Presentation on theme: "Indonesia: Support for coal development through World Bank DPLs Arif Fiyanto Greenpeace Southeast Asia - Indonesia World Bank Group AGM – October 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Indonesia: Support for coal development through World Bank DPLs Arif Fiyanto Greenpeace Southeast Asia - Indonesia World Bank Group AGM – October 2013
Indonesia – Climate Change Indonesia is highly vulnerable to climate change impacts, including: –Threats to food security, agricultural & coastal zone productivity, and water availability –Increase in water- and vector-borne diseases Puts development and poverty alleviation gains at risk.
Indonesia – Climate Change World’s largest thermal coal exporter World’s third largest emitter of greenhouse gases (GHG), mainly due to deforestation and peat fires
Indonesia – Climate Change GHG emissions per capita are growing faster than GDP per capita Current energy growth path relies on increasing contributions from carbon intensive sources - coal- fired power. Unless there is a shift from the current government plan, IEA (2007) projects Indonesia’s fossil fuel related GHG emissions could triple by 2025
Current Government Energy Growth Plan: Fast Track I & II Power Projects (under development) Year adopted Power source Fast Track I (MW) Fast Track II (MW) Total Projects Total Generation Percent of Generation Coal14,6113, ,28371% Gas5601,30041,8607% Geothermal4403,867464,30717% Hydropower1,1743 5% Total15,61110, ,624
Overview of World Bank Involvement World Bank: Infrastructure Development Policy Loans ( ) Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund (IIGF): Guarantee of $34 to CJPP Guarantees in pipeline for other projects Central Java Power Project (2000 MW) Purukcahu Cangkuang Railway World Bank: Loan to IIGF of $30 million Sumsel (South Sumatra) Mine-Mouth Plants (600 MW and 1200 MW) IFC: Transaction Advisor World Bank: $480 million standby faciity for IIGF PPP Framework providing industry subsidies WORLD BANK SUPPORT INDONESIAN GOVERNMENT COAL DEVELOPMENT
World Bank Infrastructure Development Policy Loans Four I-DPLs covering 2007 to 2011 totaling $850 m aimed at roads, water, and electricity Support to GOI infrastructure development plan, including the Fast Track power projects Framework for public-private partnerships (PPP): –Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund (IIGF) –Indonesia Infrastructure Financing Facility (IIFF)
Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund (IIGF) Guarantees for infrastructure projects under the PPP scheme, including Fast Track power projects Key to obtaining finance World Bank $480 m standby facility and additional $30 m IIGF loan (FY2013)
Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund (IIGF) – Coal Projects So far: Central Java Power Plant – 2,000 MW ($40 million guarantee) Kalimantan - Puruk Cahu-Bangkuang Coal Railway (for exports) 1,200 MW Coal-Fired Mine-mouth Sumsel Power Plant MW Coal-Fired Mine-mouth Sumsel Power Plant 10
Central Java Power Plant IFC Transaction Advisor: –analyze project fundamentals (grew from GOI- proposed 800 MW to 2,000 MW) –promote and secure project to investors –prepare PPP contract
Indonesia Power Sector PPP Framework PPP framework provides government incentives including : –VAT tax exemptions, –import duty exemptions, –income tax rate reductions, –accelerated rates of depreciation, –land tax exemptions, –building tax exemptions, –the IIGF guarantees Subsidies to private investors for power projects whether fossil fuel or renewable.
OP8.60 Review of Potential Impacts Inadequate Identification of Impacts Despite DPL support for energy infrastructure based largely on coal: –OP8.60 Review concluded “Generally, policy actions supported by the operation do not have significant adverse impacts on the environment.”
OP8.60 Review of Potential Impacts Environmental review focused mainly on electricity tariff reform – not guarantees for coal projects – thus concluded positive “Potential negative effects include changing the natural landscape, increased emissions of greenhouse gas and other pollutants due to increased fossil fuel based electricity generation capacity, …” but the DPL would address this by strengthening the government’s EIA capacity.
OP8.60 Review of Potential Impacts If the Indonesia DPL policies and institutions enabling big coal projects did not qualify, it is difficult to understand when a DPL would be considered by the Bank to represent a potential for significant negative impacts All Coal Power Plants are category A projects, if this DPL were subject to Safeguard OP 4.01, it would be a category A DPL
Local opposition to IIGF supported projects Central Java Power Plant –Lawsuit against the Batang regent for making a bylaw for the project that contradicted regulations to protect the Marine Natural Park –Multiple protests have been held by thousands of residents who insist that the power plant will harm the environment and threaten their livelihoods
Central Java Power Plant If it is built, it will pump 10,8 million tones of CO2 into the atmosphere annualy It will also release 226 kg of mercury each year It will also release tonnes of SOx, tonnes NOx, and 610 tonnes of PM 2.5 each year
Local opposition to IIGF supported projects Kalimantan - Puruk Cahu-Bangkuang Coal Railway (for exports) –More than a dozen Central Kalimantan-based organizations oppose the coal railway based on environmental, social, and economic concerns. –Railway construction will accelerate deforestation and undermine goals of Central Kalimantan as a REDD+ pilot province.
Conclusions World Bank Indonesia Infrastructure DPLs initiated policies and institutions that promote coal development in Indonesia Instead of guiding Indonesia – already the world’s largest coal exporter – onto a low-carbon development path, the Bank’s infrastructure program has fortified a coal-intensive future OP8.60 environmental review did not adequately identify potential DPL negative impacts
Recommendations Withdraw the Bank’s financial backing from the Indonesia Infrastructure Guarantee Fund (IIGF) unless the IIGF stops support for the Central Java Power Project and all other coal projects. Ensure that the Bank’s Energy Directions’ limit on coal financing is comprehensive and applies to all forms of support, including development policy loans, financial intermediaries, and advisory services. Safeguard OP DPLs should be subject to environmental and social risk categorization based on a robust screening process followed by an Environmental and Social Assessment (ESA) for category A DPLs (like Indonesia)