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Fuel Cell Overview Project lead the way Ohio Hocking College Fuel Cell Training Seminar July 23 – 27, 2007.

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Presentation on theme: "Fuel Cell Overview Project lead the way Ohio Hocking College Fuel Cell Training Seminar July 23 – 27, 2007."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fuel Cell Overview Project lead the way Ohio Hocking College Fuel Cell Training Seminar July 23 – 27, 2007

2 Fuel Cell Origins William Grove of England in 1839 developed the first fuel cell –He combined gases to produce electricity and water –Grove called it a “gas battery”

3 William Grove and his “Gas Battery” William Grove's drawing of an experimental "gas battery" from an 1843 letter Image from Proceedings of the Royal Society

4 Fuel Cells and Energy A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that converts energy produced from a chemical reaction into electrical energy –This chemical reaction is not a combustion process

5 Fuel Cells and Energy More specifically it is a conversion device that converts hydrogen and oxygen into electricity, heat, and water. Chemical Energy  Electrical Energy

6 How does the Fuel Cell operate? (battery comparison) similar in converting chemical energy to electrical energy but different in that H 2 in A battery’s reactants are self-contained A fuel cell’s reactants are supplied externally H 2 out Air in Air out

7 Fuel cells produce direct current, or D/C, electricity. Alternating current, or A/C, is the electrical standard for most uses such as home or building power. Another device called a power inverter is used to change the electricity from D/C to A/C. Converting DC to AC

8 Why The Interest After ~ 160 Years? US cannot produce enough oil to meet demand, and it consumes much of it US cannot produce enough oil to meet demand, and it consumes much of it –Produces only 9% of global supply, –Has only 3% of global reserve, –Consumes 26% of world’s oil (20 million barrels / day) US daily supply increased from 36% (1975), to 55% (2001), and expected to increase to 62% by 2020 US daily supply increased from 36% (1975), to 55% (2001), and expected to increase to 62% by 2020 Demand for energy is increasing (estimated to grow by 54% worldwide) due to a changing world economy (China). Demand for energy is increasing (estimated to grow by 54% worldwide) due to a changing world economy (China). Demand for gasoline is reflected at the pump

9 Intro to Fuel Cell Why The Interest After ~ 160 Years? The growing dependence on oil puts us at serious risk The growing dependence on oil puts us at serious risk Shipment interruption of oil for prolonged time could disrupt the nation economy (transport product, drive to work, fly to meetings, heat and light homes and businesses) Shipment interruption of oil for prolonged time could disrupt the nation economy (transport product, drive to work, fly to meetings, heat and light homes and businesses) We need alternative energy sources for homeland security and fuel cells are one of these sources

10 Intro to Fuel Cell More Reasons Why Air pollution and the environment Air pollution and the environment – Burned gasoline produces poisonous carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and unburned hydrocarbons that cause smog (ozone) and contribute to climate change and increase in the planet’s temperature – One burned gallon of gas releases around 6.5 pounds of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere (when the entire fuel cycle, including production, transportation, storage, and use are considered)

11 CO 2 From Burning Gasoline If perfect combustion was produced in a car’s engine, we would obtain the following: Gasoline + Oxygen  CO 2 + H 2 O + Heat Gasoline + Oxygen  CO 2 + H 2 O + Heat In a fuel cell that only uses hydrogen the reaction is: Hydrogen + Oxygen  H 2 O + Heat

12 CO 2 From Burning Gasoline If we burned 20 gallons of gas in a car and convert our chemical reaction to pounds 2C 8 H O 2  16CO H 2 O 122 lbs lbs  375lbs lbs

13 Fuel cell applications (3 main categories) Transportation (cars, buses, recreation vehicles) Mobile, small size (laptops, cellular phones, hearing aids, heart pacemakers) Stationary, power generation: generators for homes (can also heat the house and the water tank), back-up power for hospitals and factories, power plants

14 Fuel Cells For Transportation In transportation applications the inverter to AC in not needed When hydrogen is available the reformer is not needed

15 Fuel cell applications Cell phones that don’t quit in mid conversation because the batteries have died Laptop computers that run all day without power cords Efficient automobiles that emit virtually no nitrogen oxide or hydrocarbon pollutants

16 Fuel cell applications Tiny self-powered gas sensors built on integrated circuits Home electrical systems that keep working even if the power grid fails Sensors, electronic weapons, and communication gear for soldiers in the field Replacement for Li ion batteries in portable electronic devices

17 Intro to Fuel Cell What are the types of fuel cell applications?

18 Similarities Between Fuel Cells and Batteries A fuel cell is very similar to a battery in that a battery also converts chemical energy to electrical energy The electricity produced is DC Both use an electrolyte to conduct ions

19 Fuel Cells and Batteries Differences A battery is an energy storage device that has a fixed amount of chemical energy A fuel cell will keep producing electricity as long as fuel is supplied Fuel cell reactions do not degrade over time

20 Fuels In a Fuel Cell Most fuel cells commonly use hydrogen and oxygen Because hydrogen is not readily availably, fuel cell systems often include another system called a fuel reformer or fuel processor that extracts hydrogen from hydrocarbons such as natural gas.

21 Efficiencies of Energy Systems System Energy In Energy Out Efficiency % Incandescent lamp ElectricalLight5 Fluorescent lamp ElectricalLight20 Solar cell LightElectrical25 Automobile engine ChemicalMechanical25 Nuclear Power NuclearElectrical30 Steam turbine HeatMechanical47 Fuel cell ChemicalElectrical60 Dry Cell battery ChemicalElectrical90 Electric generator MechanicalElectrical99

22 FUEL CELL TYPES PEMFC (proton exchange membrane) DMFC (direct methanol) DMFC (direct methanol) SOCF (solid oxide) SOCF (solid oxide) AFC (alkaline) PAFC (phosphoric acid) PAFC (phosphoric acid) MCFC (Molten Carbonate)

23 Source: US DOE, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy

24 Factors Promoting Fuel Cell Applications in Cars If just 10% of cars used fuel cells, US oil imports could be reduced by over 100 million barrels per year, andmore than 1 million tons of air pollutants Fuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissions Fuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissions When fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity) When fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity) Driving 10,000 miles per year in a car releases approximately 8,000 pounds of CO 2

25 Intro to Fuel Cell Why Fuel Cell? (properties) If just 10% of cars used fuel cells, US oil imports could be reduced by over 100 million barrels per year, and more than 1 million tons of air pollutants If just 10% of cars used fuel cells, US oil imports could be reduced by over 100 million barrels per year, and more than 1 million tons of air pollutants Fuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissions Fuel cell vehicles are 70-90% cleaner than gasoline vehicles and produce 70% fewer carbon dioxide emissions When fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity) When fuel is pure hydrogen, fuel cell can provide pollution-free energy (water and heat, in addition to electricity) Driving 10,000 miles per year in a car releases approximately 8,000 pounds of CO 2

26 Factors Influencing Fuel Cells “Carbon Neutral” A growing movement primarily in western countries promoting a lifestyle that on balance does not add carbon to the environment Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations -assigning mandatory emission limitations for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the signatory nations President Bush’s “Twenty in Ten” Plan mandatory standards to raise production of renewable fuels to 35 billion gallons per year by 2017

27 Summary A fuel cell is a battery that produces DC current and voltage Most fuel cells use hydrogen which burns cleaner compared to hydrocarbon fuels A fuel cell will keep producing electricity as long as fuel is supplied The energy efficiency of fuel cells is high when compared to many other energy systems There is great interest in fuel cells for automotive and electronic applications There will be employment for technicians particularly in Ohio’s fuel cell industry.

28 Resources “Intro to PEM Fuel Cells” PowerPoint Presentation by Katrina M. Fritz of Case Western Reserve University, July 2005 Workshop at Stark State University


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