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Exercise Behavior and the Acceptance & Action Questionnaire for Exercise (AAQ-Ex) Sarah B. Staats, BA & Robert D. Zettle, Ph.D Wichita State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Exercise Behavior and the Acceptance & Action Questionnaire for Exercise (AAQ-Ex) Sarah B. Staats, BA & Robert D. Zettle, Ph.D Wichita State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exercise Behavior and the Acceptance & Action Questionnaire for Exercise (AAQ-Ex) Sarah B. Staats, BA & Robert D. Zettle, Ph.D Wichita State University Research Question Background Method Discussion Results As reflected by the prevalence of obesity and weight- related diseases, many individuals stand to benefit from regular exercise but find it aversive and avoid it. Psychological flexibility (PF) is one’s willingness to remain in contact with aversive thoughts, emotions, memories, and physical sensations in the service of chosen values (Hayes et al., 1999). PF may impact willingness to approach and sustain exercise behavior in the face of aversive private experiences. Context-specific measures of PF do a better job of predicting and explaining the behavior within their domain of interest (Gregg et al., 2007; Sandoz, 2010). The current study seeks to validate an exercise- specific measure of psychological flexibility, examining its internal reliability, as well as its concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity. 322 undergraduate students at a Midwestern university completed an online questionnaire. Gender 66.8% female Age M = 22.37, SD = 6.91 Ranged from 18 – % were 18 – 22 Ethnicity 83.2% White 9.6% Asian 6.5% Black or African American 6.5% Hispanic or Latino/Latina 2.5% American Indian or Alaskan Native 0.6% Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Measures Acceptance & Action Questionnaire II (AAQ-II) Measure of psychological flexibility; related to multiple domains of well- being and successful working (Bond et al., 2011) Body Image – Acceptance & Action Questionnaire (BI-AAQ) Measure of body image flexibility; related to body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating (Sandoz, 2010) Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) Measure of emotional distress tolerance; related to mood/state acceptance (Simons & Gaher, 2005) Body Mass Index (BMI) Composite of height and weight; indicates body fatness for most people (CDC, 2011) Four items with low item-total correlations were removed from the original scale in order to increase internal reliability and face validity, Cronbach’s α =.90. Descriptives for 11-item AAQ-Ex Overall M = 30.40, SD = Female M = 32.40, SD = Male M = 26.36, SD = Significant gender difference, p <.001 Observed range: 11 – 72 (11 – 77 possible) The AAQ-Ex does a better overall job of predicting relevant behavior (see correlation matrix above). Yes! It does do a better job. This context-specific measure of exercise- related psychological flexibility possesses strong internal reliability and different norms for males and females. Performs better at predicting relevant, concurrent behavior than does the general AAQ-II or other measures. Possesses discriminant validity, shown by its moderate correlations with neighboring instruments. An important tool for researchers and clinicians working with exercise behavior. Future research should replace self- reported with observed exercise behavior. Does a context-specific measure of psychological flexibility describe and predict exercise behavior better than existing instruments? AAQ-ExBMI Days per week exercised Difference between actual and ideal days per week exercised Current level of physical fitness Difference between actual and ideal level of physical fitness Number of hours of physical exertion each week AAQ-Ex.20**-.55**.41**-.49**.29**-.30** AAQ-II.40**-.04__-.13*_.23**-.24**.19**-.05__ BI-AAQ.39**.29**-.02__.18**-.34**.34**-.03__ DTS-.14**.09__-.04__.00__.10__-.13*_-.06__ AAQ-Ex4__30__17__24__8__9__ AAQ-II16__0__2__5__6__4__0__ BI-AAQ15__8__0__3__12__ 0__ DTS2__1__0__ 1__2__0__ Correlations % Variance Accounted For p <.01*, p <.001**

2 Though I could make a spot for exercise in my schedule, the thought of adding another responsibility is too distressing My negative thoughts about exercise prevent me from exercising In order to work out, I need to feel like it I do not take care of my physical fitness, because it reminds me that I am not fit The feeling of sweat trickling down my face and back when I exercise grosses me out I feel awkward about going to a gym where others will see me exerting myself Because I feel like I'll never get in shape, there doesn't seem to be much point in trying My exercise routine takes place regardless of how I feel on any given day The unpleasant, burning sensation in my muscles is too much for me to bear during exercise I avoid thinking about working out because it reminds me that I have neglected to exercise The whole process around exercising is too big a hassle Never trueVery seldom true Seldom trueSometimes true Frequently true Almost always true Always true AAQ-Ex: Below you will find a list of statements. Please rate how true each statement is for you by circling a number next to it. Use the scale below to make your choice. Notes: The AAQ-Ex is a one-factor solution according to Velicer’s Minimum Average Partial (MAP) test. This means there are no “subscales.” The reference for this poster, questionnaire, and accompanying information will be… Staats, S.B., & Zettle, R.D. (2012, July). Exercise behavior and the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire for Exercise (AAQ-Ex). Poster session presented at the meeting of the Association for Contextual Behavioral Science, Washington, DC.


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