Presentation on theme: "Classification of Living Things Classification: Grouping life based on similarities Why classify? To study the vast diversity of life and organize information."— Presentation transcript:
Classification of Living Things Classification: Grouping life based on similarities Why classify? To study the vast diversity of life and organize information in a common language.
Species of Organisms There are 13 billion known species of organismsThere are 13 billion known species of organisms This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!!This is only 5% of all organisms that ever lived!!!!! New organisms are still being found and identifiedNew organisms are still being found and identified copyright cmassengale2
Confusion in Using Different Languages for Names copyright cmassengale3
Latin Names are Understood by all Taxonomists copyright cmassengale4
Taxonomy: the classification and naming of organisms. Scientific names are universal.
Early Taxonomists copyright cmassengale6 2000 years ago, Aristotle was one of the first taxonomists2000 years ago, Aristotle was one of the first taxonomists Aristotle divided organisms into plants & animalsAristotle divided organisms into plants & animals
Carolus Linnaeus 1707 – 1778 18th century Swedish taxonomist Classified organisms by their physical structure Developed naming system still used today copyright cmassengale7
Linnaeus’s Hierarchical System Seven taxonomic categories: Kingdom Animal Phylum Arthropoda Class Insecta Order Lepidoptera Family Danaidae Genus Danaus Species plexippus
Taxon General term for any one of these categories in the hierarchy. (Plural of taxon is taxa.)
The system can change as scientists gather new information! (DNA, new discoveries) Now we have “Domain” above the Kingdom level
Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain Kingdom Phylum (Division – used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species copyright cmassengale11 BROADEST TAXON Most Specific
Now come up with your own mnemonic device to remember the order of taxa from domain to species. D K P C O F G S
Dumb Dumb King King Phillip Phillip Came Came Over Over For For Gooseberry Gooseberry Soup! Soup! copyright cmassengale15
Rules for Naming Organisms The International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organismsThe International Code for Binomial Nomenclature contains the rules for naming organisms This prevents duplicated namesThis prevents duplicated names copyright cmassengale16
Binomial nomenclature = two part name: Genus species Genus is Capitalized, both words are italicized or underlined in handwriting. Latin or Greek describes organism Ex: Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, Toxicodendron radicans, Peromiscus maniculatus
Binomial Nomenclature copyright cmassengale18 Which TWO are more closely related?
Domains Broadest, most inclusive taxonBroadest, most inclusive taxon Three domainsThree domains Archaea and Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles)Archaea and Eubacteria are unicellular prokaryotes (no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles) Eukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane- bound organellesEukarya are more complex and have a nucleus and membrane- bound organelles copyright cmassengale19
ARCHAEA Probably the 1 st cells to evolve Live in HARSH environments Found in: –Sewage Treatment Plants –Thermal or Volcanic Vents –Hot Springs or Geysers that are acid –Very salty water (Dead Sea; Great Salt Lake) copyright cmassengale20
EUBACTERIA micromovie stars micromovie stars Our bodies are covered with them! Some may cause DISEASE Found in ALL HABITATS except harsh ones Important decomposers for environment Commercially important in making cottage cheese, yogurt, buttermilk, etc. copyright cmassengale23
copyright cmassengale24 Live in the intestines of animals
EUKARYA : Cells have a nucleus! Divided into 4 Kingdoms: Protista (protists, algae…)Protista (protists, algae…) Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …)Fungi (mushrooms, yeasts …) Plantae (multicellular plants)Plantae (multicellular plants) Animalia (multicellular animals)Animalia (multicellular animals) copyright cmassengale25
Protista Most are unicellularMost are unicellular Some are multicellularSome are multicellular Some are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophicSome are autotrophic, while others are heterotrophic AquaticAquatic copyright cmassengale26
Fungi Multicellular, except yeastMulticellular, except yeast Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it)Absorptive heterotrophs (digest food outside their body & then absorb it) Cell walls made of chitinCell walls made of chitin copyright cmassengale27
Plantae MulticellularMulticellular AutotrophicAutotrophic Absorb sunlight to make glucose – PhotosynthesisAbsorb sunlight to make glucose – Photosynthesis Cell walls made of celluloseCell walls made of cellulose copyright cmassengale28
Animalia MulticellularMulticellular Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies)Ingestive heterotrophs (consume food & digest it inside their bodies) Feed on plants or animalsFeed on plants or animals copyright cmassengale29
Plantae is divided into about 12 phyla and comprise about 270,000 species. Animalia is split into about 33 phyla and contains about 800,000 species (although this is probably a drastic underestimate of the true figure). Fungi have five phyla and about 100,000 species. Eubacteria have three phyla and a number of species that is difficult even to estimate – some authors suggest 1,000,000,000 (a billion) but even this could be a considerable underestimate! Archaea are poorly known and there are currently three main (and five tentative) phyla that have been created based largely on laboratory cultures (estimates of total phyla range from 18 to 23). The most recent list I can find (1999) contains 209 species. Protista comprise some 20 to 50 phyla and about 23,000+ species.
Dichotomous Keys An identification key that contains pairs of contrasting descriptions. After each description, a key either directs the user to another pair of descriptions or identifies an object http://www.amnh.org/learn/biodiversity_counts/ident_help/Text_Keys/arthropod_keyA.htm