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Human Factors in Product Design 2000.4.15. Myung Hwan Yun Department of Industrial Engineering Pohang University of Science and Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Human Factors in Product Design 2000.4.15. Myung Hwan Yun Department of Industrial Engineering Pohang University of Science and Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Human Factors in Product Design Myung Hwan Yun Department of Industrial Engineering Pohang University of Science and Technology


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11 POSTECH IE 11 Which product do we purchase? Satisfaction Performance Cost Image & Impression Introduction Purchasing Point of Product Product Usability Evaluation Method Human Interface Element Measurement Technique

12 POSTECH IE 12 Emerging Paradigm of Product Development - Ergonomics in a New Product Design- Concurrent engineering/Cross-functional team (Andreasen et. al., 1987) Strong emphasis is on –efficiency and performance –ease of design –materials/parts cost –manufacturing requirement Ignored –customer needs –potential demand –effectiveness of design –product usability (Roozenburg and Ekels, 1995)

13 POSTECH IE 13 Identification of Customer Needs Needs Product Functional specification Product Identification of the need –The most important part of product development –related to the conceptual design, design selection, competitive benchmarking Importance of customer needs –systematic implementation to the design process

14 POSTECH IE 14 Identification of Needs - Series of Ergonomic Analysis- Expert Ergonomists Evaluates the Product Matrix analysis –Human characteristics –Product functions, –Human-product interface Ideas –New product ideas –New product functions –Design improvements

15 POSTECH IE 15 New Paradigm for Product Development

16 POSTECH IE 16 Concept of Product Evaluation Customer evaluation Measurement of product characteristics Objects for evaluation and measurement Product Evaluation

17 POSTECH IE 17 Systematic Design Process Transforming –consumer needs and potential demands –to design/function Various models included –Hierarchical Analysis –QFD –AHP, MADM

18 POSTECH IE 18 Usability Evaluation Technique Usability Dimension of Consumer Electronic Product (Han et al, 1998) –Image & Impression Dimension –Performance Dimension –Developing A/V Measurement Checklist

19 POSTECH IE 19 Human Characteristics Variable About 150 Items on the list Hierarchically Classified Used as a checklist to evaluate the product

20 POSTECH IE 20 Performance Measurements(II) Quality of the resultant task output Subjective performance satisfaction Multiplicity Time Delay Complexity Visual Physiological Bio-Electric System response delay time Acknowledgment delay time Relative system delay Relative task length User input Task length Mode switch System errors Rating Eyelid activity Pupillary dialation Eye movement GSR(Galvanic Skin Resistance) Heart rate Respiration volume and rate EKG(Electrocardiogram) EMG(Electromyogram) EEG(Electroencephalogram) ECP(Evoked Cortical Potentials) Body temperature Blood presure Task SubjectiveSubjective InterfaceInterface PhysiologicalPhysiological 44 items

21 POSTECH IE 21 Image and Impression Measurements Semantic Differentials DL Scale Paired Comparison Scale Equisection Scale Ratio Production/Estimation Magnitude Production/Estimation Simple Rating Scale Likerts Summated Rating scale Repertory Grids Favorable/unfavorable user comments Good/bad features recalled by users Frustrations/satisfactions Pleasantness/unpleasantness Absolute scale Ratio Scale Partition Scale Confusion Scale Verbal Reports User Comments & Opinions ECP(Evoked Cortical Potentials) Bio-electric EEG(Electroencephalogram) EMG(Electromyogram) ECG or EKG(Electrocardiogram) Visual Pupillary Dialation Eyelid Activity Eye Movement Physiological GSR(Galvanic Skin Resistance) Respiration Volume and Rate Heart Rate Body Temperature Blood Pressure PsychophysicalPsychophysicalDescriptiveDescriptivePhysiologicalPhysiological 26 items

22 POSTECH IE 22 Performance Measurements(I) Accuracy Efficiency Speed Task completion time Time spent in errors Time spent using help or documentation Time to learn specific functions Time to search the specific commands User delay time User idleness Relative user delay Ratio of task completion and error-free time Ratio of successes to failures Number of available commands not invoked Percentage of functions learned Number of commands used to perform task Frequency of errors Frequency of failed tasks Frequency of losing control of the system Number of out-of-tolerance condition Number of repetitions of failed commands Number of times interface misleads the user Frequency of requests for help information Number of tasks completed per unit timeTaskTask Subjective Interface Physiological

23 POSTECH IE 23 High Touch is a Systematic Approach - Trend Analysis -

24 POSTECH IE 24 High Touch - Functional Transitivity -

25 POSTECH IE 25 Relationship Matrix Analysis : Activity vs. Human Characteristics (number of dots : number of Ideas)


27 POSTECH IE 27 ! ( ) (Visual (idea, posted, arranged))

28 POSTECH IE 28 Product Function – Washing Machine Hierarchically Classified Functional Breakdown of the product

29 POSTECH IE 29 Matrix Analysis A QFD matrix Human Characteristics vs. Product Function 152 X 126 cells Based on the question Can there be a new product function satisfying human characteristics X in the product variable Y ?

30 POSTECH IE 30 Measures Of Design Quality Number of component parts and product options Percentage of standard parts Use of existing manufacturing resources Cost of first production run First six months cost of engineering changes First year cost of field service repair Total product cost Total product sales Sustainable development

31 POSTECH IE 31 Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Translates the voice of the customer into technical design requirements Displays requirements in matrix diagrams First matrix called house of quality Series of connected houses

32 POSTECH IE 32 House Of Quality 6. Technical assessment and target values 1. Customer requirements 4. Relationship matrix 3. Product characteristics Importance 2. Competitive assessment 5. Tradeoff matrix

33 POSTECH IE 33 Series Of QFD Houses

34 POSTECH IE 34 Benefits Of QFD Promotes better understanding of customer demands Promotes better understanding of design interactions Involves manufacturing in the design process Breaks down barriers between functions and departments Focuses the design effort Fosters teamwork Improves documentation of the design and development process Provides a database for future designs Increases customer satisfaction Reduces the number of engineering changes Brings new designs to the market faster Reduces the cost of design and manufacture

35 POSTECH IE 35 Design For Robustness Product can fail due to poor design quality Products subjected to many conditions Robust design studies –controllable factors - under designers control –uncontrollable factors - from user or environment Designs products for consistent performance

36 POSTECH IE 36 Consistency Is Important Consistent errors are easier to correct than random errors Parts within tolerances may yield assemblies which arent Consumers prefer product characteristics near their ideal values

37 POSTECH IE 37 Potential Functions Considered

38 POSTECH IE 38 The Working Prototype 9 functions selected –combination pulsator –pulsator elevation –ergonomic handle grip – power door, –self-cleaning tub –sloped display panel –personal wash program, –tub lighting, –washing progress display Evaluated to be very successful

39 POSTECH IE 39 The Production Model adopted combination pulsator, ergonomic handle grip design, sloped display, new rinsing tool and wash habit programming In the first six month, the total sales was $ 20 million increased the market share of the company from 34% to 42%

40 POSTECH IE 40 High Touch - Hit Product- Hand-Wash Washing M/C M/S : 8% increase in 3 months (1995) Elevator Microwave Oven Top M/S in Korea (1995) KOBO Net Profit $ 100 million (1990) UF-Type Water Purifier Best Seller Product in Korea (1996) AI Remocon Good Response in Market (1989) Double Compressor Refrigerator Good Response in Market (1996)

41 POSTECH IE 41 High Touch - Recent Efforts- Double Deck VCR Hands-Free Camcorder UF-Type Water Purifier Pyramid VCR Double Compressor Refrigerator Movable Air Conditioner Hand-Wash Washing M/C Elevator Microwave Oven

42 POSTECH IE 42 CONCLUSION Ergonomic method successfully applied in home appliances product Ergonomics can be efficient and helpful – in the new product development Major manufacturers in Korea adopted similar approach New Product Design –human capabilities –physical limits –personal habits –cultural characteristics –individual preferences Competitive Advantage –Personalized products –Consumer taste –Tailored functions

43 POSTECH IE 43 Lessons Learned - Ergonomists in Product Development - Involve Early in the Development Process Use Process Planning –Approval from the Management –Documentation Establish a Formal Process –Budget –Schedule –Reporting Dont be afraid to Fight It is very easy to Do Nothing

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