2Core Concepts 1.1 – Measuring Time Historians are people who study events in the pastA) Using a TimelineHistorians use a timeline or a line marked off with a series of events and dates.Timelines are used to put events in a chronology or a list of events in the order in which they occurred.Timelines cover a day, a year, a decade (ten years), a century (one hundred years), a millennium (one thousand years), or any other period in history.A period is a length of time singled out because of a specific even or development that happened during that time.It is also known as an era or epochHistorians use periods and eras to organize and describe human activities
3B) Organizing TimeThe past is often split into two parts, prehistory and history.Prehistory is the time before humans invented writing.History refers to written history, which began about 5,200 years ago.History can also be organized by beginning with a key event from the past.
4continue One event many people use is the birthdate of Jesus. Years before this were labeled B.C for before Christ or B.C.E. for before common era.Years after Jesus’ birthdate are labeled A.D. meaning anno Domini or in the year of our Lord.Also used is C.E. for common eraThe Jewish calendar counts the years since the creation of the world, according to Jewish tradition.The Islamic calendar is dated from the year that the prophet Muhammad moved to the city of Medina.
7continueMayan and Aztec had calendars for farming and religious purposesToday we mostly use the Gregorian calendar with 365 or 366 days a year.It is based on the movement of Earth around the sun.The Jewish calendar is based on the sun and moon and has 353 to 385 days.The Islamic calendar is based on the cycles of the moon and has about 354 days.THE END
8Core Concepts 1.2 – Historical Sources To understand past events, historians study historical sourcesA) Primary and Secondary SourcesA primary source is information that comes directly from a person who experienced an event.It can be what they write, say or create about the eventThey include letters, diaries, speeches, photography and artifactsAn artifact is an object made by a human being, such as a tool or weapon.Primary sources are used to understand events from the point of view of the people who lived through it.
10continueA secondary source is information about an event that does not come from a person who experienced that event.This includes books, articles, movies, or other sources that describe or make sense of the past.
11B) Evaluating Historical Sources Historical sources do not always give a true account of eventsEven a primary source can be wrong or misleading, as personal opinions may have influenced what they wrote about the eventA historians job is to decide what is correctSecondary sources can also be misleading, as they may not all be reliableFor example the internet has many good secondary sources, but there are also some bad ones, such as Wikipedia.
12continueWhen researching primary and secondary sources, ask yourself questions such as:Who created the source material?They must be reliable, such as a person present at the event or a professorIs the information fact or opinion?A fact is something that can be proved true or falseOpinions are personal beliefs.This gives you the persons judgments or feelingsDoes the material seem to have a bias?A bias is an unfair preference for or dislike of something.It often leaves out facts that do not support the author’s point of view. THE END
13Core Concepts 1.3 – Archaeology and Other Sources Over time, much of the ancient world has disappeared.Large cities have become ruinsBuildings have been covered by layers or soil and sandArtifacts are also buried with these citiesThe science of archaeology aims to uncover hidden historyArchaeology is the study of ancient cultures through the examination of artifacts and other evidence
15A) Archaeologists and Anthropologists Archaeologists are part treasure hunters and part detectiveThey search for artifacts such as tools, weapons and potteryThey study these artifacts to learn from the pastThis helps us learn about the people, their lives and resources
16continueAnthropology is the study of humankind in all aspects, especially development and culture.This also helps historiansAnthropologist seek to understand the origins of humans and the what they developed physicallyThey study fossils – such as bones and other remainsThey also try to determine how human cultures formed and grewClues can come from oral traditions or a community’s cultural and historical background, passed down in spoken stories and songs.
17Core Concepts 1.4 – Geography’s Six Themes The study of the human and nonhuman features of Earth is called geography.Six themes are used to study geographyThe world in spatial termsPlaces and regionsHuman systemsPhysical systemsEnvironmentThe uses of geography
18A) The World in Spatial Terms Geographers begin to study a place by its locationThere are two locationsAbsolute location, which describes a place’s exact position on Earth in terms of longitude and latitudeLines of latitude are east-west (right-left)Lines of longitude are north-south (up-down)Relative location, or the location of a place relative to another place, is another way to describe location.
19B) PlaceGeographers also study place, which refers to the mix of human and nonhuman features at a given locationYou can say a place is hilly, hot or cold, it’s a major city, etc.
20C) RegionsGeographers use the theme of region to group places that have something in common.A region is an area with at least one unifying physical or human feature such as climate, landforms, population or history.Washington, D.C. for example is part of a region called the Washington Metropolitan Area.This region shares a job market and a road and rail network.
21D) Human and Physical Systems and Environment The theme of interaction between human systems and physical systems considers how people affect their physical environment, or their natural surroundings, and how their physical environment affects them, also called an ecosystem.For example the movement of water from the Potomac River into Washington’s water system is an interaction between a human system and a physical system.
22E) The Uses of Geography Geographers use these 6 themes to study the human world and the physical world.Geography helps us understand why the world looks the way it does, how humans interact with the world and change it and how it will change in the future.
23Core Concepts 1.5 – Understanding Maps In your book pp. 12 – 13, you have two types of maps – a physical map and road map.They both have the same basic information, but the road map has more details.Parts of a map include:A key or a place on the map that explains the symbols and shadings on the map.In this case the key is for elevations
25continueA locator map shows a larger area than the main map, it shows where the area on the map is located within this larger area.In this case it points out where Colorado is within the US map.A scale bar shows how much space on the map represents a given distance on the land.A compass rose is a diagram of a compass showing directions.North, South, East and WestMaps may also show lines if latitude and longitude that can help you locate a location you are searching for.
28A) Reading a MapThe physical map (p.12) of Colorado is also an example of a choropleth map, which is a map that shows a change in information across the area of the map.In this case the change is that of elevationsThe road map, is the same as the physical map, it just shows more details, such as national park names.You can use all the tools or parts of the map (key, locator map, scale bar, compass rose) to read a map.
29Core Concepts 1.6 – Historical Maps When learning about historical events, such as a battle, it is good to use a historical map to get a better idea about the landscape (rivers, mountains, etc.) to better understand the results of the event.A historical map is a special-purpose map that provides information about a place at a certain time in history.
30continue They can show migration, trade patterns or other facts. Your book gives examples of The Roman Empire area, North America in 1783 and West African trade routes from the yearsMost historical maps have key features such as:A titleA keyColorsSymbols to show resources, movement, location of people, or other features.
31continueTo become familiar with historical maps you should use four steps:Read the title, note the date, time span or other subject informationStudy the map to get a general ideal of what it shows, including landformsExamine the map’s key. Look at the symbols and locate them on the map.Study the make more thoroughly, make sure you understand what you are reading.