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WORLD WAR II PART III THE PACIFIC THEATER: WAR AGAINST JAPAN EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA.

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Presentation on theme: "WORLD WAR II PART III THE PACIFIC THEATER: WAR AGAINST JAPAN EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA."— Presentation transcript:

1 WORLD WAR II PART III THE PACIFIC THEATER: WAR AGAINST JAPAN EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:  WHAT WERE THE MAJOR EVENTS IN THE PACIFIC THEATER OF WWII?  WHY DID TRUMAN DECIDE TO DROP THE ATOMIC BOMB ON JAPAN – TWICE?

3  APRIL 18, 1942: DOOLITTLE AIR RAID ON JAPAN (TOKYO AND OTHER JAPANESE CITIES)  ORDERED BY FDR TO BOOST PUBLIC MORALE AFTER PEARL HARBOR  PROPAGANDA VICTORY – DEMONSTRATED JAPAN NOT INVULNERABLE ALSO FORCED JAPAN TO DEPLOY INDIAN OCEAN FLEET TO PACIFIC TO DEFEND HOMELAND ALSO FORCED JAPAN TO DEPLOY INDIAN OCEAN FLEET TO PACIFIC TO DEFEND HOMELAND  3 AMERICANS KILLED DURING RAID, 8 TAKEN POW, THREE OF THOSE EXECUTED

4 LT. COLONEL JAMES DOOLITTLE AND PILOTS BEFORE RAID (USAAC) LT. COLONEL JAMES DOOLITTLE AND PILOTS BEFORE RAID (USAAC) B-25 BOMBER TAKING OFF FROM NAVY AIRCRAFT CARRIER BEFORE RAID

5  RECALL: AT 1943 CASABLANCA CONFERENCE, FDR AND CHURCHILL AGREED THAT ALLIES WOULD DEFEAT GERMANY BEFORE TURNING TO WAR AGAINST JAPAN  WE PLANNED ONLY DEFENSIVE, HOLDING ACTION IN PACIFIC BEFORE VICTORY WAS ACHIEVED IN EUROPE  WE DID MUCH, MUCH MORE! VJ DAY AUGUST 15, 1945 – ONLY 4 MONTHS AFTER VE DAY

6  APRIL 1942 – JAPAN TAKES PHILIPPINES (AMERICAN COLONY) (GENERAL DOUGLAS MCARTHUR: “I SHALL RETURN” – SPEECH MADE IN AUSTRALIA, TO WHICH HE ESCAPED – AT ORDERS OF FDR)  BATAAN DEATH MARCH: ABOUT 76,000 TROOPS, INCLUDING “WHITE” AMERICANS, FILIPINO U.S. CITIZENS, AND CHINESE, SURRENDER AT BATAAN ON LUZON ISLAND   POWS FORCED ON 60-MILE MARCH, LARGELY THROUGH JUNGLE, STARVED, BEATEN  NEARLY 20,000 DIE INCLUDING ABOUT 15,000 U.S. TROOPS (INCLUDING ABOUT 5000 FILIPINOS)

7 BATAAN DEATH MARCH ROUTE

8 BODIES OF DEAD POWS ON BATAAN DEATH MARCH

9 RESULTING U.S. ARMY RECRUITING POSTER

10 MAY, 1942 – BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA – U.S. AND AUSTRALIAN NAVIES PREVENT JAPAN FROM TAKING AUSTRALIA  MAY, 1942 – BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA – U.S. AND AUSTRALIAN NAVIES PREVENT JAPAN FROM TAKING AUSTRALIA  SIGNIFICANT: AUSTRALIA = RESOURCE RICH CON TINENT U.S.S. LEXINGTON AIRCRAFT CARRIER EXPLODES DURING BATTLE

11 JUNE 1942 – BATTLE OF MIDWAY (U.S. POSSESSION SINCE 19 TH CENTURY, NOW U.S. TURNS BACK JAPANESE ATTACK)  JUNE 1942 – BATTLE OF MIDWAY (U.S. POSSESSION SINCE 19 TH CENTURY, NOW U.S. TURNS BACK JAPANESE ATTACK) U.S. ARMY AIR FORCE DIVE-BOMBERS ATTACK JAPANESE BATTLESHIP DURING BATTLE

12  AFTERWARD, IT’S “ISLAND HOPPING” ACROSS THE PACIFIC TO JAPAN (SEE MAP NEXT SLIDE)  AFTERWARD, IT’S “ISLAND HOPPING” ACROSS THE PACIFIC TO JAPAN (SEE MAP NEXT SLIDE)  COORDINATED ATTACKS BY NAVY, MARINES, AND ARMY AIR CORPS MARINES DO THE GROUND FIGHTING ON THE ISLANDS MARINES DO THE GROUND FIGHTING ON THE ISLANDS  EVERY ISLAND WE TAKE COSTS TENS OF THOUSANDS OF CASUALITIES – JAPANESE FOUGHT FIERCELY TO THE END, INCLUDING KAMIKAZE ATTACKS (SUICIDE PILOTS)

13 PACIFIC THEATRE

14  MAJOR PACIFIC BATTLES IN JAPANESE TERRITORY  GUADALCANAL, AUGUST 1942 – FEBRUARY 1943 – FIRST TIME WE TAKE JAPANESE TERRITORY – OF ABOUT 60,000 U.S. FORCES NEARLY 8,000 KILLED THIS PICTURE OF MARINES DURING THE BATTLE OF GUADALCANAL SHOULD GIVE YOU AN IDEA OF WHAT THE GROUND FIGHTING WAS LIKE – JUNGLE COMBAT – HOT, HUMID, TROPICAL DISEASES (U.S. TROOPS HAD NO PRIOR EXPERIENCE OF THIS)

15 OCTOBER 1944 – U.S. RETAKES PHILIPPINES  OCTOBER 1944 – U.S. RETAKES PHILIPPINES GENERAL DOUGLAS MCARTHUR IN MANILA: “I HAVE RETURNED.”

16 FEBRUARY – MARCH 1945 IWO JIMA – FIRST U.S CONQUEST OF PART OF JAPAN ITSELF!  FEBRUARY – MARCH 1945 IWO JIMA – FIRST U.S CONQUEST OF PART OF JAPAN ITSELF! BUT – 20,000 CASUALTIES, INCLUDING 8,000 DEATHS BUT – 20,000 CASUALTIES, INCLUDING 8,000 DEATHS RAISING THE FLAG ON IWO JIMA” (MT. SURIBACHI ) – THOUGH THE EVENT OCCURRED, THIS WAS A STAGED PHOTO SHORTLY AFTERWARD “RAISING THE FLAG ON IWO JIMA” (MT. SURIBACHI ) – THOUGH THE EVENT OCCURRED, THIS WAS A STAGED PHOTO SHORTLY AFTERWARD

17  APRIL – JUNE 1945 – OKINAWA -- 80,000 CASUALTIES EVERY JAPANESE ISLAND IN THE PACIFIC COST U.S. TENS OF THOUSANDS OF CASUALTIES JAPAN FOUGHT BITTERLY TO THE END IT PROBABLY WOULD HAVE COST THE U.S. TENS OF THOUSANDS AT EVERY ISLAND BEFORE HONSHU AND TENS OF THOUSANDS MORE TAKE TOKYO WITH CONVENTIONAL FORCES

18  THE END – VJ  APRIL 12, 1945 – FDR DIES – V.P. HARRY S. TRUMAN BECOMES PRESIDENT  FDR HAD BEEN PRESIDENT FOR 15 YEARS! TRUMAN AN ACCIDENTAL PRESIDENT

19 CLEMENT ATLEE, TRUMAN AND STALIN AT POTSDAM CONFERENCE, JULY – AUGUST 1945 – DIVIDED UP EUROPE AND SET TERMS FOR JAPANESE SURRENDER: "UNCONDITIONAL SURRENDER" AND OCCUPATION

20  THE MANHATTAN PROJECT (DEVELOPMENT OF THE ATOMIC BOMB) :  IN 1939, ALBERT EINSTEIN (GERMAN-JEWISH REFUGEE THEN AT PRINCETON) WROTE TO FDR ADVISING HIM THAT ENRICO FERMI (AT UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO!) HAD SPLIT URANIUM ATOM  NUCLEAR CHAIN REACTION – AND THAT THIS MIGHT LEAD TO DEVELOPMENT OF MAJOR WEAPON EINSTEIN, A PACIFIST, COULD NOT GET SECURITY CLEARANCE TO WORK ON PROJECT, BUT FERMI DID

21  BEGINNING 1942, PHYSICISTS WORKED ON THE TOP-SECRET THE MANHATTAN PROJECT” HAD BEEN WTO DEVELOP THE ATOMIC BOMB, MOSTLY AT LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER, SCIENTIFIC DIRECTOR MAJOR GENERAL LESLIE GROVES, MILITARY COMMANDER

22 MANHATTAN PROJECT SITES OAK RIDGE, TN. WAS THE HEADQUARTERS

23 JULY 16, 1945 – MANHATTAN PROJECT TESTS A-BOMB IN N.M. DESERT  JULY 16, 1945 – MANHATTAN PROJECT TESTS A-BOMB IN N.M. DESERT OPPENHEIMER'S COMMENT: "NOW I AM BECOME DEATH, THE DESTROYER OF WORLDS” (QUOTING THE BHAGAVAD GITA).

24  AUGUST 1945 – TRUMAN DECIDED TO NUKE JAPAN:  AUGUST 6, 1945, HIROSHIMA A-BOMBED HIROSHIMA WAS MILITARY SUPPLY DEPOT HIROSHIMA WAS MILITARY SUPPLY DEPOT  AUGUST 9, 1945, NAGASAKI A-BOMBED NAGASAKI WAS A PORT NAGASAKI WAS A PORT  THE TARGETS WERE CHOSEN AS HAVING THE BEST COMBINATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL AND "STRATEGIC" IMPACT ON JAPAN BE SURE TO READ THE ATF CHAPTER AND THE ARTICLE ON THE DECISION TO DROP THE BOMB – WE WILL DEBATE THIS TH/F

25 COLONEL PAUL TIBBETS (OF MIAMI), WAVES FROM THE ENOLA GAY, BEFORE LEAVING TO DROP THE A-BOMB "LITTLE BOY" ON HIROSHIMA COLONEL PAUL TIBBETS (OF MIAMI), WAVES FROM THE ENOLA GAY, BEFORE LEAVING TO DROP THE A-BOMB "LITTLE BOY" ON HIROSHIMA

26 THE MUSHROOM CLOUD FROM THE A-BOMB DROPPED ON HIROSHIMA, AS SEEN FROM THE ENOLA GAY

27 HIROSHIMA AFTER THE BOMB

28 AERIAL VIEWS OF HIROSHIMA, BEFORE AND AFTER "LITTLE BOY"

29 BOCK'S CAR AND CREW, BEFORE LEAVING TO DROP "FAT MAN" ON NAGASAKI

30 NAGASAKI BEFORE AND AFTER "FAT MAN"

31 BOMB VICTIM IN NAGASKAI HEAT OF EXPLOSIONS ≈ 3900 o. WIND > 1,000 MPH

32 WOMAN IN HIROSHIMA AFTER THE BOMB – RADIATION “BURNED” WEAVE OF FABRIC INTO HER FLESH TOTAL NUMBER OF CASUALTIES FROM HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI BOMBS UNCERTAIN -- EST. ABOUT 200,000 CASUALTIES, INCLUDING ABOUT 100,000 DEATHS, BY END OF 1945 TOTAL NUMBER OF CASUALTIES FROM HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI BOMBS UNCERTAIN -- EST. ABOUT 200,000 CASUALTIES, INCLUDING ABOUT 100,000 DEATHS, BY END OF 1945 THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE THOSE WHO DIED LATER OF CANCER THAT DOES NOT INCLUDE THOSE WHO DIED LATER OF CANCER CAUSED BY RADIATION, OR THE HUMAN COSTS OF BIRTH DEFECTS CAUSED BY THE RADIATION

33  BUT IT SAVED THE LIVES OF TENS OF THOUSANDS OF AMERICAN TROOPS  AUGUST 14, 1945 – INFORMAL SURRENDER OF JAPAN  AUGUST 15, 1945 – VJ DAY – FORMAL SURRENDER OF JAPAN JAPANESE FOREIGN MINISTER SIGNS SURRENDER ABOARD U.S.S. MISSOURI

34 CELEBRATING V-J DAY ROBERT EISENSTADT PHOTO OF COUPLE IN TIMES SQUARE

35 WORLD WAR II – COSTS TO U.S.  MILITARY CASUALTIES: 416,800 DEAD; 565,861 WOUNDED (WORLDWIDE, THE DEATH TOLL WAS MORE THAN 72 MILLION)  MONETARY COST: $288 BILLION (ADJUSTED FOR INFLATION = ABOUT $4 TRILLION IN TODAY’S DOLLARS)  BUT N.B. DETERMINING THE TRUE NET COST OF WARS IS DIFFICULT BECAUSE THEY HAVE BENEFITS (FOR EXAMPLE, WAR PRODUCTION STIMULATES ECONOMIES AND PUTS PEOPLE TO WORK) AND LONG- TERM COSTS (FOR EXAMPLE, VETERAN’S BENEFITS) AND MANY OF THESE ARE HARD TO CALCULATE.

36 TOTAL DEATHS: MILITARY: 23 – 26 MILLION CIVILIANS 35 – 47 MILLION (INCLUDES ABOUT 10 MILLION HOLOCAUST DEATHS ≈ 6 MILLION JEWS, 4 MILLION OTHERS INCLUDING ROMA, MENTALLY RETARDED AND INSANE PERSONS, HOMOSEXUALS AND JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES)

37 JUST A FEW SLIDES ABOUT THE HOLOCAUST, BECAUSE IT IS MOSTLY EUROPEAN HISTORY

38 WHILE THE HOLOCAUST WAS GOING ON, THE U.S. DID NOTHING TO HELP EUROPEAN JEWS, AND IN FACT REFUSED TO ADMIT AS MANY JEWISH REFUGEES AS IMMIGRATION LAWS WOULD HAVE ALLOWED (EVEN AFTER REPORTS ABOUT DEATH CAMPS ARRIVED).  WHILE THE HOLOCAUST WAS GOING ON, THE U.S. DID NOTHING TO HELP EUROPEAN JEWS, AND IN FACT REFUSED TO ADMIT AS MANY JEWISH REFUGEES AS IMMIGRATION LAWS WOULD HAVE ALLOWED (EVEN AFTER REPORTS ABOUT DEATH CAMPS ARRIVED).  SHAMEFUL INCIDENT: THE M.S. ST. LOUIS, GERMAN PASSENGER SHIP FILLED WITH NEARLY 1,000 GERMAN JEWISH REFUGEES, ARRIVED IN HAVANA HARBOR JUNE 1939  U.S. PRESSURED CUBAN GOVERNMENT TO REFUSE ASYLUM TO THE JEWS ON THE SHIP U.S. PRESSURED CUBAN GOVERNMENT TO REFUSE ASYLUM TO THE JEWS ON THE SHIP ST. LOUIS THEM CAME TO MIAMI – U.S. WOULDN'T LET IT LAND ST. LOUIS THEM CAME TO MIAMI – U.S. WOULDN'T LET IT LAND ST. LOUIS THEN WENT TO CANADA – UNDER U.S. PRESSURE, CANADA TURNED IT AWAY ST. LOUIS THEN WENT TO CANADA – UNDER U.S. PRESSURE, CANADA TURNED IT AWAY SO ST. LOUIS HAD TO RETURN TO GERMANY (BUT CAPTAIN STOPPED IN ENGLAND, WHICH LET HALF THE PASSENGER STAY SO ST. LOUIS HAD TO RETURN TO GERMANY (BUT CAPTAIN STOPPED IN ENGLAND, WHICH LET HALF THE PASSENGER STAY

39 JEWISH REFUGEES ABOARD M.S. ST. LOUIS, 1939 U.S. REFUSED THEM ENTRY  HALF RETURNED TO GERMANY, MOST OF THEM DIED IN HOLOCAUST A FEW SURVIVED, INCLUDING MR. HERB CARLINER, MIAMI BEACH

40 NORDHAUSEN

41 BERGEN-BELSEN MASS KILLING OF JEWS IN UKRAINE. SCENES LIKE THIS WERE TYPICAL IN EASTERN EUROPE

42  AFTER THE WAR THE U.S. TOOK THE LEAD IN PROSECUTING NAZIS FOR THE HOLOCAUST AT THE NUREMBERG TRIALS.  BUT KEPT EUROPEAN JEWISH SURVIVORS IN "DISPLACED PERSONS"CAMPS AND WOULD NOT ALLOW THEM TO IMMIGRATE TO U.S. UNTIL 1951  ALSO AFTER THE WAR, THE U.S. TOOK THE LEAD IN SUPPORTING ESTABLISHMENT OF ISRAEL.


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