYP, NAT and GST TRGS-401 (2011) „Gefahrdung durch Hautkontakt - Ermittlung, Beurteilung, Masnahmen“ chemicals? Arch Dis Child. Aug;91(8):627-8. Tuomisto J. (2006) Protecting our unborn children: how to measure exposure to thousands of TRGS-513 (2011) „Tatigkeiten an Sterilisatoren mit Ethylenoxid und Formaldehyd“ hazard characterization. Risk Analysis 27, 2, Voet van der H., Slob W Integration of probabilistic exposure assessment and probabilistic

9 Report by Prof. Dr. habil. A. Strzelczyk Torun
April – Aug. 1994 346,2 meter in total (261,2 m, 85 m in foulders, 13m notes) The following measures were taken: 1. sources of damage were analysed, The books were stored in wet/very humid conditions The books were dusty, there are spores in the dust, a risk for human health 10 years ago (1984) the books were brought to dry rooms, but due to tight packing they dryed slowly Humidiy and temperature were measured in 50 books in Junly 1994, the rH was between 59 and 71 and the Temp. Between 19,5 and 23,4^C The humidity of the air in the room was between % and the temperatureat 22,6 Centigrades 2. 9 books and 15 groups of archival documents were selected according to various criteria (sort of damage, ,aterial composition, content) and model restoration was made, 3. Microorganisms were analysed by microscopic observation directly on the books or in complicated cases on growth medium. The following species were found: Streptomyces, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Acremoniella, Stachybotrys, Epicoccum, Stemphylium, Botrytis. Streptomyces and Geotrichum were found more often. 4. the entire collection plus the 9 books and 15 groups of archival material was packed and prepared for desinfection Chamber for 20 m3, 10 kg Petrox, 5 days fumigation, then airwashing until EO detector did not show EO any more The rooms were desinfected with 2% Aseptin M solution and treatment repeated after 10 days 5. Fumigation with 90% EO and 10% CO2 (Petrox gas) 6. books were air washed and climatized, In Swidnica 7. dust and microorganism spores were removed from the books in Sept (after the report was written) 8. the effectivity of the desinfection was evaluated (report Nov. 1994)

10 15 years later 2009 in Ossolineum
alle alten Drucke (Signaturgruppe SD) und Handschriften (Signaturgruppe R) begast worden. „2010 durch Adam Wilga, der eine solche Begasungskammer erfunden hat, die übrigen Bücher begast  (Signaturen 1,2,8000).“ „Wenn es um die Signaturen geht, nach denen Sie gefragt haben, handelt es sich um fortlaufende Signaturen (gemäß Katalog Dr. Górski).“ Waiting for data from Ossolineum

11 MEN AND BOOKS For the selection of books several parameters were relevant: (1) moment of fumigation (17 fumigated in 2009, 11 fumigated in 2010) (2) material composition (11 printed books, 7 ms iron gall ink, 10 modern dye ink, 15 leather involved, 3 parchment involved, 11 textile involved, all book blocks paper of their time) (3) age of the book (2 18th cent., 12 from 19th cent. Rest 20th cent.) (4) size of book (folio to octav) The books for ethylene oxide measurement were chosen aiming to get a representative average of all these features. This is especially important when it comes to transfer data into application Europe-wide and on an “average archive” at the end of the project. 28 volumes bound in leather, parchment, paper and textiles, dating from the 18th, 19th and 20th century, thus representing also different sorts of paper as book block, ranging from folio to quart were selected by the Parish in Swidnica and brought to the European Research Centre for Book and Paper Conservation-Restoration in Horn. There these books were put into a chamber of inert synthetic material of 1 qm volume and stored under closed conditions for 60 days at 20 °C and 50%rel. H.  

12 Books brought to Horn off gasing measured

13 Two different analysis methods were chosen to detect the off gassing ethylene oxide, a digital handheld device, Dräger X-am 5000, which turned out to be too rough (measuring range ppm, resolution 0.5 ppm, smallest possible detection 1 ppm; expected concentration below) and a GC/FID. For the later the measurement was passive with ORSA-tubes filled with activated carbon. The measurement lasted for 336 hours. Then the tubes were taken out, closed and sent to gas chromatography. The analysis was made with GC/FID with retention time catalogues and quantification via external calibration function. This standard working instruction is a modified NIOSH Working conditions: Gaschromatograph “Doppelsäulengerät Sichromat 1-4”; Injektion: split/splitless; 2.5µL splitted auf 2 wide-bore colums, 250°C, Colums: 30 m OPTIMA-WAX; 0.53 mm * 1.0 µm and 30 m OPTIMA 1; 0.53 mm *1.0 µm, Both detectors FID (250°C), Carrier gas Nitrogen: 2.5 mL/min, burning gas synth. air: 300 mL/min, Hydrogen: 25 mL/min, stove temperature 45°C isotherm 10 min, 45°C to 180°C in 5°C/min; 180°C isotherm 13 min, 180°C to 200°C in 10°C/min, 200°C isotherm 13 min. The method is based on the international method NIOSH 1612 ( iosh/docs/ /pdfs/1612.pdf)

14 Umweltbundesamt About Material
Takes the influence via inhalation for the gratest risk Not so much touching Not so much oral About Material I suggest to add several book blocks to the fumigation of dummies, as to have more substance to catch the EO gas possibly and get more realistic and controlled measurement for our conclusions.

15 Workflow Dummies Dummy A 1 Dummy A 2 Dummy A 3 Dummy A 4 Dummy A 5
Nach der Herstellung direkt für Ethylenoxidbegasung ohne Zwischenschritte Nach der Herstellung direkt für Mikroorganismen beimpfung ohne Zwischenschritte Referenz Nach der Herstellung direkt für Alterung Dummy A 5 Dummy A 6 Dummy A 7 Dummy A8 Alterung Referenz Alterung Weiter zur Ethylenoxid begasung Weiter zur Mikro Organismen beimpfung Dummy A2 Dummy A3 Dummy A 7 Dummy A 8 Direkt vom ERC kommend zum Beimpfen Beiter zum Ethylenoxid begasen Von der TU Graz kommend zum Beimpfen Referenz Von der TU Graz kommend zum Beimpfen Weiter zum Ethylen oxid Dummy A 1 Dummy A 3 Dummy A 6 Dummy 8 Kommt direkt aus dem ERC ohne Vorbehandlung Ist nicht gealtert, sondern Nur beimpft Kommt direkt aus der TU Graz Ist nur gealtert Kommt von der BOKU ist gealtert Und beimpft

16 Suggestion book block for more volume

17 Aims ERC took over in the project:
- measuring off-gassing ethylene oxide - evaluation of toxicity(Umweltbundesamt) - provide dummies - analysis of the parchment&leather - interpretation of analyse-data - development of guidelines for the restoration - develop recommendations for the handling of mouldy heritage&handling of ethylene oxide-fumigated heritage on paper, parchment and leather - suggestions of alternative methods to disinfect mouldy written/printed heritage - disseminate the project results (website, journals, etc.) - organise the joint exhibition in coop. with the other partners - organise the final conference in coop. with P5. - organise the publication material in coop. with the partners (translation, distribution, etc.) - distribution of results: professional journals, special meetings, conference, webpage, movable exhibition for specialists & laymen, local newspapers, TV, radio, underlining the benefit of EU funding; ERASMUS-students - workshops beyond project runtime

18 Next steps Work flow Graz BOKU Ossolineum
Shrinkage Temperature Measurement Graz: Paper tests Umweltbundesamt Results BOKU results on fungi Question: is the paper more disposed to new attack by the ethylene Oxide treatment or not?

19 HW Step 6 together with ICARUS:
Digitization(50000 files) of the material for research work in the project & making it accessible for all on the internet Start on 11th March 2013

20 Acknowlegement For the information about the books: Bozena Pytel, Reverend Waldemar Pytel, Sonja Stankowski, Dr. Stephan Aderhold Umweltbundesamt: Dr. Elisabeth Fassold, DI Isabel Peißl, Dr. Maximilian Kinzl, Dr. Martin Paparella Dräger Safety AG & Co. KGaA: Thomas Krebs and Dr. Dirk Rahn-Marx ERC: Shirin Jacoby, Bogna Gorniak, Marta Cieplinska, Cristina Cicero

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