Presentation on theme: "Dr. Leonard Werner-Jones"— Presentation transcript:
1Dr. Leonard Werner-Jones Patenting Issues in Biotechnology & Chemistry USPTO & EPODr. Leonard Werner-JonesAIPLA Mid-Winter MeetingFeb. 2-5, 2011
2Euro-PCT Should the ISA be the USPTO or the EPO? Is there a potential problem with unity following the EPO‘s criteria?Are there multiple independent claims in the same category?
3Entry into regional phase (will be changed to 6M (May 2011)) INTERNATIONAL PHASEEPO = ISA and/or IPEANegative preliminary opinion on patentabilityArt. 19 PCT/Art. 34 PCTAmendmentsInternational phaseEntry into regional phaseMaintain on entry into European phaseCommunication (R. 161 EPC)1 month, inextendible(will be changed to 6M (May 2011))Further processingNo response requiredMandatory responseComment on written opinion and/orMake amendments
4Rule 161/162 EPCDefines the subject matter to be searched in SESR if EPO not the ISA, as well as the subject matter to be addressed in the written opinion of the SESR.Defines the number of claims to be paid in EP phase. (Claims = 210 €; Claims 51 and up = 525 €)Is the last point that Applicant can file amendments to the claims and specification on his own volition.
5Unity at the EPO: Art. 82 EPC / Rule 44 EPC General inventive concept linking the subject matter of the invention.General inventive concept must be both novel and inventive over the prior art.General inventive concept is best defined as a structural feature found throughout the claims. Can be a functional feature though and does not necessarily need to be articulated in the claims.
6Limited Search of EURO-PCT cases PCT PhaseEP Regional PhaseISA not EPOISRSESRAAClaim 1: AClaim 2: BSearchedExaminedNo UnityObejctionLacksUnityBDivisional
7Limited Search of EURO-PCT cases PCT PhaseEP Regional PhaseISA not EPOISRSESRBABBClaim 1: AClaim 2: BSearchedExaminedLacksUnityNo UnityObejctionAmendmentsB now 1stADivisional
8Limited Search of EURO-PCT cases PCT PhaseEP Regional PhaseISA not EPOISRSESRBAABBClaim 1: AClaim 2: BSearchedSearchedExaminedNo AdditionalSearch FeesAmendmentsB now 1stLacksUnityLacksUnityADivisional
10“ first mentioned in the claims” Rule 64 EPCIf the European Patent Office considers that the European patent application does not comply with the requirement of unity of invention, it shall draw up a partial search report on those parts of the application which relate to the invention, or the group of inventions within the meaning of Article 82, first mentioned in the claims….Guidelines: B-VII-1.1When determining which invention is the invention or unitary group of inventions first mentioned in the claims, the examiner takes account of the content of the dependent claims, disregarding trivial claims.
11ONE INDEPENDENT CLAIM PER CATEGORY (Rule 62a EPC) *Patented claims cannot relate to non-searched subject matter (Rule 137(5) EPC)R. 43(2) EPC allows:interrelated productsBiotech: gene - gene construct - host - protein - medicamentPlurality of independent claims not compliant with R. 43(2) EPC2 months inextendibleSearchIndicate claims on the basis of which search is to be carried out/counter-argumentsSearch is carried out on basis of the first claim in each categoryORRestrict claims to searched subject matterExamination*No PCTEquivalentOpportunity to pursue divisional application
12Multiple Ind. Claims of Same Category vs. Unity Where the application both lacks unity of invention and fails to comply with the requirements of Rule 43(2), the examiner may raise an objection under either Rule 43(2) (i.e. Rule 62a) or Art. 82 or under both.The Applicant cannot contest which of these objections has priority (cf. T 1073/98).Thus, subject matter may be unified but claims will need to be limited due to Rule 62a EPC.Possibility of alternative claim language “or” for consolidation of claims, but beware of Rule 63 EPC (i.e. “conciseness”).
13EPO vs. USPTO as the ISA EPO: USTPO: (+) Legal certainty of unity. (+) No Rule 62a EPC limitation (Rule 43(2) EPC objection during prosecution – no limitation of search though).(-) 1 month term to respond to Rule 161 EPC (will be expanded to 6 months)(-) can be costly with additional search fees (but at least know what subject matter may be pursued)USTPO:Uncertainty as to whether unity objection will be raised and if it is raised what group will be searched. May be triggered by new prior art in SESR. Claim fees due nevertheless.Don‘t know whether Rule 62a EPC objection will be raised and whether arguments will be successful. Claim fees due nevertheless.
14DEFINITION OF AN ANTIBODY: AGAINST ANTIGEN X If antigen X is novel and inventive:An antibody against antigen X is usually considered to be novel and inventive, assuming that antigen X is well-defined in the application (T0542/95)If antigen X is known:The provision of a novel antibody against a known antigen involves an inventive step only if it shows unexpected properties, or if it was unexpected that such an antibody could be produced at all (T0735/00; T0512/94; T0355/92; T0645/02)
15DEFINITION OF AN ANTIBODY: TARGET EPITOPE If the antibody is defined by the specification of small, well-defined (e.g. linear) epitope to which the antibody should bind, then usually allowableit is clear to what the antibody binds, and usually such antibodies can be reliably produced by immunization with the epitopein contrast, see T0735/00, relating to a poorly defined epitope
16DEFINITION OF AN ANTIBODY: PROCESS OF PRODUCTION Product-by-process claims for antibodies are allowable provided that the product is novel and inventive (GL C-III 4.12).Process only play a role if introduces structural features which further distinguish product from prior art.If the antibody can be characterized by other technical features, e.g. structural features, hybridoma deposit, rather than by its production process, then this should be done (T0130/90; T0150/82).
17DEFINITION OF AN ANTIBODY: FUNCTIONAL FEATURES Claims comprising functional features are acceptable under Article 84 EPC (i.e. clarity) if said functional features are clear and unequivocally testable by the skilled person (T0299/86; T1300/05).It must be beyond any doubt that the functional features do not disguise lack of novelty (T0735/00). Applicant may be requested to provide evidence that the claimed antibody differs from a particular prior art antibody.If the target to which the antibody binds is not explicitly given, the claim may not be clear and/or sufficiently disclosed (Articles 84 and 83 EPC).
18DEFINITION OF AN ANTIBODY: STRUCTURAL FEATURES It is not sufficient to characterize an antibody by only one of its variable domain (VH or VL) sequences, since an antibody needs at least a VH and a VL domain for proper and specific antigen binding. (Art. 84 EPC; Clarity)Exceptions: antibodies from camelids or sharks, which are naturally devoid of light chains.It is not sufficient to characterize an antibody by one or two of the CDR sequences, since antigen binding specificity, apart from some exceptions, depends on all three CDRs and four framework regions.A definition in the claim of the antibody's target and/or function is not mandatory, but may be necessary in some cases to distinguish from the prior art.
19DEFINITION OF AN ANTIBODY: HYBRIDOMA DEPOSIT NUMBER The hybridoma cell line must be deposited with a recognized depository institution in order to meet the disclosure requirements of Article 83 and Rule 31 EPC.
20INVENTIVENESS FOR ANTIBODIES Deposit of HybridomaDifferent Cross reactivity (T355/92; T478/92)Specific Choice of Antigen (T510/94)Inhibition of Biological Function in vitro / in vivoUnexpected high Binding Affinity
21THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION