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“Arab Climate Resilience Initiative” “The Impacts Of Climate Change On ِ Water Resources ” Damascus, The Arab Republic of Syria 15-16 September 2010. First.

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Presentation on theme: "“Arab Climate Resilience Initiative” “The Impacts Of Climate Change On ِ Water Resources ” Damascus, The Arab Republic of Syria 15-16 September 2010. First."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Arab Climate Resilience Initiative” “The Impacts Of Climate Change On ِ Water Resources ” Damascus, The Arab Republic of Syria September First Regional Consultation Meeting Dr. Naif Abu-Lohom Prof. Dr. Abdulla Babaqi Water & Environment Centre (WEC), Sana’a University Republic of Yemen

2 Background Information Yemen’s Climate Change Profile Challenges in Water Sector Scenarios of Climate Change Impact on water sector Main National Policies, Projects, Activities Undertaken to Address CC Recommendation to Mitigate and adopt with CC Impacts Opportunities for Interventions at Different Levels: (Technical, Policy, Institutional, Support of Local Communities, etc) Contents

3  Yemen signed UNFCCC in 1992 and ratified it in May  Ratified Kyoto Protocol in September  Established CDM Committee in Background Information

4 Hyper- Arid Zone Rainfall < 50 mm/Y Arid Zone (Rainfall = 100 – 250 mm/Y Semi Arid Zone Rainfall = 250 – 500 mm/Y Sub-Humid Zone Rainfall > 500 mm/Y UNESCO (1979), classified Yemen into 4 Climatic Zones: Yemen Climate Change Profile

5 Historical data (since 1970) indicate Warming become greater for summer(+0.2°C/decade) than winter (+0.15°C/decade). According to IPCC report, Yemen is expected to warm by 3-4°C by 2080s which is roughly 1.5 times the global mean response Temperature Trend The average total annual precipitation recorded for about 100 years show variability but without an obvious and unpredictable trend The extreme events are increasingly becoming a source of concern (Hadramout & Almahra Floods). Yemen Climate Change Profile Rainfall Variability In Yemen

6 The Fig. depicts the spatial distribution of rainfall in Sana’a City measured at four stations It shows significant differences in total rainfall over a period Jan. – July 2007 Rainfall Variability In Sana’a City

7 Hadhramout Flood, 25th October, 2008 The flooding comes after more than a full day of rain in Yemen, which normally receives only a few inches of rain per year. A flash floods have claimed the lives of more than 140 persons and left more than 20,000 without shelter in the Hadramout and Maharah Governorates

8 INC & NAPA identified 5 main sectors vulnerable to climate change Impacts: 1.Water Resources 2.Agriculture 3.Coastal Zone 4.Biodiversity 5.Health and Tourism Vulnerable Sectors to Climate Change Impacts

9 Challenges In Water Sector Increased water scarcity and reduced water quality Per capita annual water resources of only 120 m3 10% of regional average and 2% of global average Over-exploitation of GW (3-8 meters/year annual drop in most of the basins) Annual Abstraction in SB exceeds 4 times the recharge Irrigated area has expanded from 37,000 to about 1,200,000 ha Agriculture use more than 90 % of Water Resources Decrease Water Supply in most of the main cities (Sana’a, Taiz,Amran.) Increase water conflicts. Low irrigation water use efficiency (20-40%) Institutional and implementation capacity challenges for groundwater management

10 Water status in Yemen Total renewable water: 2.1 Bm 3 /y. Total water use: 3.0 Bm 3 /y Deficit: 900 Mm 3 /y Flood Irrigation ََِQat trees Excessive Pumping

11 Impacts of Climate Change in Groundwater Three simplified CC scenarios of the impacts of CC on groundwater for the period 2025 up to 2080 s were developed (WEC & HR Wallingford, 2010). This study financed by the World Bank in the framework of NAPA programe: 1.A “hot and dry” scenario 2.A “mid” scenario, 3.A “warm and wet” Scenario These scenarios were developed based on the collected baseline data ( ) i.e. : 1.Average annual Temperature 2.Average annual rainfall Global Climate Model (GCM)

12 Warming Degree C Change in annual rainfall % Scenarios Broad Characterization Expectations: - warming (1 to 1.6 °C) -An increase in rainfall -An increase in Runoff and recharge Expectations: -Considerable warming (1.6 to 3.1 °C) -No significant change in rainfall Expectations: Decrease Rainfall, Decline of runoff and recharge Temp. may become too high (2 to 4.5 °C)

13 Prospects of GW Abstraction & Climate Change impacts for Yemen as a Whole The RL after 2025 traces: Drop in recharge & abstractions below current recharge levels under Hot & Dry Scenario Average GW Recharge Baseline The Red Line is common to all scenarios up to 2025 By 2025 GW reserves will be exhausted & abstraction will equal recharge After 2025, the GL shows the extraction levels that would be consistent with current rates of recharge + the extra resource available from increased recharge under the ‘warm & wet’ scenario.

14 The Initial National Communication (INC) on CC was prepared on April, 2001 The National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA, Yemen) was prepared on 2008 and endorsed by Cabinet in March The Second National Communication (SNC) on CC was prepared on Some Relevant Existing national and sectoral strategies and plans Poverty Reduction Strategy, Vision National Water Sector Strategy and Investment Programme (NWSSIP) Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plans Health and Environment Strategy Environmental Impact Assessment Policy World Bank Country Assistance Strategy (CAS) Establishment of Inter-ministerial CC Commission/Board, 2009: (MWE, MAI, MoF, MLA, MFW, MoT, MTIT, EPA, NWRA) Main National Policies Undertaken to Address the CC

15 Previous Projects Related to CC - National Level: A Study on climate change scenarios projections (2008/09) National Capacity Self Assessment for climate change, biodiversity and combating desertification National Probabilistic Risks Assessment Hadramout and Al Mahra Probabilistic Risks Assessment - Local Level: Municipality of Sana’a Natural Disaster Risk Evaluation and Urban Planning Sana’a Integrated Storm water Management Plan Adapting to Water Scarcity for Yemen’s Vulnerable Communities: (Case studies of Sana'a Basin, Sada’a Basin and Aden City)

16 On-going Projects Related to CC Climate impacts on water resource management and agriculture (W. Bank) Climate impacts on Agrobiodiversity (World Bank) Rainfed Areas Livestock Project Agro-biodiversity and Adaptation Project Water Sector Support Program Groundwater and Soil Conservation Project (World Bank) Sana’a Basin Water Management Project Integrated Coastal Zone Management Irrigation Improvement Project Planned Projects Related to CC Pilot Project for Climate Resilience (PPCR)

17 Recommendations to Mitigate and Adopt with Climate Change Impacts  Improving governance through transparency and an active civil society role,  Capacity Building and awareness Programme at all levels  Empowering rural communities so that they can participate in assessments and feed in their knowledge to provide useful climate information;  Integrate climate resilience into the design of new infrastructure for irrigation and flood control  Developing an early warning systems which can help to anticipate and prevent disasters  Integrating climate change impacts into economic planning for the national budget.

18 Updating knowledge on critical basins to determine safe yields and storage capacities of aquifers and surface water resources. Upgrading the network of hydro-meteorological monitoring stations; collating relevant agricultural, social and economic datasets to enhance understanding of the system Developing and use appropriate tools such as Decision Support System DSS at different levels (Catchment, Basin, County) Developing robust climate models that reduce the degree of uncertainty in national and regional climate prediction. Conducting Remote sensing and ground-truthing studies to identify the relationship between climate and change in water resources, food security and agriculture. The opportunities for interventions 1. Technical Opportunities : WR management and agriculture

19 The opportunities for interventions 1. Technical Opportunities : WR management and Agriculture InterventionsSuggested measures 1. More efficient groundwater irrigation and more use of groundwater for supplementary irrigation  Piped conveyance and distribution  Pressurized irrigation (drip, bubbler)  Improved irrigation management  Drought bridging through supplementary irrigation 2. Investment in infrastructure and improved water use efficiency of surface irrigation  Improved spate irrigation  Incorporating flood preparedness into surface irrigation management  Wastewater reuse 3. Return to traditional agricultural and water harvesting techniques  Promoting water harvesting, fog harvesting  Terrace rehabilitation  Promoting improved livestock and rangeland systems 4. Changing cropping patterns, growing shorter cycle  Varietal research (on short cycle or drought tolerant varieties, high value low water using crops etc.)  Farming systems research 5. Adoption of integrated management of the water resource at all levels  Develop capacity for planning and regulation on a partnership basis  Water resource evaluation and monitoring  Incentive structure to encourage efficient and sustainable use  Licensing, registration, regulation  Promote basin level planning and management  Support WUAs as the lowest building block of WR management  Watershed management in key catchments

20 Establishing a CC strategy endorsed by Cabinet and in consistence with available strategies Accelerating formation of National Committee for CC adaptation and representing all concern agencies Mainstreaming of climate change issues into all local, sub – national, national, and sectorial planning processes Building institutional and technical capacity in the MWE, including NWRA, the water utilities and GARWSP to better integrate climate change concerns into water strategies and policies. Ensuring close cooperation among various agencies with interests in the water sector, including MAI, MWE, NWRA, EPA, the water utilities, GARWSP, and CAMA. Revision and development of Water Resources plans according to CC impacts Staff Capacity Building and provision of a suitable environment to perform their tasks The opportunities for interventions 2. Policies, Institutional and Capacity Building:

21 3. Support of Local Community-: Investing in public awareness campaign of local communities about CC impacts & adaptation Promote Capacity building of lo identify priorities and adaption with CC Involve local communities (LC, WUA) in planning and implementation process of pilot projects Improve livelihood of local communities through implementation of certain activities based on areas priorities Exchange experiences between community representatives in different topographical areas Documentation of the local traditional, indigenous knowledge and use it for CC adaptation The opportunities for interventions


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