Presentation on theme: "Fuel Cell Overview Project lead the way Ohio Hocking College"— Presentation transcript:
1Fuel Cell Overview Project lead the way Ohio Hocking College Fuel Cell Training SeminarJuly 23 – 27, 2007
2Fuel Cell OriginsWilliam Grove of England in 1839 developed the first fuel cellHe combined gases to produce electricity and waterGrove called it a “gas battery”
3William Grove and his “Gas Battery” William Grove's drawing of an experimental "gas battery" from an 1843 letterImage from Proceedings of the Royal Society
4Fuel Cells and EnergyA fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts energy produced from a chemical reaction into electrical energyThis chemical reaction is not a combustion process
5Fuel Cells and EnergyMore specifically it is a conversion device that converts hydrogen and oxygen into electricity, heat, and water.Chemical Energy Electrical Energy
6How does the Fuel Cell operate How does the Fuel Cell operate? (battery comparison) similar in converting chemical energy to electrical energy but different in thatA battery’s reactantsare self-containedA fuel cell’s reactantsare supplied externally-+H2 inAir in+-H2 outAir out
7Converting DC to ACFuel cells produce direct current, or D/C, electricity.Alternating current, or A/C, is the electrical standard for most uses such as home or building power.Another device called a power inverter is used to change the electricity from D/C to A/C.
8Why The Interest After ~ 160 Years? US cannot produce enough oil to meet demand, and it consumes much of itProduces only 9% of global supply,Has only 3% of global reserve,Consumes 26% of world’s oil (20 million barrels / day)US daily supply increased from 36% (1975), to 55% (2001), and expected to increase to 62% by 2020Demand for energy is increasing (estimated to grow by 54% worldwide) due to a changing world economy (China).Demand for gasoline is reflected at the pump
9Why The Interest After ~ 160 Years? Intro to Fuel CellWhy The Interest After ~ 160 Years?The growing dependence on oil puts us at serious riskShipment interruption of oil for prolonged time could disrupt the nation economy (transport product, drive to work, fly to meetings, heat and light homes and businesses)We need alternative energy sources for homeland security and fuel cells are one of these sources
10Air pollution and the environment Intro to Fuel CellMore Reasons WhyAir pollution and the environmentBurned gasoline produces poisonous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons that cause smog (ozone) and contribute to climate change and increase in the planet’s temperatureOne burned gallon of gas releases around 6.5 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (when the entire fuel cycle, including production, transportation, storage, and use are considered)
11CO2 From Burning Gasoline If perfect combustion was produced in a car’s engine, we would obtain the following:Gasoline + Oxygen CO2 + H2O + HeatIn a fuel cell that only uses hydrogen the reaction is:Hydrogen + Oxygen H2O + Heat
12CO2 From Burning Gasoline If we burned 20 gallons of gas in a car and convert our chemical reaction to pounds2C8H O2 CO H2O122 lbs lbs lbs lbs
13Fuel cell applications (3 main categories) Transportation (cars, buses, recreation vehicles)Mobile, small size (laptops, cellular phones, hearing aids, heart pacemakers)Stationary, power generation: generators for homes (can also heat the house and the water tank), back-up power for hospitals and factories, power plants
14Fuel Cells For Transportation In transportation applications the inverter to AC in not neededWhen hydrogen is available the reformer is not needed
15Fuel cell applications Cell phones that don’t quit in mid conversation because the batteries have diedLaptop computers that run all day without power cordsEfficient automobiles that emit virtually no nitrogen oxide or hydrocarbon pollutants
16Fuel cell applications Tiny self-powered gas sensors built on integrated circuitsHome electrical systems that keep working even if the power grid failsSensors, electronic weapons, and communication gear for soldiers in the fieldReplacement for Li ion batteries in portable electronic devices
17Intro to Fuel Cell What are the types of fuel cell applications?
18Similarities Between Fuel Cells and Batteries A fuel cell is very similar to a battery in that a battery also converts chemical energy to electrical energyThe electricity produced is DCBoth use an electrolyte to conduct ions
19Fuel Cells and Batteries Differences A battery is an energy storage device that has a fixed amount of chemical energyA fuel cell will keep producing electricity as long as fuel is suppliedFuel cell reactions do not degrade over time
20Fuels In a Fuel Cell Most fuel cells commonly use hydrogen and oxygen Because hydrogen is not readily availably, fuel cell systems often include another system called a fuel reformer or fuel processor that extracts hydrogen from hydrocarbons such as natural gas.
21Efficiencies of Energy Systems Energy InEnergy OutEfficiency %Incandescent lampElectricalLight5Fluorescent lamp20Solar cell25Automobile engineChemicalMechanicalNuclear PowerNuclear30Steam turbineHeat47Fuel cell60Dry Cell battery90Electric generator99
23Source: US DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy
24Factors Promoting Fuel Cell Applications in Cars If just 10% of cars used fuel cells, US oil imports could be reduced by over 100 million barrels per year, andmore than 1 million tons of air pollutantsFuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissionsWhen fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity)Driving 10,000 miles per year in a car releases approximately 8,000 pounds of CO2
25Why Fuel Cell? (properties) Intro to Fuel CellWhy Fuel Cell? (properties)If just 10% of cars used fuel cells, US oil imports could be reduced by over 100 million barrels per year, and more than 1 million tons of air pollutantsFuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissionsWhen fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity)Driving 10,000 miles per year in a car releases approximately 8,000 pounds of CO2
26Factors Influencing Fuel Cells “Carbon Neutral” A growing movement primarily in western countries promoting a lifestyle that on balance does not add carbon to the environmentKyoto Protocol to the United Nations -assigning mandatory emission limitations for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the signatory nationsPresident Bush’s “Twenty in Ten” Plan mandatory standards to raise production of renewable fuels to 35 billion gallons per year by 2017
27Summary A fuel cell is a battery that produces DC current and voltage Most fuel cells use hydrogen which burns cleaner compared to hydrocarbon fuelsA fuel cell will keep producing electricity as long as fuel is suppliedThe energy efficiency of fuel cells is high when compared to many other energy systemsThere is great interest in fuel cells for automotive and electronic applicationsThere will be employment for technicians particularly in Ohio’s fuel cell industry.
28Resources“Intro to PEM Fuel Cells” PowerPoint Presentation by Katrina M. Fritz of Case Western Reserve University, July 2005 Workshop at Stark State University