Geography and its impact Early civilization developed in North America, South America and Central America Latin America= Central America, Mexico, South America and some Caribbean Islands Spoke Latin based languages –Spanish, Portuguese and French –Caused by being annexed (colonized)
Land and Climate of Latin America Plains Cover most of Mexico, and South America Highland plateaus –farming and grazing Mountains North American into Mexico –Sierra Madres South America –Andes Mountains (the whole of the western coast)
Land continued….. Rain Forest Important geographical feature Largest Rain Forest in the world –Amazon River Basin rain forest –In South and Central America
Climate Mountains –Colder than in the lowlands –Snow on mountains Coast and Interior –Tropical, wet to hot and dry climates
The first Americans crossed the Land bridge 13,000 years ago Siberia (northern /Russia) connected to Alaska Nomadic Asian people crossed this land bridge into the Americas to scatter through out the Americas
Between 3,400 B.C. learned to grow Maize An important agricultural element Became the basics of their diet Dried after harvest and stored to serve as winter food. Ground into flour for bread and cooked in a variety of ways
Olmecs Zapotecs Earliest known civilization in the Americas Gulf of Mexico 1200 BC Fishing and farming Rubber trees –Rubber balls used on Stone courts Art –Gigantic carved stone head Calendar Southeastern Mexico 500 B.C. Writing system Pyramids of the Sun and the Moon Farmers, craft workers artisans, builders, merchants, warriors traded with others Priests and the rulers governed the city
Aztecs Central Mexico1200 A.D. Unified empire under a Ruler chosen by the noble and priest Calendar Warriors Miners-gold, precious stones Farmer- maize, squash, beans, tobacco,
Continued….. Human sacrifices to the Gods –Most were prisoners –To be Sacrificed was a honor for the victim and the family Schools –Boys- astronomy and religion –Both- trained on the what was required to be a adult.
The Aztec Empire is part of Mexico today. According to Aztec legend, the gods told the nomadic people who had entered the Valley of Mexico to search for an eagle perched on the top of a cactus. The eagle would be holding a snake in its beak.
Peru Along the Pacific coast of South America Land is forested Small % suitable for farming
Chavin Moche Northern Peru –900-200 B.C. Built stone temple made of Adobe –Bricks made of sun dried clay –To honor the animal gods Jaguar, serpent, alligator 200-100 B.C. Built no cities/urban center Aggressive people Engineers built roads and irrigation canals Collapsed 900 A.D. –Possible reasons Drought, severe flooding
Nazca lines (Peru) The are a series of drawings located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches more than 50 miles. Believed to have been created between 200BC and 700 AD. There are hundreds of individual figures, ranging in complexity from simple lines to stylized hummingbirds, spiders, monkeys, fish, sharks or orcas, llamas, and lizards.
Incan Society highly developed religion and well defined social classes Polytheistic many gods: Moon, Stars, thunder, Sun God most important Spirits live in every aspect of nature Woman were trained to serve the Sun God
Incan Social Classes Social Classes Pure Inca- ruling family and nobles Adopted Inca Nobles from (conquered) neighboring lands Provincial nobles Allowed to rule large estates Ordinary people Lowest class, highest %
Inca Families Families formed into groups (by 10) 1 man served as administrator No taxes –supplied labor for social services Services –given food, benefits for orphans and windows, feast for holidays Government –Strict rulers permission to travel through the empire –Clothing Wear clothing connected to the people and from where they lived
Native Americans No unified empires No cities, palaces, Hunter gathers, farmers, trading with each other Developed different languages, cultures, style of dress. Adapted to the environment instead of changing it
Geography Huge land mass- Varying climates –No rain, lots of rain, hot, cold landforms –mountains, deserts, plains, forests –Rivers, lakes, and oceans
Western Groups Eskimos/ Inuit's (Northwestern) –Arctic region of Canada and Alaska –Tents made from animal skins –Tools made from teeth and bones
western Anasazi (Southwestern) –4 corners-Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and Utah – Apartment style homes-adobe
Navajos –Farmers and ranchers Apaches –Lived on the open plains –Hunters, Raiding others
Eastern groups Mound Builder –Hopewells –Mississippi and Ohio river valley –Disappeared in the 17 th century
Iroquois and Hurons New York and Great Lakes area Farmers Built longhouses Wampum- colorful breads Formed a confederacy –To get along