4 Geography and its impact Early civilization developed in North America, South America and Central AmericaLatin America= Central America, Mexico, South America and some Caribbean IslandsSpoke Latin based languagesSpanish, Portuguese and FrenchCaused by being annexed (colonized)
5 Land and Climate of Latin America PlainsCover most of Mexico, and South AmericaHighland plateaus –farming and grazingMountainsNorth American into MexicoSierra MadresSouth AmericaAndes Mountains(the whole of the western coast)
6 Important geographical feature Largest Rain Forest in the world Land continued…..Rain ForestImportant geographical featureLargest Rain Forest in the worldAmazon River Basin rain forestIn South and Central America
7 Climate Mountains Coast and Interior Colder than in the lowlands Snow on mountainsCoast and InteriorTropical, wet to hot and dry climates
8 The first Americans crossed the Land bridge 13,000 years agoSiberia (northern /Russia) connected to AlaskaNomadic Asian people crossed this land bridge into the Americas to scatter through out the Americas
10 Between 3,400 B.C. learned to grow Maize An important agricultural elementBecame the basics of their dietDried after harvest and stored to serve as winter food.Ground into flour for bread and cooked in a variety of ways
12 Olmecs Zapotecs Earliest known civilization in the Americas Gulf of Mexico 1200 BCFishing and farmingRubber treesRubber balls used on Stone courtsArtGigantic carved stone headCalendarSoutheastern Mexico 500 B.C.Writing systemPyramids of the Sun and the MoonFarmers, craft workers artisans, builders, merchants, warriorstraded with othersPriests and the rulers governed the city
24 Aztecs Central Mexico1200 A.D. Unified empire under a Ruler chosen by the noble and priestCalendarWarriorsMiners-gold, precious stonesFarmer- maize, squash, beans, tobacco,
25 Human sacrifices to the Gods Continued…..Human sacrifices to the GodsMost were prisonersTo be Sacrificed was a honor for the victim and the familySchoolsBoys- astronomy and religionBoth- trained on the what was required to be a adult.
27 The Aztec Empire is part of Mexico today. According to Aztec legend, the gods told the nomadic people who had entered the Valley of Mexico to search for an eagle perched on the top of a cactus. The eagle would be holding a snake in its beak.
29 Quetzelcoatl was a former white skinned and bearded priest. came from the east and promised to return.The god of civilization and learning.
30 Peru and the Incan Empire Section 2Peru and the Incan Empire
31 Peru Along the Pacific coast of South America Land is forested Small % suitable for farming
32 Chavin Moche Northern Peru Built stone temple made of Adobe B.C.Built stone temple made of AdobeBricks made of sun dried clayTo honor the animal godsJaguar, serpent, alligatorB.C.Built no cities/urban centerAggressive peopleEngineers built roads and irrigation canalsCollapsed 900 A.D.Possible reasonsDrought, severe flooding
34 Nazca lines (Peru)The are a series of drawings located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches more than 50 miles. Believed to have been created between 200BC and 700 AD. There are hundreds of individual figures, ranging in complexity from simple lines to stylized hummingbirds, spiders, monkeys, fish, sharks or orcas, llamas, and lizards.
45 Incan Society highly developed religion and well defined social classes Polytheisticmany gods: Moon, Stars, thunder, Sun God most importantSpirits live in every aspect of natureWoman were trained to serve the Sun God
46 Incan Social Classes Social Classes Adopted Inca Provincial nobles Pure Inca- ruling family and noblesAdopted IncaNobles from (conquered) neighboring landsProvincial noblesAllowed to rule large estatesOrdinary peopleLowest class, highest %
47 Inca Families Families formed into groups (by 10) 1 man served as administratorNo taxes –supplied labor for social servicesServicesgiven food, benefits for orphans and windows, feast for holidaysGovernmentStrict rulerspermission to travel through the empireClothingWear clothing connected to the people and from where they lived
55 Native Americans No unified empires No cities, palaces, Hunter gathers, farmers, trading with each otherDeveloped different languages, cultures, style of dress.Adapted to the environment instead of changing it
56 Geography Huge land mass- Varying climates landforms No rain, lots of rain, hot, coldlandformsmountains, deserts, plains, forestsRivers, lakes, and oceans
57 Western Groups Eskimos/ Inuit's (Northwestern) Arctic region of Canada and AlaskaTents made from animal skinsTools made from teeth and bones
58 western Anasazi (Southwestern) 4 corners-Colorado, Arizona, New Mexico, and UtahApartment style homes-adobe
59 Navajos Apaches Farmers and ranchers Lived on the open plains Hunters, Raiding others
60 Eastern groups Mound Builder Hopewells Mississippi and Ohio river valleyDisappeared in the 17th century
61 Iroquois and Hurons New York and Great Lakes area Farmers Built longhousesWampum- colorful breadsFormed a confederacyTo get along