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Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 1 Open Source Software for Learning Object Repositories A Study Commissioned.

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Presentation on theme: "Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 1 Open Source Software for Learning Object Repositories A Study Commissioned."— Presentation transcript:

1 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 1 Open Source Software for Learning Object Repositories A Study Commissioned by the OnCore Blueprint Project Florida Distance Learning Consortium

2 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 2 Open source software is free! Not as in free beer …

3 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 3 Open source software is free! But as a free kitty!

4 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 4 Today’s presentation Brief overview of open source software Components of the study Typology of LOR implementations The platforms/applications In the trenches – implementors’ views Final thoughts

5 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 5 You are using open source Apache –HTTP server –Lucene –Perl –Tomcat Linux –Operating system MySQL –Database system And more…

6 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 6 Cathedral vs Bazaar Proprietary vs Open Eric S. Raymond. The Cathedral & the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary. 1999.

7 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 7 What is Open Source Software? Several characteristics –Free to download and use –Access to and ability to modify source code –Licenses that govern use Free software is software that is distributed with a license that authorizes its users to run the software for any purpose, to redistribute copies of, and to examine, study, and modify the source code. –http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Free_Softwarehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portal:Free_Software

8 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 8 Open source definition Open Source Initiative provides a definition focused on ten criteria http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd http://www.opensource.org/docs/osd –Free Redistribution –Source Code –Derived Works –Integrity of The Author's Source Code –No Discrimination Against Persons or Groups –No Discrimination Against Fields of Endeavor –Distribution of License –License Must Not Be Specific to a Product –License Must Not Restrict Other Software –License Must Be Technology-Neutral

9 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 9 For our purposes, OSS … Is software that is available free of charge to download and use Provides access to the source code and allows modifications to the code Use and reuse of software and derivative work are governed by licenses –Unfortunately, the license landscape is not simple –See http://www.opensource.org/licenses/categoryhttp://www.opensource.org/licenses/category

10 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 10 The study A review and assessment of open source software for use in learning object repositories Purpose: –Identify open source software (OSS) applications and platforms that are currently being used for learning object repositories (LOR) or could serve as a platform for such repositories, and then review and assess those OSS options according to a range of criteria.

11 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 11 The project team Background using open source software Using DSpace for a learning object repository for the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board http://txcdk1.unt.edu/THECBLOR_v3/ Cadi Lusk LIS Masters student Jill Siewert LIS Masters student Samuel Muwanguzi Information Science Ph.D. student

12 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 12 Methodology Identified OSS platforms/applications to review –Drupal –DSpace –eduCommons –EPrints –Fedora –Plone –Rhaptos Used publicly available information to develop reports on each Implementor interviews

13 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 13 Assumptions LOR landscape was straightforward Each platform/application would be used in multiple implementations of LORs Good instances of LORs using the platforms could be identified People associated with the platforms would readily review our compiled information for accuracy Relatively easy to solicit time with implementors

14 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Learning object repositories Moen 14 An E-Learning repository is a database that contains useful teaching and learning information that is available via the Internet. Users are allowed to query the database in an attempt to locate information that can help to explain and clarify various topics. Tomer, 2008

15 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 15 Four core functions 1.An interface for adding content (actual objects and metadata) to the system 2.An interface for searching/browsing/retrieving content 3.A database for storing content 4.An administrative interface to facilitate collection management, configuration, preservation, and other activities

16 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 16 Four major components 1.A server, typically using Unix/Linux or Windows as an operating system 2.A web server (e.g., Apache or IIS and related web application tools) 3.A relational database (e.g., MySQL, DB2, Oracle, Postgres, SQL server) 4.Repository software

17 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 17 Typology of LOR implementations Digital repository application –DSpace, EPrints, Fedora Content management system (CMS) –Drupal –Plone Hybrid –eduCommons –Rhaptos

18 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 18 Digital repository approach DSpace EPrints Fedora Web Server Apache IIS Database System MySQL Oracle Operating System Linux Windows

19 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 19 CMS approach Drupal Plone Web Server Apache IIS Database System MySQL Oracle Operating System Linux Windows

20 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 20 Hybrid approach Drupal Islandora Fedora Rhaptos Plone Web Server Apache IIS Database System MySQL Oracle Operating System Linux Windows eduCommons Plone

21 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 21 DSpace http://www.dspace.org/ Developed for institutional repositories Released: 2002 Current release: 1.5.2 (2009) –Operating System: Unix-like OS (Linux, UP/UX, Solaris) or Microsoft Windows –Database: PostgreSQL or Oracle –Web Server: Apache –Applications Server: Apache Tomcat 4.x, Jetty, or Caucho Resin –Programming Language: Java, Perl –Other Tools: Apache Maven 2.0.8 or later, Apache Ant 1.6.2 or later Texas Course Redesign Repository –http://txcdk1.unt.edu/THECBLOR_v3/http://txcdk1.unt.edu/THECBLOR_v3/

22 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 22 EPrints http://www.eprints.org/ Developed for institutional repositories Released: 2000 Current release: 3.2 (2009) –Operating System: Linux, Unix-like OS (such as OSX), Vista or XP –Database: MySQL –Web Server: Apache –Programming Language: Perl Language Box –http://languagebox.eprints.org/http://languagebox.eprints.org/

23 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 23 Fedora http://www.fedora-commons.org/ Flexible Extensible Digital Object Repository Architecture Released: 2003 Current release: 3.2 (2009) –Operating System: Unix, Linux, OSX, or Windows –Database: MySQL, Oracle, or PostgreSQL –Application Server: Tomcat 5.5.26 (included), can also be run on any application server that implements Servlet 2.4/JSP 2.0 or higher such as Jetty or Jboss –Programming Language: Java –Other Tools: Apache Any 1.7 or higher The National Science Digital Library (NSDL) –http://nsdl.org/http://nsdl.org/

24 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 24 Drupal http://drupal.org/ Developed for creating web sites and web publishing Released: 2001 Current release: 6 (2008) –Operating System: Unix, Linux, BSD, OSX, or Windows –Database: My SQL 4. 1 or higher, PostgreSQL 7.4 or higher –Application Server: Apache 1.3, 2.x or Microsoft IIS –Programming Language: PHP 5.2 or higher Joining Educational Mathematics –http://jem-thematic.net/http://jem-thematic.net/ Penn State University Open Educational Resources –http://open.ems.psu.edu/http://open.ems.psu.edu/

25 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 25 Plone http://plone.org/ Developed as a usability layer to work with the Zope Content Management Framework Released: 2000 Current release: 3.2 (2009) –Operating System: Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, or Solaris –Database: Zope Object Database (built in) –Application Server: Zope 2.10.x –Programming Language: Python 2.4 or 2.5 Open Educational Resources (OER) Commons –http://www.oercommons.org/http://www.oercommons.org/

26 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 26 eduCommons http://educommons.com/ Designed to facilitate the creation and maintenance of OpenCourseWare projects Released: 2001 Current release: 3.1 (2009) (3.2 coming soon) –Operating System: Linux or OSX –Database: Zope Object Database (built in) –Application Server: Zope 2.10.5 –Content Management System (CMS): Plone 3.0.6 –Programming Language: Python 2.4.4 Open.Michigan Educational Resources –http://michigan.educommons.net/http://michigan.educommons.net/ University of Notre Dame OpenCourseWare –http://ocw.nd.edu/http://ocw.nd.edu/

27 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 27 Rhaptos http://rhaptos.org/ Created to facilitate the creation and publication (both digitally and in print) of learning materials and scholarly works Released: 2005 (although under development and implementation for longer period) Current release: 2.0 –Operating System: Linux (Debian or Ubuntu) –Database: PostgresSQL 8.2 and/or CVS Repository (to be phased out in future development) –Application Server: Zope –Content Management system (CMS): Plone 2.5 –Programming Language: Python Connexions –http://cnx.org/http://cnx.org/

28 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 28 Technical features inventory Discovery Personalization Community and Evaluation Meta Tagging Content Upload & Management Aggregation and De- aggregation Digital Rights Management Presentation Integration and Interoperability Installation and Support System Considerations and Specifications Platform Profile Desktop Requirements Training Documentation/Help Scalability Primary and Secondary Categories

29 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 29 Technical features reports For each platform/application –Overview narrative –Technical features inventory Technical features comparison report Report structure can be used as guide –Identifies salient features to consider –Provides a structure for you to use to document your information gathering on OSS options

30 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 30 Technical features reports issues Used publicly available documentation –OSS documentation problematic –Typically no Sales Rep to send an RFI to –Moving target of version releases –Difficulty in getting reviews of our reports from key people in the development community –Mixed results from the implementors we interviewed to review the reports

31 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Talking with the implementors DSpace –Wiseplus Drupal –JEM –Penn State Open Educational Resources eduCommons (Plone) –Open Michigan –NotreDame Eprints –Language Box Moen 31

32 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Focus and function vary Storing and describing learning materials Storing metadata about learning materials Digital workspace for: –Storing and describing –Authoring and publishing –Reuse in new materials Moen 32

33 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Focus and function vary Continuum of content Moen 33 Discrete Learning Objects/Assets Full Courses Intended users –Content creators –Instructors and instructional designers –Students –Others

34 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 OSS choice drivers Mandate –Funding agencies encouraged/required Personal/organizational preference Pilot project –Quick and low-cost way to get started Flexibility and customization Financial priorities –Allocate funds to course development rather than system System already implemented Moen 34

35 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Benefits of OSS Note: Some platform specific No annual license/maintenance fee Community of developers –Being able to follow what is in the pipeline –Problems often well-documented –Assistance when needed –Solutions often quickly developed Access to the code –Functionality can be expanded –Modularity for extensions Moen 35

36 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Is OSS for you? OSS is free, but not as in free beer! –Low-cost for out-of-box implementation Openness to open source –Organizational attitude –Central IT attitude Customizing and enhancing –From simple configuration – sys admin, look and feel, metadata choices –To adding functionality -- programmer Moen 36

37 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Where are we with LORs? Do we know the problem(s) we are trying to solve? Are we identifying and understanding the problems as we do our implementations? Who are we serving? Do we make assumptions about potential users without really understanding what they want? These are questions that go beyond OSS… Moen 37

38 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Final thoughts Options available Requirements should drive decision More projects than production systems Problem space still evolving OSS offers flexibility to address evolving understanding Sakai-like approach for a LOR-specific OSS solution? Moen 38

39 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 39 Platforms/Applications DSpace http://www.dspace.org/http://www.dspace.org/ EPrints http://www.eprints.org/http://www.eprints.org/ Fedora http://www.fedora-commons.org/http://www.fedora-commons.org/ Drupal http://drupal.org/http://drupal.org/ Plone http://plone.org/http://plone.org/ eduCommons http://educommons.com/http://educommons.com/ Rhaptos http://rhaptos.org/http://rhaptos.org/

40 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Implementations DSpace –Texas Course Redesign Repository http://txcdk1.unt.edu/THECBLOR_v3/ –Wiseplus http://wiseplus.exp.sis.pitt.edu:8080/dspace/ Eprints –Language Box http://languagebox.eprints.org/ –EdShare http://www.edshare.soton.ac.uk/ Moen 40

41 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Implementations Drupal –Joining Educational Mathematics http://jem-thematic.net/ –Penn State University Open Educational Resources http://open.ems.psu.edu/ Plone –OER Commons http://www.oercommons.org/ –Teach Sustainability http://www.teachsustainability.com.au/ Moen 41

42 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Implementations eduCommons –Open.Michigan Educational Resources http://michigan.educommons.net/ –University of Notre Dame OpenCourseWare http://ocw.nd.edu/ Rhaptos –Connexions http://cnx.org/ Fedora –The National Science Digital Library (NSDL) http://nsdl.org/ –Open Learning Exchange Nepal http://www.olenepal.org/about.html Moen 42

43 Digital Repositories for Learning -- Vancouver, BC -- August 11, 2009 Moen 43 References Susan W. Alman & Christinger Tomer. Building Repositories for Digital Learning Objects: Challenges, Issues, and Opportunities. 2008. –http://www.sloanconsortium.org/conference/proceedings/200 8/1225838630264.pptxhttp://www.sloanconsortium.org/conference/proceedings/200 8/1225838630264.pptx Eric S. Raymond. The Cathedral & the Bazaar: Musings on Linux and Open Source by an Accidental Revolutionary. 1999. –http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral- bazaar/http://www.catb.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral- bazaar/


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