Presentation on theme: "MIKHAIL GORBACHEV LAST LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION."— Presentation transcript:
MIKHAIL GORBACHEV LAST LEADER OF THE SOVIET UNION
REFORMER 1985 TO 1991 (First Soviet leader NOT born under the Tsar.)
GLASNOST Means “openness” Allowed: Freedom of speech Freedom of speech Freedom of press Freedom of press Freed dissidents Allowed them to leave USSR Allowed them to leave USSR Permitted Jews to emigrate (leave USSR)
DEMOKRATIZATSIYA Democratization: adding democracy! Free & unfettered elections! Gorbachev elected first (& only!) executive president of USSR
PERESTROIKA Economic reform Allowed some private enterprise Small businesses Small businesses Competition Competition Credit Credit Profit (incentive pay) Profit (incentive pay)
FOREIGN POLICY oAbandoned Brezhnev Doctrine oGave E. European Satellites freedom oWarsaw Pact dissolved in 1991 oSigned INF Treaty w/U.S. oElimination of intermediate range nuclear missiles
NOBEL PEACE PRIZE 1990 For reducing the possibility of nuclear war Signing INF Treaty Withdrew military from Europe
UNPOPULAR IN USSR Reforms created instability Ethnic tensions erupted Result of Glasnost (90 ethnic groups) (80 languages) Pressures for independence from republics
GORBACHEV TRIES TO REFORM Gorbachev cuts 500,000 from Soviet military in 1988, ending arms race. He tries to put more money into perestroika – modernizing factories, wage increases to boost worker productivity
MORE ECONOMIC PROBLEMS! Siberian oil sales had kept economy going in ’70s and early ’80s – prices had falled by half by 1985. Regional governments begin to withhold tax revenues. Repeal of tax on alcohol – loss of more revenue. Has to print more rubles – inflation!
GORBACHEV SAYS: “The old system fell apart before the new system began to work.” Communism was doomed. But not everyone thought so. Some Communist “hardliners” are still in Parliament (Duma) and in military.
COUP! August, 1991 Gorbachev kidnapped By Communist hardliners Directed by members of Politburo
COUP COLLAPSES oBoris Yeltsin, Mayor of Moscow, leads protest oElected president of Russian FSSR (one republic of USSR) oConvinced armed forces NOT to back coup oSends rescue forces to Crimea to rescue Gorbachev oGorbachev returns to power oArrested Gang of Eight oBut greatly weakened politically