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Lesson Essential Question: Could WWII have been prevented?

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Presentation on theme: "Lesson Essential Question: Could WWII have been prevented?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Lesson Essential Question: Could WWII have been prevented?
Origins of the WW II Lesson Essential Question: Could WWII have been prevented?

2 Remember… One More Lollypop and
Then You All Go Home!”

3 The Great Depression to WWII
The effects of the Depression are felt around the world What happens when economic times are bad? Increase in racism (scapegoats) Increase in radicalism

4 The Treaty of Versailles
Do we remember what this is? When was it signed? What was the effects of this Treaty?

5 The Treaty of Versailles
A “peace” treaty signed by Allied powers and Germany on June 18, 1919 It assigned Germany responsibility for the war. Required Germany to pay reparations to Allied countries Reduced Germany’s territory Didn’t allow for Germany to have an army

6 The Treaty of Versailles
Germans do not like the treaty – the assume the guilt paying war reparations Not being able to have a military Do you think this treaty is going to keep the world peace so many hoped for?


8 Policy of Appeasement What is Appeasement? Does it work?
Yielding to an enemy’s demands in order to maintain peace Does it work? Ah what are we studying right now… you be the judge 

9 End of WWI At the end of WWI the Treaty of Versailles was signed to end of all wars Problem – it blamed Germany and put the war debts

10 Hitler and appeasement
France and Great Britain still recovering from WWI – will go to great costs to avoid another war France and GB distrust Hitler – but decided on appeasement Why?

11 Appeasement and Sudeten Land
Chamberlin (the British leader) said didn’t make sense to go to war over such a small territory…. Let Germany have it… not worth war What do you think?

12 Munich Pact

13 Munich Pact - 1938 France, Great Britain, Italy, and Germany signed
Basically said Hitler would not expand beyond the Sudetenland of German speaking Czechoslovakia

14 What is the point of this cartoon?

15 What do you think? Is Appeasement a good idea?

16 Let’s meet the players Stalin Mussolini Hitler Tojo
Prime Minister Churchill FDR

17 Soviet Union: Joseph Stalin

18 Stalin’s Soviet Union Lenin’s worldwide Communist revolution never occurred. Stalin takes over after Lenin’s death in 1924.

19 Stalin’s Economic Plans
Modernize agriculture He wanted farmers to combine family farms into farms run by the state (country). –collective farms. State takeover of land took several years– resistance was met with confiscation of food—also sent to labor camps Collectivization led to loss of human lives and shortage of food—rationing.

20 Stalin’s Reign of Terror
Purges- elimination of enemies. Great Purge began in 1934 w/ local party officials and farmers By 1939 more than 7 million arrested at all levels of society. A million were executed and millions more were sent to labor camps. Purges did eliminate threats to Stalin– real or imagined.

21 Totalitarianism Government - Stalin
Communist party as the only authority State planning of the economy Brutal purges to maintain political control Complete control of a persons life – every aspect

22 Italy: Benito Mussolini

23 Italy after WWI Inflation (extreme) and labor strikes hurt the economy
Communists threatened to take over Mad at Versailles because failed to give Italians the land they thought they deserved.

24 Mussolini – Italy Mussolini took advantage of these condition to become a leader and ultimately a dictator Benito Mussolini had fought and been wounded in WWI. Great speaker, he began to attract followers. 1919 formed the Fascist Party

25 Fascism and Italy Extreme nationalism in which the state comes first and the individual liberties is secondary Strongly oppose communism and democracy They favor military values, violence, and ruthless leadership

26 Mussolini continued…. Called himself Il Duce (the leader) His tone was often emotional and dramatic.

27 Mussolini continued…. Used gangs of thugs known as Black shirts to terrorize those who opposed him. Vowed to end economic poverty— outlawed political parties, ended elections, became dictatorship.

28 At first Mussolini received praise from European countries, they soon regret this praise.
Had plans to form a new Roman Empire. October 1935—invades Ethiopia, by Ethiopia was under Italian control.

29 Characteristics of Fascism in Italy
Extreme nationalism Individual liberties CRUSHED State is paramount Bring back the glory of ancient Rome through military conquest

30 Rise to Power Adolf Hitler

31 Something to ponder… how does this little boy on the left became the man on the right who was ultimately responsible for the death of about 50 million people all over the world!!

32 Hitler’s Art signature


34 Military Service Adolf left Austria at the age of 24 to avoid mandatory military service that was required of all men. But he did sign up for military service at the start of WW I. He joined a Bavarian unit of the German Army. This is a picture of Hitler listening to an enlistment speech.

35 World War I Excited to fight for Germany.
Found a home fighting for the Fatherland. Highest rank held was corporal. Was a regimental messenger, not an easy job at all.

36 Military Record Was awarded the Iron Cross twice. (5 medals overall)
Highest military honor in German Army. Single handedly captured 4 French soldiers. Blinded by gas attack towards end of war.

37 German Loss in WW I Hitler was devastated when he heard the news of the German surrender. He was appalled at the anti-war sentiment among the German civilians. Believed there was an anti-war conspiracy that involved the Jews and Marxists. Also, felt that the German military did not lose the war, but that the politicians (mostly Jews) at home were responsible for the defeat.

38 NAZI Party is Formed Hitler began to think big for the German Worker’s Party Began placing ads for meetings in anti- Semitic newspapers Hitler changed the name to National Socialist German Worker’s Party or the NAZIS

39 Party Platform Hitler drafted a platform of 25 points Revoke Versailles Treaty Revoke civil rights of Jews Confiscate any war profits Besides changing the party name, the red flag with the SWASTIKA was adopted as the party symbol

40 Beer Hall Putsch October 30, 1923
Hitler held a rally in Munich beer hall and declared revolution Led 2000 men in take over of Bavarian Government It failed and Hitler was imprisoned

41 Trial and Jail At his trial (Hitler was charged with treason), he used the opportunity to speak about the NAZI platform and spread his popularity. The whole nation suddenly knew who Adolf Hitler was and what he stood for He was sentenced to five years, but actually only served about 9 months When he left prison, he was ready to go into action again.

42 Mein Kampf Hitler’s book “My Struggle” - wrote while in jail
Sold 5 million copies, made him rich Topics included: Jews were evil, Germans were superior race, Fuhrer principal, dislike of Communism and Democracy and need to conquer Russia

43 Appeal of Hitler Germany was in the midst of an economic depression with hyper-inflation Hitler was a WW I hero who talked about bringing glory back to the “Fatherland” He promised the rich industrialists that he would end any communist threat in Germany Constantly blamed Jews for Germany’s problems, not the German people. Hitler was an excellent public speaker.

44 Strong Arm Tactics The “Brownshirts” or SA (Stormtroopers)
SA was used to put down opposition parties Threatened and beat up Jews and ant-Nazi voters Wore brownshirts, pants and boots Numbered almost 400,000 by 1932

45 Absolute Power German economy was improving, people were happy
Hilter had not political opposition 1st concentration camp opened in 1933 Began rearming German Army for expansion of the Reich

46 Things to know – on Hitler / Nazism
Extreme nationalism Territorial expansion to create “living space” Civil Liberties abolished Force used to eliminate opposition

47 Did you know: The U.S. Navy will spend as much as $600,000 to modify the appearance of a barracks complex that resembles a swastika from the air .(Google Earth)

48 Wow that was a lot Jot down what you think might have been some of the reasons Hitler was able to come to power Why were the people willing to believe what he had to offer?

49 Who is Next… Why Mr. TOJO Japan

50 Japan: Emperor Hirohito 1926-1989

51 Prime Minister Tōjō Hideki 1941-1944

52 Japan Builds an Empire Early 20th century- Japan to increases its sphere of influence. a military dictatorship soon takes control of government. With a booming population and Japan required more resources. Manchurian Incident

53 Japan staged Chinese attack.
Created a “puppet state”. Led to an invasion of China and a stalemate that lasted until 1939. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere– Japan’s plan to liberate Asia from Western Colonizers.

54 Militarism under Tojo Extreme nationalism
Military control of civilian government Territorial expansion to obtain raw materials

55 Great Britain: Neville Chamberlain (1937-40)
The Great Appeaser Doesn’t want to go to war… gives in at every turn

56 Great Britain: Winston Churchill 1940-1945, 1951-1955
Does not back down Eventually leads Great Britain to Victory                                     

57 United States: Franklin D. Roosevelt
Do we know this guy? Yep Good Ole FDR More on him later 

58 Now for the events that eventually lead to World War II

59 The Treaty seemed to satisfy the "Big Three" overall.
It made sure that Germany was too weak to start another European War, yet strong enough to help stop the spread of Communism. It kept the French border with Germany safe from future German attacks. It created the League of Nations. This would help promote peace and trade throughout the world.

60 But... Germans hated the treaty, especially Article 231 which blamed them for starting the war. Many Germans also thought the financial penalties that the treaty imposed upon their country and her people to be immoral and unjust. The German Government that had agreed to the treaty became known as the "November Criminals“. Many German citizens felt that they were now being punished for the mistakes of the Kaiser and German government of August 1914 who had started the war as well as the government of 1919 that had signed the treaty that brought peace.

61 Where is the Aid? Great Britain and France were not in the financial security to provide more aid to the countries where the dictators rose… Remember… Great Depression No resources to help the countries

62 Military Aggression Meets a Weak Response
Early 1930s, Americans favored isolationism. WHY???? Depression and bitter memories of WWI

63 Good Neighbor policy - FDR
No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another 21 Nations signed US encouraged Japan, Germany, and Italy to abide, but did not back words with actions

64 Militarists Expand Japan’s Empire
Example of blatant aggression 1931 Japan seized Manchuria This gave Japan resources, isolated them from other countries 1932 – League of Nations said stop and Japan refused Japan left the league

65 More aggression from Japan
1937 – Japanese and Chinese forces clash outside Beijing (China’s capital) Full-fledged ware Japan captured the city 6 week rampage know as Rape of Nanjing

66 Rape of Nanjing Massacred 300,000 civilians
Brutally raped about 20,000 Chinese women To Japanese – Chinese were not human they were subhuman We will see that theme a lot 


68 Dictators see this as a go…
When the league does nothing to stop the Japanese, others take that as a sign to go 1933 – Germany pulls out of the league of nations Violation of Treaty of Versailles

69 Germany ignores and moves forward
1933 – begins rebuilding the military 1935 – formed an air force and the start of compulsory military service Openly challenges France by sending troops into the Rhineland Still the league did NOTHING


71 Who is going to win this fight?

72 What about Italy? Mussolini begins his quest to build a New Roman Empire October 1935 invades Ethiopia – easy win League puts mild sanctions on Italy… What happens if you don’t stop inappropriate behavior right away? Think about you?

73 1936 Mussolini and Hitler joined a treaty of friendship known as the Rome- Berlin axis Fascism begins to spread – Spanish Civil War Franco (militarist rebels) sought to overthrow the government – supported by Germany and Italy

74 Results of Spanish American war
½ million people die in the 3 year war Nationalist Franco wins and establish a right wing dictatorship… What is happening people… quickly sum up your notes

75 Great Britain and France
What do you call when you give-in to keep the peace?

76 We call it…. APPEASEMENT

77 Does appeasing Hitler work?
Encouraged by events in Italy and Spain and his own success in Rhineland, Hitler began his expansion plan France and Great Britain do little to stop him

78 Hitler sets sights on …. Austria – unstable government – Germans march in and take over Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia France and Great Britain now stand up

79 Munich Pact

80 Munich Pact Chamberlain claims he achieved “peace with honor” and stated “I believe it is peace in our time.” Churchill (the so to be British leader) disagreed “By this time next year we shall know whether the policy of appeasement has appeased, or whether it has only stimulated a more ferocious appetite.”

81 What about America? Do we see the writing on the wall?
NOPE – we sign the neutrality acts – designed to keep us out of the war. FDR devotes a lot energy to promote peace urging countries to get along… does this work?

82 Hitler Plunges Europe into War
So the Munich Pact fails within the first 6 months… Hitler breaks the pact by invading all of Czechoslovakia and seizing control of Prague So France and Great Britain finally draw a line in the sand… any further attacks and WAR… oh boy

83 Hitler and Stalin They sign a non-aggression pact
They hate each other – so how long do you think this pact will last? The German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, signed in August 1939 Helped protect both for now… however, Hitler planned to attack… he needed the land

84 War begins Germany attacks Poland September 1, 1939
2 days later, France and Great Britain – the Allied Powers- declared war

85 Poland Collapses Germany and USSR forces meet and by October they have control over the country

86 Blitzkrieg Lightening fast war
Bomb railroads, airfields, communication networks, military bases, and other strategic sites. First Poland, then Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg

87 Next to fall Denmark, Norway… then Hitler aims for France
Happens very fast

88 Mussolini Remember him – well now he declared war on France and Britain Italy and Germany become the Axis powers June 22nd – France surrendered to Germany

89 Britain alone in the fight
Britain, now lead by Churchill, stood alone against the AXIS powers. Hitler wanted Britain… Britain proved to a tough advocate

90 Germany attacked From September 1940 to the Spring of 1941 – Germany tried. They bombed cities, airports and other such things, but the British successfully defended their homeland… suddenly there was a new hope… wait is hope powerful?

91 Americans still want to be….
Isolated from the war… however FDR knew differently. Hitler was evil Hitler sought alliance with US – but that was a no go

92 The Tripartite Pact September 1940 – Japan enters the Axis powers… now if the US joined the war they would have to fight a two front war From west and east Hitler hopped this would keep US out the war.

93 Roosevelt had other plans
Lend- Lease Act Basically give supplies to Allies lend them arms to Britain and to the Soviets… I am going to give you something you are going to use in war… do you think I would get it back? Nope

94 All that changes December 7, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
The US was a united front going into war – better watch out 

95 SOAPS!!!

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