3Defining personality and traits chapter 2Defining personality and traitsPersonalityDistinctive and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individualTraitA characteristic of an individual, describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling
4Psychodynamic theories chapter 2Psychodynamic theoriesTheories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious dynamics within the individual
5The structure of personality chapter 2The structure of personalityId: operates according to the pleasure principlePrimitive, unconscious part of personalityEgo: operates according to the reality principleMediates between id and superegoSuperego: moral ideals, conscience
7chapter 2Your turnYour math instructor caught you with the textbook open during a test. Despite the fact that you know he knows you were cheating, you protest your innocence. This defense mechanism is:1. Denial2. Reaction formation3. Regression4. Displacement
8chapter 2Your turnYour math instructor caught you with the textbook open during a test. Despite the fact that you know he knows you were cheating, you protest your innocence. This defense mechanism is:1. Denial2. Reaction formation3. Regression4. Displacement
9Personality development chapter 2Personality developmentFreud’s stagesOralAnalPhallicLatencyGenitalFixation occurs when stages aren’t resolved successfully
10Other psychodynamic approaches chapter 2Other psychodynamic approachesJungian theoryCollective unconscious: the universal memories, symbols, and experiences of the human kind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images (archetypes) that occur across all culturesTwo important archetypes are maleness and femaleness, which Jung believed existed in both sexes.
11Other psychodynamic approaches chapter 2Other psychodynamic approachesThe Object-Relations SchoolEmphasizes the importance of the infant’s first two years of life and the baby’s formative relationships, especially with motherEmphasizes children’s needs for a powerful mother and to be in relationships
12Evaluating psychodynamic theories chapter 2Evaluating psychodynamic theoriesThree scientific failingsViolating the principle of falsifiabilityDrawing universal principles from the experiences of a few atypical patientsBasing theories of personality development on retrospective accounts and the fallible memories of patients
13Objective personality scales chapter 2Objective personality scalesAnswer a series of questions about self“I am easily embarrassed” True or False“I like to go to parties” True or FalseAssumes that you can accurately reportNo right or wrong answersFrom responses, develop picture of you called a personality profile
14Big Five Openness vs resistance Conscientiousness vs impulsiveness chapter 2Big FiveOpenness vs resistanceConscientiousness vs impulsivenessExtroversion vs introversionAgreeableness vs antagonismNeuroticism vs emotional stability
15Heredity and temperament chapter 2Heredity and temperamentTemperamentsPhysiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain waysPresent in infancy, assumed to be innateRelatively stable over timeIncludesReactivitySoothabilityPositive and negative emotionality
16Heredity and traits Heritability chapter 2Heredity and traitsHeritabilityA statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a groupHeritability of personality traits is about 50%Within a group of people, about 50% of the variation associated with a given trait is attributable to genetic differences among individuals in the group.Genetic predisposition is not genetic inevitability
17Reciprocal determinism chapter 2Reciprocal determinismTwo-way interaction between aspects of theenvironment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits
18Non-shared environment chapter 2Non-shared environmentUnique aspects of a person’s environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits
19chapter 2The power of parentsThe shared environment of the home has little influence on personality.The non-shared environment is a more important influence.Few parents have a single child-rearing style that is consistent over time and that they use with all children.Even when parents try to be consistent, there may be little relation between what they do and how their children turn out.
20chapter 2The power of peersAdolescent culture includes different peer groups organized by different interests.Peer acceptance is so important to children and adolescents that being bullied, victimized, or rejected by peers is far more traumatic than punitive treatment by parents.
21Culture, values, and traits chapter 2Culture, values, and traitsCultureA program of shared rules that govern the behavior of members of a community or societyA set of values, beliefs, and attitudes shared by most members of that community
22Culture, values, and traits chapter 2Culture, values, and traitsIndividualist culturesCultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with othersCollectivist culturesCultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one’s group is prized above individual goals and wishes
23chapter 2Customs in contextWhen culture is not appropriately considered, people attribute unusual behavior to personality.TimelinessMonochronic cultures: time is ordered sequentially, schedules and deadlines valued over peoplePolychronic cultures: time is ordered horizontally, people valued over schedules and deadlines
24chapter 2AggressivenessEmphasis on aggressiveness and vigilance in herding cultures, creates culture of honorUsed to explain increased likelihood of fighting in the South and the West, versus the North and Midwest
26Abraham Maslow Humanistic psychology Peak experiences chapter 2Abraham MaslowHumanistic psychologyAn approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and the achievement of human potentialPeak experiencesRare moments of rapture caused by the attainment of excellence or the experience of beauty
27Maslow’s hierarchy of needs chapter 2Maslow’s hierarchy of needsSelf-ActualizationPhysiologicalSafetyBelongingnessEsteem
28chapter 2Your turnYou are on your way to a restaurant to meet some friends, and you are hungry. As you are walking from your car to the restaurant, you are looking forward to talking with your friends. Just then, you hear a gunshot. According to Maslow, your primary motivation would be determined by1. Your hunger2. Your desire to converse with your friends3. Your desire for safety
29chapter 2Your turnYou are on your way to a restaurant to meet some friends, and you are hungry. As you are walking from your car to the restaurant, you are looking forward to talking with your friends. Just then, you hear a gunshot. According to Maslow, your primary motivation would be determined by1. Your hunger2. Your desire to converse with your friends3. Your desire for safety
30Carl Rogers Unconditional positive regard Conditional positive regard chapter 2Carl RogersUnconditional positive regardA situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is unqualifiedConditional positive regardA situation in which the acceptance and love one receives from significant others is contingent upon one’s behavior
31chapter 2Rollo MayShared with humanists the belief in free will and freedom of choice but also emphasized loneliness, anxiety, and alienationExistentialismFree will confers on us responsibility for our actions.
32Evaluating humanist approaches chapter 2Evaluating humanist approachesHard to operationally define many of the conceptsAdded balance to the study of personalityEncouraged others to focus on “positive psychology”Fostered new appreciation for resilience