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Research on English Language Development and Implications for Two-Way Programs Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Ph.D. Professor, San Jose State University

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Presentation on theme: "Research on English Language Development and Implications for Two-Way Programs Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Ph.D. Professor, San Jose State University"— Presentation transcript:

1 Research on English Language Development and Implications for Two-Way Programs Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Ph.D. Professor, San Jose State University Rosa G. Molina, M.A. Executive Director, Two-Way CABE Kathryn Lindholm-Leary, Ph.D. Professor, San Jose State University Rosa G. Molina, M.A. Executive Director, Two-Way CABE TWBI National Conference, San Diego, CA July 2010

2 PurposePurpose  Research: language competence and second language learning – theory and TWI research  Implementation/Best Practices: implications of research: research-based strategies for promoting English language development and bilingual proficiency

3 Schematic of Language Competence Focus of ELD & ELA Embedded in stories or literature, but rarely taught

4 “Academic literacy includes the reading, writing, and oral discourse skills necessary to participate in a classroom discussion and in assignments. It may vary from subject area to subject area and requires knowledge of multiple genres of text, purposes of text, and text media. It is influenced by students’ literacies in contexts outside of school and by students’ personal, social, and cultural experiences” (Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007) “It is not possible to ‘do’ science, ‘do’ economics, ’do’ mathematics with only ordinary language.” (Scarcella, 2003) Academic Language Definition

5 Once in a blue moon Put your money where your mouth is! Have your cake & eat it too In hot water Full of hot air Cool Lend a hand That takes the cake What’s UP? Money talks! 2 heads are better than 1 Awesome You’re full of it! Monkey see, monkey do! LOL Text me

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7  High levels of full proficiency require at least 5-7 years of instruction - ELs & high level motivated government staff  Improvement: beginning to middle levels of proficiency  relatively rapid beginning to middle levels of proficiency  relatively rapid middle to upper levels of proficiency  much slower middle to upper levels of proficiency  much slower Research 1. How Long Does it Take?

8  Most second language learners in foreign language instruction do not make it beyond Elementary or Intermediate levels of proficiency  State-wide studies of CELDT data: Grades 3-6: 42-47% of EL students Intermediate Grades 3-6: 42-47% of EL students Intermediate Research 2. How Much Oral Proficiency?

9 Research 3. Is More English Better? Research Dual language research: More English does not lead to  Dual language research: More English does not lead to higher redesignation as R-FEP. higher redesignation as R-FEP.  Redesignation rates in 90:10 as high as or higher than 50:50. Synthesis research: ELLs in English-only programs had  Synthesis research: ELLs in English-only programs had lowest proficiency in English. lowest proficiency in English. Dual language and synthesis research: more Spanish  Dual language and synthesis research: more Spanish in instructional day  higher levels of bilingualism, and students who are more bilingual more likely to be redesignated as R-FEP in instructional day  higher levels of bilingualism, and students who are more bilingual more likely to be redesignated as R-FEP Time-on-Task  more time spent in instruction in English  more proficiency in English.

10 Listening & Speaking Proficiency – CELDT Grades K-6 Native Spanish Speakers Listening & Speaking Proficiency – CELDT Grades K-6 Native Spanish Speakers TWI ELLs make greater growth in listening/speaking and reading/writing than ELLs in English-only programs. By 6 th grade, achieve at similar/superior levels. Listening/Speaking Reading/Writing

11 English Language Proficiency ( CELDT TOTAL ) Percent R-FEP or Early Advanced/Advanced Grades 4-8 English Language Proficiency ( CELDT TOTAL ) Percent R-FEP or Early Advanced/Advanced Grades 4-8 Percent of TWI students fluent in English according to CELDT (RFEP, Early Advanced or Advanced): grade 5, 92% grade 6, 92% grade 7, 90% grade 8, 100% 92% 36% CELDT Total = listening, speaking, reading, writing

12 Research in TWI - Correlations Literacy & Language Proficiency Within & Across Languages  Correlations between:ELLEP  CST ELA x Aprenda reading =.54***.71***  CST ELA x CELDT overall =.40***  CST ELA x CELDT reading =.51***  Aprenda reading x Span oral prof =.37***.57***  Correlations between:ALL  English reading x Mandarin reading =.58***  English language proficiency related to English reading; Spanish language proficiency related to Spanish reading  Reading scores in English related to reading scores in Spanish

13  These data show – even in a 90:10 program, students can become highly proficient in English  Achievement in Spanish is related to achievement in English  Bilingualism – need to believe in and use knowledge of bilingual research to guide program and curriculum development around language in TWI Taking Stock

14 ELs in TWI Show Higher Achievement Than ELs in Same School, District & State  By 6 th grade, TWI current EL students achieve at higher levels than ELs in English-only mainstream programs.  By 6 th grade, TWI current ELs do not reach English-only (EO) students in percent Proficient or Advanced, but they score as high in percent Basic or above. This EL group does not include R-FEPs

15  By 6 th grade, TWI R-FEP students achieve at higher levels than R-FEPs in English mainstream programs.  By 6 th grade, TWI R-FEPs far surpass EOs in percent Proficient or Advanced, and in percent Basic or above.  All R-FEP groups surpass EO averages. R-FEPs in TWI Close Achievement Gap in English with English speakers!

16 Reading Achievement in English By English Proficiency (CELDT) Level in TWI Reading Achievement in English By English Proficiency (CELDT) Level in TWI Level of English proficiency has a significant effect on English reading achievement. Each group scores significantly different from other groups (except Early Adv ≈ Advanced & EP, Advanced ≈ RFEP & EP). RFEP>EP

17 Reading Achievement in Spanish By English Proficiency Level in TWI Reading Achievement in Spanish By English Proficiency Level in TWI Level of English proficiency has a significant effect on Spanish reading achievement. However, only RFEP is significantly higher than some other groups. Beginners above average in Spanish reading.

18 Level of English Language Proficiency by Background Characteristics English Proficiency Level Began Program as: Percent Male Percent Low Income % Mom Education Low (HS or less) – High (Coll Grad+) Percent with Disability Beginning ELL 53%79%59% - 13% ✓✓ 17% Early Intermediate 51%84%67% - 14% ✓✓ 11% Intermediate 50%86%58% - 10%4% Early Advanced 38%81% ✓ 51% - 23% 0 Advanced 52% ✓ 71% ✓ 47% - 24% 0 RFEP 53% ✓ 71% ✓ 35% - 20% ✓ 6% EP 51% ✓ 58% ✓✓ 24% - 34% ✓ 6%

19 Implications of Research on ELD  Should my TWI program provide ELD?  What does providing ELD mean in a bilingual (TWI) program?  Got benchmarks?  Should you have an ELD curriculum in a bilingual program?  Grouping during ELD

20 Implications of Research 1. Should my TWI program provide ELD?  According to Saunders & Goldenberg (2009), in a synthesis of the research on ELD:  Providing ELD instruction is better than not providing it However, research basis slim and largely based on foreign language learning with college and adult learners However, research basis slim and largely based on foreign language learning with college and adult learners  Use a separate, daily block of time for ELD instruction Research based largely on two large studies of students – one in K, and one in grades 2-3. Research based largely on two large studies of students – one in K, and one in grades 2-3.

21 Implications of Research 1. Should my TWI program provide ELD?  Research in immersion – students do not develop HIGH levels of L2 proficiency, and lack vocabulary breadth & grammatical accuracy  TWI students stuck at Intermediate  Focus on language development is too implicit and not sufficiently explicit  Suggests need for ELD in TWI programs

22 Implications of Research 2. What does providing ELD mean in a bilingual (TWI) program?  According to Saunders & Goldenberg (2009)  ELD instruction should explicitly teach elements of English (vocabulary, syntax, grammar, conventions)  The ELD block can incorporate reading and writing, but should emphasize listening and speaking  ELD instruction should emphasize academic language as well as conversational language

23 Implications of Research 2. Providing Language Development in a bilingual (TWI) program  Instruction ensures that learners:  develop both a rich repertoire of formulaic expressions and a rules-based competence  focus predominantly on meaning  and also focus on form  Instruction needs to be predominantly directed at developing implicit knowledge (unconscious, procedural) of the L2 while not neglecting explicit knowledge (rules learners can state) Adapted from Ellis (2004)

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25 Cross-linguistic influences - L1 skills and knowledge ELLs use to bootstrap into English literacy (Riches & Genesee)  Cross-linguistic influences - L1 skills and knowledge ELLs use to bootstrap into English literacy (Riches & Genesee)  phonological awareness in L1  phonological awareness in English  knowledge of L1 sounds  English decoding & spelling  vocabulary skills in L1  English vocabulary (at least complex vocabulary skills)  L1 grammar  comprehension or production of English sentences Emergent or proficient L1 readers  acquire English literacy skills faster Literacy and Language Development

26 Implications of Research 2. Providing Language Development in a bilingual (TWI) program  To develop high levels of bilingual proficiency, students need:  ELD instruction  SLD instruction  Not a monolingual approach: help students transfer skills across languages

27 Implications of Research 3. Got Benchmarks?  According to Saunders & Goldenberg (2009):  ELD instruction should be planned and delivered with specific language objectives in mind.  Got benchmarks? scope/sequence for each grade level in ELD and SLD?  How can you plan and deliver language objectives if you don’t know what you expect?

28 Promoting ELD/SLD Proficiency Standards & Frameworks  Standards/Frameworks provide a way of organizing instruction around a set of learning objectives related to listening, speaking, reading, writing at different proficiency levels  ELD Standards – Look at these and use for planning  ELA Standards  Side by Side (San Diego County Office of Education)  Blueprint & Sample CST ELA questions & CELDT questions  List of vocabulary items (Marzano, Tennessee, Coxhead) in English & Spanish  High frequency word list/Site word list  National Foreign/World Language Standards (ACTFL, California)

29 Promoting ELD/SLD/Bilingual Proficiency Lesson Planning  Content standard(s) to be addressed  Language instruction  Structures/forms--parts of speech, grammar (word problems in math)  Frames/memorized chunks/formulaic language (“Where is the”, “A mi me gusta…”)  Vocabulary--bricks & mortar; high frequency, specialized vocabulary  Anticipatory set/Link to prior knowledge  Links across languages, where possible Need more detail in both languages & specific language objectives

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31 Language Objectives Accessible for Students

32 Implications of Research 4. Do you need an ELD curriculum?  No ELD curriculum used in the schools has a research basis demonstrating its effectiveness, especially in a TWI/dual language program.  ELD curricula are designed for English learners in English mainstream/SEI programs, not for students learning through two languages.  However, helpful since most teachers do not have training in linguistics in English or Spanish.  Use as resource AND ADAPT for TWI

33 Implications of Research 5. Grouping during ELD  According to Saunders & Goldenberg (2009):  Interactive activities among ELs and between ELs and proficient English speakers can be productive, but they must be carefully planned out  According to Ellis (2004), successful language learning requires:  extensive L2 input  opportunities for L2 output  opportunities to interact in the L2  Grouping & opportunities for interaction ESSENTIAL for language development!

34 Implications of Research 5. Grouping during ELD (Saunders & O’Brien, 2006): With increased oral proficiency in L2, students:  use more of L2  gains in L2 oral proficiency  interact more frequently with speakers of L2  more opportunity to use L2  use more complex language learning strategies, particularly strategies that enable them to interact with others and monitor their own and others’ language use  display wider range of language skills, including skills associated with academic uses of language (e.g., higher level question forms & definitional skills)

35 Implications of Research 5. Grouping during Differentiated vs. Whole Class  According to Saunders & Goldenberg (2009):  Group ELs carefully for ELD instruction by language proficiency. However, they note this is a guideline applicable to ELD but grounded in non-EL research However, they note this is a guideline applicable to ELD but grounded in non-EL research  In TWI, if ELs always grouped for ELD, when do they practice English with EOs and get native speaker role models? Two-way means they learn from each other.  Yet, some differentiated is probably helpful to provide explicit instruction tailored to their level of proficiency.  No research on whether ELs should not be grouped with ELs in SEI or English mainstream. Since ELD in TWI should look different (bilingual approach, transfer), might need to have separate groups for students in TWI and SEI

36 Conclusions  Saunders & Goldenberg (2009): “In sum, we have a relatively small corpus of research to draw upon to guide the design and delivery of K-12 ELD instruction.”  Second language learners have a bilingual reservoir they can draw on to assist with second (and first) language development and literacy  In TWI and other research, bilingual proficiency – not just English proficiency – associated with higher levels of English language development and higher levels of achievement  Need to design ELD AND SLD for students in bilingual (TWI) programs – taking advantage of and further developing their bilingual reservoir


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