Presentation on theme: "Lesson Essential Question: Could WWII have been prevented?"— Presentation transcript:
1Lesson Essential Question: Could WWII have been prevented? Origins of the WW IILesson Essential Question:Could WWII have been prevented?
2Remember… One More Lollypop and Then You All Go Home!”
3The Great Depression to WWII The effects of the Depression are felt around the worldWhat happens when economic times are bad?Increase in racism (scapegoats)Increase in radicalism
4The Treaty of Versailles Do we remember what this is?When was it signed?What was the effects of this Treaty?
5The Treaty of Versailles A “peace” treaty signed by Allied powers and Germany on June 18, 1919It assigned Germany responsibility for the war.Required Germany to pay reparations to Allied countriesReduced Germany’s territoryDidn’t allow for Germany to have an army
6The Treaty of Versailles Germans do not like the treaty –the assume the guiltpaying war reparationsNot being able to have a militaryDo you think this treaty is going to keep the world peace so many hoped for?
18Stalin’s Soviet UnionLenin’s worldwide Communist revolution never occurred.Stalin takes over after Lenin’s death in 1924.
19Stalin’s Economic Plans Modernize agricultureHe wanted farmers to combine family farms into farms run by the state (country). –collective farms.State takeover of land took several years– resistance was met with confiscation of food—also sent to labor campsCollectivization led to loss of human lives and shortage of food—rationing.
20Stalin’s Reign of Terror Purges- elimination of enemies.Great Purge began in 1934 w/ local party officials and farmersBy 1939 more than 7 million arrested at all levels of society.A million were executed and millions more were sent to labor camps.Purges did eliminate threats to Stalin– real or imagined.
21Totalitarianism Government - Stalin Communist party as the only authorityState planning of the economyBrutal purges to maintain political controlComplete control of a persons life – every aspect
23Italy after WWI Inflation (extreme) and labor strikes hurt the economy Communists threatened to take overMad at Versailles because failed to give Italians the land they thought they deserved.
24Mussolini – ItalyMussolini took advantage of these condition to become a leader and ultimately a dictatorBenito Mussolini had fought and been wounded in WWI.Great speaker, he began to attract followers.1919 formed the Fascist Party
25Fascism and ItalyExtreme nationalism in which the state comes first and the individual liberties is secondaryStrongly oppose communism and democracyThey favor military values, violence, and ruthless leadership
26Mussolini continued….Called himself Il Duce (the leader)His tone was often emotional and dramatic.
27Mussolini continued….Used gangs of thugs known as Black shirts to terrorize those who opposed him.Vowed to end economic poverty— outlawed political parties, ended elections, became dictatorship.
28At first Mussolini received praise from European countries, they soon regret this praise. Had plans to form a new Roman Empire.October 1935—invades Ethiopia, by Ethiopia was under Italian control.
29Characteristics of Fascism in Italy Extreme nationalismIndividual liberties CRUSHEDState is paramountBring back the glory of ancient Rome through military conquest
34Military ServiceAdolf left Austria at the age of 24 to avoid mandatory military service that was required of all men.But he did sign up for military service at the start of WW I. He joined a Bavarian unit of the German Army. This is a picture of Hitler listening to an enlistment speech.
35World War I Excited to fight for Germany. Found a home fighting for the Fatherland.Highest rank held was corporal.Was a regimental messenger, not an easy job at all.
36Military Record Was awarded the Iron Cross twice. (5 medals overall) Highest military honor in German Army.Single handedly captured 4 French soldiers.Blinded by gas attack towards end of war.
37German Loss in WW IHitler was devastated when he heard the news of the German surrender.He was appalled at the anti-war sentiment among the German civilians.Believed there was an anti-war conspiracy that involved the Jews and Marxists.Also, felt that the German military did not lose the war, but that the politicians (mostly Jews) at home were responsible for the defeat.
38NAZI Party is FormedHitler began to think big for the German Worker’s PartyBegan placing ads for meetings in anti- Semitic newspapersHitler changed the name to National Socialist German Worker’s Party or the NAZIS
39Party PlatformHitler drafted a platform of 25 pointsRevoke Versailles TreatyRevoke civil rights of JewsConfiscate any war profitsBesides changing the party name, the red flag with the SWASTIKA was adopted as the party symbol
40Beer Hall Putsch October 30, 1923 Hitler held a rally in Munich beer hall and declared revolutionLed 2000 men in take over of Bavarian GovernmentIt failed and Hitler was imprisoned
41Trial and JailAt his trial (Hitler was charged with treason), he used the opportunity to speak about the NAZI platform and spread his popularity.The whole nation suddenly knew who Adolf Hitler was and what he stood forHe was sentenced to five years, but actually only served about 9 monthsWhen he left prison, he was ready to go into action again.
42Mein Kampf Hitler’s book “My Struggle” - wrote while in jail Sold 5 million copies, made him richTopics included: Jews were evil, Germans were superior race, Fuhrer principal, dislike of Communism and Democracy and need to conquer Russia
43Appeal of HitlerGermany was in the midst of an economic depression with hyper-inflationHitler was a WW I hero who talked about bringing glory back to the “Fatherland”He promised the rich industrialists that he would end any communist threat in GermanyConstantly blamed Jews for Germany’s problems, not the German people.Hitler was an excellent public speaker.
44Strong Arm Tactics The “Brownshirts” or SA (Stormtroopers) SA was used to put down opposition partiesThreatened and beat up Jews and ant-Nazi votersWore brownshirts, pants and bootsNumbered almost 400,000 by 1932
45Absolute Power German economy was improving, people were happy Hilter had not political opposition1st concentration camp opened in 1933Began rearming German Army for expansion of the Reich
46Things to know – on Hitler / Nazism Extreme nationalismTerritorial expansion to create “living space”Civil Liberties abolishedForce used to eliminate opposition
47Did you know:The U.S. Navy will spend as much as $600,000 to modify the appearance of a barracks complex that resembles a swastika from the air .(Google Earth)
48Wow that was a lotJot down what you think might have been some of the reasons Hitler was able to come to powerWhy were the people willing to believe what he had to offer?
52Japan Builds an EmpireEarly 20th century- Japan to increases its sphere of influence.a military dictatorship soon takes control of government.With a booming population and Japan required more resources.Manchurian Incident
53Japan staged Chinese attack. Created a “puppet state”.Led to an invasion of China and a stalemate that lasted until 1939.Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere– Japan’s plan to liberate Asia from Western Colonizers.
54Militarism under Tojo Extreme nationalism Military control of civilian governmentTerritorial expansion to obtain raw materials
55Great Britain: Neville Chamberlain (1937-40) The Great AppeaserDoesn’t want to go to war… gives in at every turn
56Great Britain: Winston Churchill 1940-1945, 1951-1955 Does not back downEventually leads Great Britain to Victory
57United States: Franklin D. Roosevelt Do we know this guy?Yep Good Ole FDRMore on him later
58Now for the events that eventually lead to World War II
59The Treaty seemed to satisfy the "Big Three" overall. It made sure that Germany was too weak to start another European War, yet strong enough to help stop the spread of Communism. It kept the French border with Germany safe from future German attacks. It created the League of Nations. This would help promote peace and trade throughout the world.
60But...Germans hated the treaty, especially Article 231 which blamed them for starting the war.Many Germans also thought the financial penalties that the treaty imposed upon their country and her people to be immoral and unjust. The German Government that had agreed to the treaty became known as the "November Criminals“. Many German citizens felt that they were now being punished for the mistakes of the Kaiser and German government of August 1914 who had started the war as well as the government of 1919 that had signed the treaty that brought peace.
61Where is the Aid?Great Britain and France were not in the financial security to provide more aid to the countries where the dictators rose… Remember…Great DepressionNo resources to help the countries
62Military Aggression Meets a Weak Response Early 1930s, Americans favored isolationism.WHY????Depression and bitter memories of WWI
63Good Neighbor policy - FDR No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another21 Nations signedUS encouraged Japan, Germany, and Italy to abide, but did not back words with actions
64Militarists Expand Japan’s Empire Example of blatant aggression 1931Japan seized ManchuriaThis gave Japan resources, isolated them from other countries1932 – League of Nations said stop and Japan refusedJapan left the league
65More aggression from Japan 1937 – Japanese and Chinese forces clash outside Beijing (China’s capital)Full-fledged wareJapan captured the city6 week rampage know as Rape of Nanjing
66Rape of Nanjing Massacred 300,000 civilians Brutally raped about 20,000 Chinese womenTo Japanese – Chinese were not human they were subhumanWe will see that theme a lot
68Dictators see this as a go… When the league does nothing to stop the Japanese, others take that as a sign to go1933 – Germany pulls out of the league of nationsViolation of Treaty of Versailles
69Germany ignores and moves forward 1933 – begins rebuilding the military1935 – formed an air force and the start of compulsory military serviceOpenly challenges France by sending troops into the RhinelandStill the league did NOTHING
72What about Italy?Mussolini begins his quest to build a New Roman EmpireOctober 1935 invades Ethiopia – easy winLeague puts mild sanctions on Italy…What happens if you don’t stop inappropriate behavior right away?Think about you?
731936Mussolini and Hitler joined a treaty of friendship known as the Rome- Berlin axisFascism begins to spread – Spanish Civil War Franco (militarist rebels) sought to overthrow the government – supported by Germany and Italy
74Results of Spanish American war ½ million people die in the 3 year warNationalist Franco wins and establish a right wing dictatorship…What is happening people… quickly sum up your notes
75Great Britain and France What do you call when you give-in to keep the peace?
80Munich PactChamberlain claims he achieved “peace with honor” and stated “I believe it is peace in our time.”Churchill (the so to be British leader) disagreed “By this time next year we shall know whether the policy of appeasement has appeased, or whether it has only stimulated a more ferocious appetite.”
81What about America? Do we see the writing on the wall? NOPE – we sign the neutrality acts – designed to keep us out of the war.FDR devotes a lot energy to promote peace urging countries to get along… does this work?
82Hitler Plunges Europe into War So the Munich Pact fails within the first 6 months…Hitler breaks the pact by invading all of Czechoslovakia and seizing control of PragueSo France and Great Britain finally draw a line in the sand… any further attacks and WAR… oh boy
83Hitler and Stalin They sign a non-aggression pact They hate each other – so how long do you think this pact will last?The German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, signed in August 1939Helped protect both for now… however, Hitler planned to attack… he needed the land
84War begins Germany attacks Poland September 1, 1939 2 days later, France and Great Britain – the Allied Powers- declared war
85Poland CollapsesGermany and USSR forces meet and by October they have control over the country
86Blitzkrieg Lightening fast war Bomb railroads, airfields, communication networks, military bases, and other strategic sites.First Poland, then Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg
87Next to fall Denmark, Norway… then Hitler aims for France Happens very fast
88MussoliniRemember him – well now he declared war on France and BritainItaly and Germany become the Axis powersJune 22nd – France surrendered to Germany
89Britain alone in the fight Britain, now lead by Churchill, stood alone against the AXIS powers.Hitler wanted Britain… Britain proved to a tough advocate
90Germany attackedFrom September 1940 to the Spring of 1941 – Germany tried. They bombed cities, airports and other such things, but the British successfully defended their homeland… suddenly there was a new hope… wait is hope powerful?
91Americans still want to be…. Isolated from the war… however FDR knew differently. Hitler was evilHitler sought alliance with US – but that was a no go
92The Tripartite PactSeptember 1940 – Japan enters the Axis powers… now if the US joined the war they would have to fight a two front warFrom west and eastHitler hopped this would keep US out the war.
93Roosevelt had other plans Lend- Lease ActBasically give supplies to Allies lend them arms to Britain and to the Soviets…I am going to give you something you are going to use in war… do you think I would get it back? Nope
94All that changes December 7, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor The US was a united front going into war – better watch out