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1 IT Essentials I v. 3 Module 1 Information Technology Basics.

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1 1 IT Essentials I v. 3 Module 1 Information Technology Basics

2 Module 1 Information Technology Basics Getting Started in IT 1.2 – Windows Desktop Environment 1.3 – Basic Features of Windows 1.4 – Overview of Software Applications 1.5 – Math for a Digital Age 1.6 – Laboratory Safety and Tools

3 Computer Systems and Programs A computer system consists of hardware and software components. Hardware is the physical equipment such as the case, floppy disk drives, keyboard, monitor, cables, speakers, and printers. Software describes the programs that are used to operate the computer system. Computer software, also called programs, instructs the computer on how to operate.

4 Computer Systems and Programs The two types of software are operating systems and applications. Application software accepts input from the user and then manipulates it to achieve the output. Examples of applications include word processors, database programs, spreadsheets, web browsers, web development tools, and graphic design tools.

5 Computer Systems and Programs An Operating System (OS) is a program that manages all the other programs in a computer. It also provides the operating environment with the applications that are used to access resources on the computer. Examples of operating systems include The Disk Operating System (DOS), Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows NT, Linux, Mac OS X, DEC VMS, and IBM OS/400.

6 Computer Systems and Programs Operating systems are platform-specific. The Windows operating system (3.1, 95, 98, 2000, or NT) is designed for use with a PC. The Mac OS will only work with Macintosh computers. PC and Macintosh are called platforms. A platform is the computer system on which programs can run.

7 Computer Types There are two computer types, Mainframes and PCs. Mainframes are powerful machines that allow companies to automate manual tasks, shorten the time to market for new products, and run financial models that enhance profitability, etc.

8 Computer Types The mainframe model consists of centralized computers. End users interface with the computers via "dumb terminals". These dumb terminals are low cost devices that usually consist of a monitor, keyboard, and a communication port to talk to the mainframe. At its peak in the late 70s and early 80s, the mainframe market was dominated by IBM and Digital Equipment Corporation. These high- powered machines, however, came with high price tags.

9 Computer Types Advantages of mainframes: –Scalability, the ability to add more users as the need arises –Centralized management, Centralized backup –Low cost desktop devices (dumb terminals) –High level of security Disadvantages of mainframes: –Character based applications –Lack of vendor operating system standards and interoperability in multi-vendor environments –Expensive, with a high cost for set up, maintenance, and initial equipment –Potential single point of failure (non-fault tolerant configurations) –Timesharing systems, which means that there is a potential for a bottleneck

10 Computer Types With the Personal Computer (PC), the Graphical User Interface (GUI) gained wide introduction to users. As PC technology has improved, the power of the PC has risen to the point that it can perform enterprise level functions.

11 Computer Types Advantages of PC computing: –Standardized hardware –Standardized, highly interoperable operating systems –GUI interface –Low cost devices (when compared to mainframes), low cost of entry –Distributed computing –User flexibility –High productivity applications

12 Computer Types Disadvantages of PC computing: –Desktop computers cost, on average, five times as much as dumb terminals –No centralized backup –No centralized management –Security risks can be greater (physical, data access, and virus security) –High management and maintenance costs, although they are generally cheaper to maintain than mainframes

13 Connecting Computer Systems A PC is a standalone device, meaning that it is independent of all other computers. Businesses, government offices, and schools need to exchange information and share equipment and resources. To do this, a networking was developed to connect computers. A network is simply a group of computers that are connected so that their resources can be shared.

14 Connecting Computer Systems Networks are not limited to just a building or school campus. Networks can be an entire school district or all of the offices in a company. A school, for example, is connected to a main district office, as are all the other schools in a district. The Internet is the ultimate network, connecting millions of smaller networks.

15 Connecting Computer Systems Most connections are made by cable, but wireless connections are beginning to gain popularity. Cable can carry voice, data, or both. Homes may have modems that plug into telephone jacks. The telephone line carries voice signals when the telephone is plugged into the jack, but carries data signals (encoded to appear as if they were voice) when the modem is connected. Other faster connections to the Internet are available, such as Digital Subscriber Line (DSL), cable, and T1, T3, or E1 lines.

16 Birth of the Internet In the 1960s, the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) recognized the need to establish communications links between major U.S. military installations. The motivation was to maintain communications if a nuclear war resulted in the mass destruction and breakdown of traditional communication channels.

17 Birth of the Internet Throughout the 1970s, more nodes or access points were added, both domestically and abroad. In 1983 the ARPANET was split, and Military Network (MILNET), which was integrated with the Defense Data Network (DDN), took 68 of the 113 existing nodes. The DDN had been created the previous year. The Domain Name System (DNS) was introduced in 1984, providing a way to map "friendly" host names to IP addresses. In 1984, there were more than 1,000 host computers on the network.

18 Birth of the Internet During the last half of the 1980s the National Science Foundation (NSF) created supercomputer centers in the United States at Princeton, the University of California, the University of Illinois, and Cornell University. The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) was also created during this time. By 1987, there were 10,000 hosts on the network, and by 1989, that number increased to over 100,000.

19 Birth of the Internet In 1990 ARPANET evolved into the Internet. The National Science Foundation Network (NSFNET) backbone was upgraded to T3 speed (that is, Mbps) The Internet Society (ISOC) was formed, and in 1992 more than 1 million hosts existed on the Internet. By 1995, online advertising had caught on, online banking had arrived, and even a pizza could be ordered over the Internet.

20 Birth of the Internet In the late 1990s, streaming audio and video, "push" technologies, and Java and ActiveX scripting took advantage of higher performance connectivity that was available at lower and lower prices. Today, there are millions of sites that exist on the World Wide Web, with millions of host computers participating in this great linking.

21 The Cost of Technology: More and More for Less and Less The cost of the increasingly sophisticated technology has fallen. For under $1,000 users can buy a computer system that is capable of doing much more, and doing it better and faster than the $500,000 mainframe version of 20 years ago. Internet access at speeds equivalent to T1 is available through Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) or cable modem for U.S. $30 to $40 per month, and prices are falling.

22 Windows Desktop Environment

23 Starting, Shutting Down, and Restarting Microsoft Windows Starting a computer is also referred to as booting the system. A "cold boot" is performed when the PC is turned on using the power button. At the end of this process, a single beep tone will sound and the Windows operating system desktop will be displayed. Restarting a PC that has already been powered up is referred to as a "warm boot". This can be achieved by pressing the reset button on the front panel.

24 Starting, Shutting Down, and Restarting Microsoft Windows To shut down the computer, click on the Start button on the lower left corner of the Windows Taskbar and select Shut Down. Or press Ctrl+Alt+Delete, and click Shut Down from the menu that displays.

25 Starting, Shutting Down, and Restarting Microsoft Windows Do not turn the computer off until a message displays indicating that it is safe to do so. Important data that is stored in memory while the system is running needs to be written to the hard disk before turning off the computer. It is important not to power off the computer with the power switch. Most operating systems like Macintosh and Windows have a specific method for turning the system off.

26 Windows Explorer Windows Explorer file manager in Windows 95/98/NT4/2000 provides the ability to create, copy, move and delete files and folders. Explorer displays the hierarchy of folders stored on the hard disk or other storage device in the left window. When a user clicks on a folder in the left Explorer window, its contents will display in the right window.

27 Windows Explorer Explorer can be accessed in Windows 2000 by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Windows Explorer, from the Windows desktop With Windows 9X (95, 98, and Millennium), choose Start > Programs > Windows Explorer from the menu that displays. Another way to open Windows Explorer is to right-click on Start and select Explore.

28 The Desktop The main display screen in Windows is known as the desktop. The Windows desktop has remained consistent for most versions of Windows including 95, 98, 98 SE, Millennium (ME), NT, and 2000.

29 The Desktop Clicking on the My Computer icon gives access to all the installed drives. My Documents is a shortcut to personal, or frequently accessed files, and Network Neighborhood allows the users to see neighboring computers in a networked environment.

30 The Desktop Located at the bottom of the desktop is the taskbar. The taskbar contains the Start button, quick launch buttons, and the clock. The Start button displays the Start menu. This menu allows access to virtually every program and function on the PC. Quick launch buttons are similar to desktop icons as they are also shortcuts to applications.

31 Working with Icons Icons are shortcuts to programs or files on the computer desktop that improve navigation. To create a shortcut (icon), right-click the program or file (in Windows Explorer) and select Create Shortcut. Explorer can be accessed in Windows 2000 by choosing Start > Programs > Accessories > Windows Explorer, from the Windows desktop.

32 Working with Icons With Windows 9x (95, 98, and Millennium), choose Start > Programs > Windows Explorer from the menu that displays.

33 Working with Icons To move the created icon or any desktop icon to another position on the desktop, click on it and then drag it to the desired location. The icon becomes semi- transparent while being dragged. To restore the icon to full intensity, click on an empty part of the desktop.

34 Working with Icons If the icon does not move, disable the Auto Arrange function on the desktop. Right-click on an empty space of the desktop and choose Arrange Icons. Uncheck the Auto Arrange selection.

35 Working with Icons To select several icons at once to move, hold down the Ctrl key and click on all the icons that are to be moved. Drag the group of icons to the new location and let go of the mouse button. Unselect the icons by clicking on an empty part of the desktop.

36 Working with Icons Rename icons and folders by clicking on the name once and then typing in a new name.

37 Recognizing an Application Window Application windows typically have a title bar, tool bar, menu bar, status bar, and scroll bar. WordPad will be used to demonstrate the features common to most Windows applications. WordPad, or Notepad on some Windows computers, is a word processing program located in the Start > Programs > Accessories directory of a Windows environment.

38 Recognizing an Application Window Title Bar – Displays the name of the document and application. In this example, it is "Document - WordPad". Also located in the title bar are the Minimize, Maximize, and Exit buttons that will be discussed in this chapter. Menu Bar – Contains menus for manipulating the document, such as creating new documents, copying text, inserting images, and so on.

39 Recognizing an Application Window Status Bar – Located at the bottom of the window, the status bar shows useful information, such as page number, whether the file is being saved, how to access the Help feature, etc. Scroll Bar – Windows may have scroll bars that appear on the right side, the bottom of the window, or both. Clicking on the arrows on either end of the scroll bar moves the images or text through the window.

40 Resizing a Desktop Window Windows that display applications like WordPad can have sizes ranging from very tiny to full screen. To resize a window, move the cursor to any corner or side of the application window. A double-headed arrow will appear. Click and drag on it to change the window size.

41 Cursors There are many types of arrows, pointers, cursors, and other items, that can be used to navigate around in Windows. To modify mouse pointers, go to My Computer > Control Panel > Mouse > Pointer.

42 Switching Between Windows When more than one window is open, the user can switch between windows by pressing Alt +Tab. While holding down the Alt button, keep pressing Tab to find the desired window.

43 Basic Features of Windows

44 Viewing a Computer's Basic System Information To view information about the system, go to the Start menu and choose Programs > Accessories > System Tools > System Information. These steps are similar for Windows 2000 and Windows 98/ME.

45 Viewing a Computer's Basic System Information The window that opens gives the Operating System (OS) name and version, the system manufacturer and model, the processor type and manufacturer, the BIOS version, and the memory.

46 Viewing a Computer's Basic System Information This information can be saved as a text file by selecting Action from the toolbar and Save As Text File (When using Windows 2000). Where the file is to be saved can be specified.

47 Viewing a Computer's Basic System Information This shows the System Info.txt file in the directory. Double-click on the file System Info.txt. The document will open in Notepad text editor.

48 Viewing a Computer's Basic System Information The document will open in Notepad text editor The text can then be copied and pasted into a word processing program such as Microsoft Word or a spreadsheet program like Microsoft Excel so that the information is easier to read.

49 Setting the Clock and Date Double-click on the clock on the taskbar. A popup window will display. Click on the down arrow next to month to select the current month. Change the year in the same manner if needed. To adjust the date, click on the desired numerical day of the month. Set the clock by entering the new time in the field and selecting AM/PM.

50 Setting the Clock and Date Click on the tab labeled Time Zone. Click the down arrow and choose the appropriate time zone. The clock will automatically adjust itself for daylight savings changes annually. In Windows 98, the display window to adjust the date and time properties will be slightly different from Windows 2000.

51 Minimizing, Maximizing, and Exiting Most applications have three small icons in the upper right corner of the screen that are used to minimize, maximize, or exit the application. By clicking on the Minimize button, the application is placed on the taskbar. It is still open and can be accessed by clicking on it in the taskbar. The Maximize/Restore button, changes depending on whether the window being viewed is opened partially or fully. Click on this button to make the application screen smaller or larger.

52 Adjusting the Screen Display To adjust the screen display, first minimize all windows that are open. Right-click on empty space on the desktop and choose Properties to open the Display Properties window. Alternatively, from the Start menu choose Settings > Control Panel > Display.

53 Adjusting the Screen Display The Background tab allows users to choose what is displayed as background for the desktop. Windows default background is a green screen.

54 Adjusting the Screen Display The Screen Saver tab permits selecting a screen saver and when it should activate on the desktop.

55 Adjusting the Screen Display The Appearance tab has settings that allow users to choose the size and color of text and backgrounds for applications.

56 Adjusting the Screen Display The Effects tab allows users to choose visual effects such as fade effects, large icons, and the ability to show contents while dragging windows.

57 Adjusting the Screen Display The Web tab (not in Windows 95) has a feature that allows users to decide whether or not to show web content on the active desktop.

58 Desktop Settings To adjust the desktop setting, access the Display Properties window as explained in the previous section. In the Settings tab, adjust the number of colors and the number of pixels that will be displayed. Pixels are tiny dots that make up the light on the screen and determine the intensity of a screen image. Once the color or number of pixels has been selected, click Apply.

59 Desktop Settings Click on OK. Choose Yes to reconfigure the desktop. The screen display may go blank or the desktop screen may jump around. Windows is adjusting the desktop to match the new settings.

60 Adjusting Audio Volume To access the volume control, double-click on the speaker icon on the taskbar. Slide the bars up and down until the volume level and other audio settings are desired.

61 Start Menu Options: Accessing More Windows Features The Start button is located on the Windows taskbar in the lower left hand corner of the Windows desktop. Imbedded in it are several useful Windows features. Clicking on the Start button will access these options.

62 Start Menu Options: Accessing More Windows Features Run The Run feature is another method of starting a program, instead of clicking the program's shortcut icon on the desktop or on the list of programs within the Programs directory. Access the Run feature by clicking on Start and choosing Run. This will open a command line entry space into which the program name and any parameters that are needed can be entered as in a DOS prompt window.

63 Start Menu Options: Accessing More Windows Features The Help feature provides tips and instructions on how to use Windows, along with an index and search function so information can be found easily.

64 Start Menu Options: Accessing More Windows Features From the Start menu on the taskbar, select Help. Click on the Index tab, type in the keyword phrase "formatting disks". Click Display. The right side of the screen will display instructions on how to format a disk.

65 Start Menu Options: Accessing More Windows Features Find/Search In Windows 95, 98, and Windows NT, Find is used to locate files, folders, and network connections to other computers and peripherals. In Windows 2000, Find has been renamed Search. Documents The Documents menu shows a list of the most recent documents that have been accessed or created. A shortcut method for finding documents, it is a convenient means of going back to a file that has been used recently. These documents are linked to the applications that created them, so clicking on the document will launch the application as well.

66 Start Menu Options: Accessing More Windows Features Programs The Programs menu lists all of the programs that are installed on the computer. To start a program, click Start > Programs, locate the program to be started, and then click on it. Shortcut icons on the desktop can be made for those programs that are used regularly.

67 Recycle Bin The Recycle Bin stores deleted files, folders, graphics, and web pages from the hard disk. These items can be undeleted or restored back to their original location. Items remain there until they are permanently deleted from the computer.

68 Overview of Software Applications

69 Word Processors A word processor is an application that creates, edits, stores, and prints documents. The figure shows Microsoft Word 2000 as an example of a word processor. All word processors can insert or delete text, copy, cut, paste, and define margins.

70 Spreadsheets Numerical data is stored in cells that are arranged on a grid. Cells are referred to by their position in this grid according to the column and row they occupy. Many spreadsheets have the ability to plot data in the form of graphs, bar charts, and pie charts. Examples are Microsoft Excel and Lotus

71 Databases A database is a collection of data that is organized so that its contents can be easily accessed, managed, and updated. Examples are Microsoft Access, Oracle Database, and FileMaker. PC databases fall into two distinct categories, flat-file and relational. A flat-file database stores the information in a single table. Relational databases are a collection of flat-file databases linked through some particular relationship.

72 Databases Flat-file databases are two dimensional, while relational databases have three or more dimensions. Relational databases are the best way to store large amounts of inter-related data. Their advantage when compared with flat-file databases is their ability to handle multiple relationships with a minimum of duplication of data.

73 Graphics Applications Graphics applications are used to create or modify graphical images. The two types include object- based or vector-based and bitmaps or raster images. The different types of graphic programs fall into four main categories: 1.Image editing, 2.Illustration 3.Animation 4.3D graphics

74 Graphics Applications There are several types of graphic programs. They can be roughly broken down into four main categories: Image editing – The industry standard image editing software is Adobe Photoshop. Its vast tool set makes it possible to manipulate and create raster (bitmap) images

75 Graphics Applications Illustration – The most popular illustration software is Adobe Illustrator. It has a tool set similar to Photoshop, yet it creates vector-based images as opposed to raster images.

76 Graphics Applications Animation – Animation is the process of creating sequential images that, when played in a series, gives the impression of continuous movement. The most popular types of animation are frame-by- frame animation and keyframe animation. 3D Graphics – Using a simulated three-dimensional environment, geometric objects can be created, textured, painted, and animated. This geometry can have real world scale and depth to assist in the creation of floor plans, model cars, or even movie specials effects.

77 Graphics Applications Computer-Aided Design (CAD) CAD software requires high-speed workstations or desktop computers. It is available for generic design or specialized uses such as architectural, electrical, and mechanical. More complex forms of CAD are solid modeling and parametric modeling, which allows objects to be created with real-world characteristics.

78 Presentation Applications Presentation applications permit the organizing, design, and delivery of presentations in the form of slide shows and reports. Bar charts, pie charts, graphics, and other types of images can be created based on data that is imported from spreadsheet applications. An example is Microsoft PowerPoint 2000.

79 Web Browser and A web browser is an application that is used to locate and display pages from the World Wide Web. The two most common are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer. Electronic mail is the exchange of computer-stored messages by network communication. Both Netscape and Microsoft include an utility with their web browsers.

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