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Core Concepts – Part 1 History and Geography.

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1 Core Concepts – Part 1 History and Geography

2 Core Concepts 1.1 – Measuring Time
Historians are people who study events in the past A) Using a Timeline Historians use a timeline or a line marked off with a series of events and dates. Timelines are used to put events in a chronology or a list of events in the order in which they occurred. Timelines cover a day, a year, a decade (ten years), a century (one hundred years), a millennium (one thousand years), or any other period in history. A period is a length of time singled out because of a specific even or development that happened during that time. It is also known as an era or epoch Historians use periods and eras to organize and describe human activities

3 B) Organizing Time The past is often split into two parts, prehistory and history. Prehistory is the time before humans invented writing. History refers to written history, which began about 5,200 years ago. History can also be organized by beginning with a key event from the past.

4 continue One event many people use is the birthdate of Jesus.
Years before this were labeled B.C for before Christ or B.C.E. for before common era. Years after Jesus’ birthdate are labeled A.D. meaning anno Domini or in the year of our Lord. Also used is C.E. for common era The Jewish calendar counts the years since the creation of the world, according to Jewish tradition. The Islamic calendar is dated from the year that the prophet Muhammad moved to the city of Medina.

5 Jewish Calendar

6 Islamic Calendar

7 continue Mayan and Aztec had calendars for farming and religious purposes Today we mostly use the Gregorian calendar with 365 or 366 days a year. It is based on the movement of Earth around the sun. The Jewish calendar is based on the sun and moon and has 353 to 385 days. The Islamic calendar is based on the cycles of the moon and has about 354 days. THE END

8 Core Concepts 1.2 – Historical Sources
To understand past events, historians study historical sources A) Primary and Secondary Sources A primary source is information that comes directly from a person who experienced an event. It can be what they write, say or create about the event They include letters, diaries, speeches, photography and artifacts An artifact is an object made by a human being, such as a tool or weapon. Primary sources are used to understand events from the point of view of the people who lived through it.

9 Primary Source

10 continue A secondary source is information about an event that does not come from a person who experienced that event. This includes books, articles, movies, or other sources that describe or make sense of the past.

11 B) Evaluating Historical Sources
Historical sources do not always give a true account of events Even a primary source can be wrong or misleading, as personal opinions may have influenced what they wrote about the event A historians job is to decide what is correct Secondary sources can also be misleading, as they may not all be reliable For example the internet has many good secondary sources, but there are also some bad ones, such as Wikipedia.

12 continue When researching primary and secondary sources, ask yourself questions such as: Who created the source material? They must be reliable, such as a person present at the event or a professor Is the information fact or opinion? A fact is something that can be proved true or false Opinions are personal beliefs. This gives you the persons judgments or feelings Does the material seem to have a bias? A bias is an unfair preference for or dislike of something. It often leaves out facts that do not support the author’s point of view. THE END

13 Core Concepts 1.3 – Archaeology and Other Sources
Over time, much of the ancient world has disappeared. Large cities have become ruins Buildings have been covered by layers or soil and sand Artifacts are also buried with these cities The science of archaeology aims to uncover hidden history Archaeology is the study of ancient cultures through the examination of artifacts and other evidence

14 artifacts

15 A) Archaeologists and Anthropologists
Archaeologists are part treasure hunters and part detective They search for artifacts such as tools, weapons and pottery They study these artifacts to learn from the past This helps us learn about the people, their lives and resources

16 continue Anthropology is the study of humankind in all aspects, especially development and culture. This also helps historians Anthropologist seek to understand the origins of humans and the what they developed physically They study fossils – such as bones and other remains They also try to determine how human cultures formed and grew Clues can come from oral traditions or a community’s cultural and historical background, passed down in spoken stories and songs.

17 Core Concepts 1.4 – Geography’s Six Themes
The study of the human and nonhuman features of Earth is called geography. Six themes are used to study geography The world in spatial terms Places and regions Human systems Physical systems Environment The uses of geography

18 A) The World in Spatial Terms
Geographers begin to study a place by its location There are two locations Absolute location, which describes a place’s exact position on Earth in terms of longitude and latitude Lines of latitude are east-west (right-left) Lines of longitude are north-south (up-down) Relative location, or the location of a place relative to another place, is another way to describe location.

19 B) Place Geographers also study place, which refers to the mix of human and nonhuman features at a given location You can say a place is hilly, hot or cold, it’s a major city, etc.

20 C) Regions Geographers use the theme of region to group places that have something in common. A region is an area with at least one unifying physical or human feature such as climate, landforms, population or history. Washington, D.C. for example is part of a region called the Washington Metropolitan Area. This region shares a job market and a road and rail network.

21 D) Human and Physical Systems and Environment
The theme of interaction between human systems and physical systems considers how people affect their physical environment, or their natural surroundings, and how their physical environment affects them, also called an ecosystem. For example the movement of water from the Potomac River into Washington’s water system is an interaction between a human system and a physical system.

22 E) The Uses of Geography
Geographers use these 6 themes to study the human world and the physical world. Geography helps us understand why the world looks the way it does, how humans interact with the world and change it and how it will change in the future.

23 Core Concepts 1.5 – Understanding Maps
In your book pp. 12 – 13, you have two types of maps – a physical map and road map. They both have the same basic information, but the road map has more details. Parts of a map include: A key or a place on the map that explains the symbols and shadings on the map. In this case the key is for elevations

24 Map key

25 continue A locator map shows a larger area than the main map, it shows where the area on the map is located within this larger area. In this case it points out where Colorado is within the US map. A scale bar shows how much space on the map represents a given distance on the land. A compass rose is a diagram of a compass showing directions. North, South, East and West Maps may also show lines if latitude and longitude that can help you locate a location you are searching for.

26 Scale bar

27 Compass rose

28 A) Reading a Map The physical map (p.12) of Colorado is also an example of a choropleth map, which is a map that shows a change in information across the area of the map. In this case the change is that of elevations The road map, is the same as the physical map, it just shows more details, such as national park names. You can use all the tools or parts of the map (key, locator map, scale bar, compass rose) to read a map.

29 Core Concepts 1.6 – Historical Maps
When learning about historical events, such as a battle, it is good to use a historical map to get a better idea about the landscape (rivers, mountains, etc.) to better understand the results of the event. A historical map is a special-purpose map that provides information about a place at a certain time in history.

30 continue They can show migration, trade patterns or other facts.
Your book gives examples of The Roman Empire area, North America in 1783 and West African trade routes from the years Most historical maps have key features such as: A title A key Colors Symbols to show resources, movement, location of people, or other features.

31 continue To become familiar with historical maps you should use four steps: Read the title, note the date, time span or other subject information Study the map to get a general ideal of what it shows, including landforms Examine the map’s key. Look at the symbols and locate them on the map. Study the make more thoroughly, make sure you understand what you are reading.

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