Presentation on theme: "EI Survey on the Status of Women in Unions, Education and Society - previews and snapshots - On the Move for Equality EI’s First World Women’s Conference."— Presentation transcript:
EI Survey on the Status of Women in Unions, Education and Society - previews and snapshots - On the Move for Equality EI’s First World Women’s Conference 20-23 January 2011, Bangkok
Survey Process Development of questionnaire: Spring 2009 Survey conducted: July – November 2009 (March 2010) Data analysis: March – July 2010 First draft technical report: September 2010 Final report: February 2011 Process supported by: EI Regional Offices (especially Equality Coordinators), EI Status of Women Committee, EI Research Unit
Key Results 1.Response Rate 2.Representation of Women in Unions 3.Unions’ Activities on Gender Equality 4.Access to and Gender Equality in Education 5.Gender Equality for Teachers 6.The Status of Women in Society
Data is representative 199519982001200420072010 Absolute number of MOs 64110784477 138 Percentage of MOs 24%39%25%14%18% 34% EI in 2010: 402 MOs, representing almost 30 Million education workers Survey in 2010: Highest absolute response rate (138 organisations) Second highest relative response rate (34% of member organisations)
Response Rate Light bars: percentage of responding member organisations Dark bars: percentage of individual members represented by responses
Measures for Gender Equality 50% of the unions have mechanisms for gender representation in high decision-making positions; mostly quotas: But those unions don’t necessarily have a better representation of women in high decision making positions and bodies. Policy by itself is not enough Relevance of other factors (more research needed) 199519982001200420072010 Quotas, reserved places -23%32%26%31%
Women in Unions: acceleration needed The percentage of women in executive boards and in leadership positions is rising slowly but unsteadily. 199519982001200420072010 % female members 66%> 50%63%53%> 50%59% % women at conference 43%-50%54%51%47% % women in executive board 35%< 30%25%33%46%39% % women in leadership --< 20%21%37%36%
Women in Unions: Representation Women constitute the majority of the union membership in most regions, but they are underrepresented in the union leadership.
Union Structures, Policies, Activities 126 unions responded to this question: 106 unions have a structure for gender equality. 113 unions carry out activities related to women’s rights and/ or gender equality. Unions that have structures for gender equality also have more policies and organise more activities on this issue. Gender equality committees, women’s networks and caucuses take the initiative for activities.
Barriers to Education Most relevant barriers: Child labour, including forms of domestic labour Traditional gender stereotypes, early childbearing, early marriage Illness or death of parents/ caretakers Low quality and lack of education infrastructure (schools in rural areas, safe transport to and facilities in schools) Poverty, cost of education (rather send sons to school than daughters) Many unions indicate that girls are more affected by these barriers (especially in Africa).
Legal Framework and Union Policy Widespread: > 80% government implementation > 50% in union policy Maternity leave Pay equity Provisions against sexual harassment Less frequent: < 60% government implementation < 30% in union policy Affirmative recruitment policies Complaints mechanisms in case of discrimination
Teachers’ Pay Women are overrepresented in pre-school and primary education, where the average salaries are lower; and underrepresen- ted in higher edu- cation, where the salaries are higher. Note: Patterns are similar in all regions, but salary levels are different. Lowest in Africa and Latin America, highest in Europe.
Gender Equality in Society Big gap between legal provision and actual implementation. Gaps reported most frequently: -Labor market (equal access to high job positions) -Politics (equal opportunity to take part in politics) -Violence against women (in public spaces, domestic violence)
Reasons for Implementation Gap Member organisations’ explanations for the implementation gap: Gender stereotypes: glass ceiling, lack of recognition of women’s skills Male group dynamics and hierarchies/ male bonding Unequal division of family responsibilities