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Europe WW II Between the Wars Rise of the Axis 1919 – 1945 Western and Eastern Fronts.

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Presentation on theme: "Europe WW II Between the Wars Rise of the Axis 1919 – 1945 Western and Eastern Fronts."— Presentation transcript:

1 Europe WW II Between the Wars Rise of the Axis 1919 – 1945 Western and Eastern Fronts

2 Between the Wars 1921 Washington Naval Conference 1921 Washington Naval Conference -4-Power Treaty US UK FR JAP – Status Quo of the Pacific -4-Power Treaty US UK FR JAP – Status Quo of the Pacific -9-Power Treaty Maintain Open Door China -9-Power Treaty Maintain Open Door China -5-Power Treaty US=5 UK=5 JAP=3 FR=1.75 IT = Power Treaty US=5 UK=5 JAP=3 FR=1.75 IT = Locrano Treaty established Germany 1925 Locrano Treaty established Germany

3 Between the Wars 1928 – The Kellog –Braind Pact 1928 – The Kellog –Braind Pact Anti -war treaty designed to disarm the world and to control future arms races – it reviewed the 1921 agreementsAnti -war treaty designed to disarm the world and to control future arms races – it reviewed the 1921 agreements 1929 Great Depression – starts in the U.S spreads to Europe German is it the hardest 1931 Both Germany and the Soviet Union join the League of Nations

4 Conditions in Europe and U.S. France France England England Russia Russia UnitedStates UnitedStates

5 Ideology Fascism A political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition. Promotes extreme nationalism A political philosophy, movement, or regime that exalts nation and often race above the individual and that stands for a centralized autocratic government headed by a dictatorial leader, severe economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition. Promotes extreme nationalism

6 Ideology Socialism A political theory that advocates collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods- no private property-means of production are controlled by the state – the transition between capitalism and communism. Promotes world conquest nationalism does not exist A political theory that advocates collective or governmental ownership and administration of the means of production and distribution of goods- no private property-means of production are controlled by the state – the transition between capitalism and communism. Promotes world conquest nationalism does not exist

7 Why Benito Mussolini The birth of Fascism (extreme nationalism) In the 1920 as a result of economic depression – political instability and the results of WW The birth of Fascism (extreme nationalism) In the 1920 as a result of economic depression – political instability and the results of WW

8 Why Benito Mussolini 1919 and 1920 there were a lot of agricultural strikes that terrified the middle class and the industrial class – the groups in which Mussolini appealed to the most – By 1922 he had gained enough support and his BLACK SHIRT army was strong enough that he threatened to march on Rome – Fearful of an overthrow Victor Emanuel III abdicated and gave power to Mussolini – he began his fascist state – individual rights were not to come before the loyalty to the nation of Italy and 1920 there were a lot of agricultural strikes that terrified the middle class and the industrial class – the groups in which Mussolini appealed to the most – By 1922 he had gained enough support and his BLACK SHIRT army was strong enough that he threatened to march on Rome – Fearful of an overthrow Victor Emanuel III abdicated and gave power to Mussolini – he began his fascist state – individual rights were not to come before the loyalty to the nation of Italy-

9 Benito Mussolini His goal was to create a new Italy or a new ROME to once again bring civilization to the world – he hoped to create a nation of hard workers who were physically fit – intellectually sharp – disciplined and intellectually sharp. His goal was to create a new Italy or a new ROME to once again bring civilization to the world – he hoped to create a nation of hard workers who were physically fit – intellectually sharp – disciplined and intellectually sharp. He did manage to also– major economic reforms-- He did manage to also– major economic reforms-- Built railroads and created jobs Built railroads and created jobs And he fed the people – And he fed the people – Women were expected to stay home and cook and have babies. Women were expected to stay home and cook and have babies.

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11 Hitler At 6:30 p.m. on the evening of April 20, 1889, he was born in the small Austrian village of Braunau Am Inn just across the border from German Bavaria. Adolph Hitler would one day lead a movement that placed supreme importance on a person's family tree even making it a matter of life and death. At 6:30 p.m. on the evening of April 20, 1889, he was born in the small Austrian village of Braunau Am Inn just across the border from German Bavaria. Adolph Hitler would one day lead a movement that placed supreme importance on a person's family tree even making it a matter of life and death.

12 Why Hitler Clause 231 – and the war debt Clause 231 – and the war debt High unemployment and the nation was in a state of depression High unemployment and the nation was in a state of depression Powerful speaker – CULT OF PERSONALITY Powerful speaker – CULT OF PERSONALITY Fascist -- extreme nationalism Fascist -- extreme nationalism

13 WHY Hitler The Nazis won their support primarily from the lower middle class and the peasantry. These voters were strongly nationalistic in their political views and feared that the depression would deprive them of their standard of living. The conservative upper classes generally regarded Hitler as an uneducated demagogue and gutter politician. The Nazis won their support primarily from the lower middle class and the peasantry. These voters were strongly nationalistic in their political views and feared that the depression would deprive them of their standard of living. The conservative upper classes generally regarded Hitler as an uneducated demagogue and gutter politician.

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15 National Socialism according to the NAZI We are enemies of cowardly pacifism because we recognize that according to the laws of nature, struggle is the father of all things. We are enemies of democracy because we recognize that an individual genius represents at all times the best in his people and that he should be the leader. Numbers can never direct the destiny of a people. Only genius can do this. We are the deadly enemies of internationalism because nature teaches us that the purity of race and the authority of the leader alone are able to lead a nation to victory We are enemies of cowardly pacifism because we recognize that according to the laws of nature, struggle is the father of all things. We are enemies of democracy because we recognize that an individual genius represents at all times the best in his people and that he should be the leader. Numbers can never direct the destiny of a people. Only genius can do this. We are the deadly enemies of internationalism because nature teaches us that the purity of race and the authority of the leader alone are able to lead a nation to victory

16 Hitler’s Tools 1. Long-term bitterness Treaty of Versailles 1. Long-term bitterness Treaty of Versailles 2. Ineffective Constitution 2. Ineffective Constitution 3. Money from backers inc – Thyssen/ Krupp/IG Faben/ Skoda/ Henry Ford/ Irenee du Pont 3. Money from backers inc – Thyssen/ Krupp/IG Faben/ Skoda/ Henry Ford/ Irenee du Pont 4.Propaganda – blames the Communists/Jews 4.Propaganda – blames the Communists/Jews 5. Programme appeals to many Germans 5. Programme appeals to many Germans 6. Attacks on other parties 6. Attacks on other parties 7. Personal qualities – brilliant speaker/ great organizer/ determined 7. Personal qualities – brilliant speaker/ great organizer/ determined 8. Economic Depression – makes Germans desperate 8. Economic Depression – makes Germans desperate

17 Why Hitler Born in Austria 1889 Born in Austria 1889 Received Iron Cross for bravery in WW I Received Iron Cross for bravery in WW I 1920 leader of the NSDAP = NAZI party 1920 leader of the NSDAP = NAZI party 1923 attempted a putsch in Munich and was arrested wrote mien kampf from prison in 1 year out of a 20 Year sentence 1923 attempted a putsch in Munich and was arrested wrote mien kampf from prison in 1 year out of a 20 Year sentence

18 Mein Kampf German people were of the highest racial purity and those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews and Slavs” German people were of the highest racial purity and those destined to be the master race according to Hitler. To maintain that purity, it was necessary to avoid intermarriage with subhuman races such as Jews and Slavs”

19 NAZI PARTY Late 1920 Nazi party has little power in German politics – the Depression of the 1930’s would change that Late 1920 Nazi party has little power in German politics – the Depression of the 1930’s would change that Unemployment rose 2.25 million or 25% of the labor force 1 in 4 was out of work Unemployment rose 2.25 million or 25% of the labor force 1 in 4 was out of work This was the hardest hit industrial country by the depression This was the hardest hit industrial country by the depression 1930 The Nazi party gained 107 seats in the Reichstag 1930 The Nazi party gained 107 seats in the Reichstag 1932 Nazi party was the largest party in the German Govt controlling 14.5 million votes of only 35 million voters 1932 Nazi party was the largest party in the German Govt controlling 14.5 million votes of only 35 million voters

20 Rise of Hitler On January 30, 1933 Hindenburg made Hitler Chancellor. He thought he could control Hitler On January 30, 1933 Hindenburg made Hitler Chancellor. He thought he could control Hitler In the end, Hitler did not TAKE power – he was given it. In the end, Hitler did not TAKE power – he was given it.

21 HITLER as Chancellor From 1933 – 1936 Hitler and the Nazi party rebuilt the German Economy – provided thousands of jobs – Massive road and public works were built – Science research expanded – military and raw material resources were horded From 1933 – 1936 Hitler and the Nazi party rebuilt the German Economy – provided thousands of jobs – Massive road and public works were built – Science research expanded – military and raw material resources were horded Nazi youth camps were created which resembled the boy scouts Nazi youth camps were created which resembled the boy scouts

22 Hitler as Fuhrer 1934 he became the Fuhrer of Germany (only 15% of the population claimed to be Nazi )and began to ignore the treaty of Versailles – began to rebuild his military – 1934 he became the Fuhrer of Germany (only 15% of the population claimed to be Nazi )and began to ignore the treaty of Versailles – began to rebuild his military – 1934 he supported the Franco forces in the Spanish Civil War --- this was a testing ground or the Germany tactics the BLITZ 1934 he supported the Franco forces in the Spanish Civil War --- this was a testing ground or the Germany tactics the BLITZ

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24 Prelude to War 1937 March Rhineland 1937 March Rhineland 1938 March Anschluss 1938 March Anschluss 1938 Oct Sudetenland 1938 Oct Sudetenland 1938Nov 1938Nov Kristallnacht Kristallnacht 1939 March Czechloslavkia 1939 March Czechloslavkia 1939 Aug Nazi Soviet pact 1939 Aug Nazi Soviet pact

25 Peace with the UK? 1938 Munich Conference – Appeasement France and United Kingdom did not want another war – there nations were still recovering from the last one – Pacifist governments were in charge – Chamberlain the Prime minister of the UK went to Munich and met with Hitler to insure peace in Europe – This conference gave German the go ahead to take over Czechoslovakia - One year late German and the UK would be at war with each other 1938 Munich Conference – Appeasement France and United Kingdom did not want another war – there nations were still recovering from the last one – Pacifist governments were in charge – Chamberlain the Prime minister of the UK went to Munich and met with Hitler to insure peace in Europe – This conference gave German the go ahead to take over Czechoslovakia - One year late German and the UK would be at war with each other

26 Peace with the Soviets? Non Aggression pact with Russia- this was an agreement not to fight each other it also guaranteed the division of Poland 2/3 to Germany once it invaded and 1/3 to the Soviet Union once Germany invaded. This part of the agreement was kept secret. Both Countries however knew war between each other was unavoidable – this pact was a delaying tactic for both sides Non Aggression pact with Russia- this was an agreement not to fight each other it also guaranteed the division of Poland 2/3 to Germany once it invaded and 1/3 to the Soviet Union once Germany invaded. This part of the agreement was kept secret. Both Countries however knew war between each other was unavoidable – this pact was a delaying tactic for both sides

27 Acts of Neutrality or War U.S. London conference 1933 FDR chose domestic policy over foreign by refusing to attend Conference was designed to stabilize all currency in each nation at a level to begin trade – FDR say this as a threat to American recovery – as it would put the dollar under control of a new world market – Conference failed and extreme nationalism in Europe was born London conference 1933 FDR chose domestic policy over foreign by refusing to attend Conference was designed to stabilize all currency in each nation at a level to begin trade – FDR say this as a threat to American recovery – as it would put the dollar under control of a new world market – Conference failed and extreme nationalism in Europe was born

28 Acts of Neutrality or War U.S. Philippines and Russia Philippines and Russia Far east was to expensive to maintain Far east was to expensive to maintain Tidings-McDuffie Act passed – granting Philippines independence in 1946 and a U.S. Army but not Naval pull out. Set the Philippines up for conquest in Also at the same time in 1933 FDR announced the existence of the USSR done to get their help in pressure on Japan (1937 Russo/Japanese treaty) Tidings-McDuffie Act passed – granting Philippines independence in 1946 and a U.S. Army but not Naval pull out. Set the Philippines up for conquest in Also at the same time in 1933 FDR announced the existence of the USSR done to get their help in pressure on Japan (1937 Russo/Japanese treaty)

29 Acts of Neutrality or War U.S. Good Neighbor Good Neighbor U.S. would stay out of Europe andconcentrate on protecting the Western Hemisphere – promised non intervention in the America’s pulled out all U.S. troops – convinved the America’s that the Monroe Doctrine was now a protector of them as well and needed there help to keep the rising power of Germany out. Announced at the 7 th Pan American conference in Uruguay –Latin America was sold Bonds and prospered under this. U.S. would stay out of Europe andconcentrate on protecting the Western Hemisphere – promised non intervention in the America’s pulled out all U.S. troops – convinved the America’s that the Monroe Doctrine was now a protector of them as well and needed there help to keep the rising power of Germany out. Announced at the 7 th Pan American conference in Uruguay –Latin America was sold Bonds and prospered under this.

30 Acts of Neutrality or War U.S. Reciprocal trade Agreement Act Reciprocal trade Agreement Act Created by Sec State Hull – trade is two ways and it became a presidential agreement so that it did not have to go through congress (FDR was given permission to lower tariffs by 50% new deal) 29 nations agreed and America was trading on the foreign market and climbing out of depression – it lead the way for American domination of trade after WW II Created by Sec State Hull – trade is two ways and it became a presidential agreement so that it did not have to go through congress (FDR was given permission to lower tariffs by 50% new deal) 29 nations agreed and America was trading on the foreign market and climbing out of depression – it lead the way for American domination of trade after WW II

31 Acts of Neutrality or War U.S Neutrality Act 1936 Neutrality Act keep us out of foreign wars – and no American in time of a foreign war could sell munitions or sail on a belligerent ship keep us out of foreign wars – and no American in time of a foreign war could sell munitions or sail on a belligerent ship Destroyers for Bases UK 1940 Destroyers for Bases UK 1940 Use of bases in Caribbean for 99 years to protect Panama UK get 50 destroyers – U.S. chose sides no longer a 19 th century gentlemen’s war Use of bases in Caribbean for 99 years to protect Panama UK get 50 destroyers – U.S. chose sides no longer a 19 th century gentlemen’s war

32 Acts of Neutrality or War U.S. Lend Lease 1940 Lend Lease 1940 With U.K. and later Russia – weapons would be returned at the end of the war – like getting a used tire back With U.K. and later Russia – weapons would be returned at the end of the war – like getting a used tire back $50 billion dollars in aid to the allies $50 billion dollars in aid to the allies U.S. aid to the soviets prevented the Germans form sending supplies to fight in the battle of Britain U.S. aid to the soviets prevented the Germans form sending supplies to fight in the battle of Britain

33 Marching through Warsaw

34 Division of Poland

35 The Blitz on Poland Sept 1939 Invasion of Poland Sept 1939 Invasion of Poland Poland is divided results in the French and British declaring war on Germany Poland is divided results in the French and British declaring war on Germany

36 Advance through Belgium Spring 1940 Blitz on Belgium (EBEN EMAEL) Netherlands Denmark and Norway Spring 1940 Blitz on Belgium (EBEN EMAEL) Netherlands Denmark and Norway

37 Blitz on France 1940

38 MAGINOT LINE Blitz ON FRANCE 1940 "If you entrench yourself behind strong fortifications, you compel the enemy to seek a solution elsewhere." "If you entrench yourself behind strong fortifications, you compel the enemy to seek a solution elsewhere." CLAUSEWITZ CLAUSEWITZ

39 Maginot Line

40 IT WORKED The Maginot Line was built between 1929 and It was built to protect France from her longtime enemy, Germany, and to defend the traditional invasion routes across her eastern frontier. The Maginot Line was built to provide time for the French army to mobilize and to make up for a potentially disastrous shortfall of manpower predicted for the late 1930s. Most of all, it was built to provide a place behind which the French army could hide, a so-called "Great Wall" of France where the nation could feel secure in its doctrine which would become known as the "Maginot" mentality The Maginot Line was built between 1929 and It was built to protect France from her longtime enemy, Germany, and to defend the traditional invasion routes across her eastern frontier. The Maginot Line was built to provide time for the French army to mobilize and to make up for a potentially disastrous shortfall of manpower predicted for the late 1930s. Most of all, it was built to provide a place behind which the French army could hide, a so-called "Great Wall" of France where the nation could feel secure in its doctrine which would become known as the "Maginot" mentality

41 Dunkirk 1940 A large force of British and French were cut off by a German armoured advance to the Channel Over 330,000 Allied troops were evacuated by sea A large force of British and French were cut off by a German armoured advance to the Channel Over 330,000 Allied troops were evacuated by sea

42 Operation Dynamo From May 22 preparations for the evacuation began, codenamed operation Dynamo, commanded from Dover by Vice- Admiral Ramsay. He called for as many naval vessels as possible as well as every ship capable of carrying 1,000 men within reach. It initially was intended to recover around 45,000 men of the British Army over two days, this was soon stretched to 120,000 men over five days. On May 27 a request was placed to civilians to provide all shallow draught vessels of 30 to 100 feet (9 to 30 m) for the operation, From May 22 preparations for the evacuation began, codenamed operation Dynamo, commanded from Dover by Vice- Admiral Ramsay. He called for as many naval vessels as possible as well as every ship capable of carrying 1,000 men within reach. It initially was intended to recover around 45,000 men of the British Army over two days, this was soon stretched to 120,000 men over five days. On May 27 a request was placed to civilians to provide all shallow draught vessels of 30 to 100 feet (9 to 30 m) for the operation,

43 Operation Sea Lion 1941Operation Sea Lon A plan similar to Napoleon’s a century earlier – the Battle of Britain – Germany’s attempt to invade Great Britain and the first real test of Prime Minister Winston Churchill who replaced Chamberlain 1941Operation Sea Lon A plan similar to Napoleon’s a century earlier – the Battle of Britain – Germany’s attempt to invade Great Britain and the first real test of Prime Minister Winston Churchill who replaced Chamberlain The Battle of Britain was fought entirely in the air over England and the English Channel – the Use of the newly invented Radar by the British enabled the smaller Raf to defeat the German Luftwaffa – thus successfully preventing Germany from invading England The Battle of Britain was fought entirely in the air over England and the English Channel – the Use of the newly invented Radar by the British enabled the smaller Raf to defeat the German Luftwaffa – thus successfully preventing Germany from invading England

44 German Plane downed over UK

45 Battle over London 1940

46 Aircraft in the Battle of Britain

47 Operation Barbarossa This was a direct violation of the Non aggression Pact (Hitler followed the same invasion plan as Napoleon depart in the spring quick victory) destruction of 1 million Soviet troops and 2000 Russian aircraft it was not as successful as it should have been – Bailing out the Italians in Greece – This was a direct violation of the Non aggression Pact (Hitler followed the same invasion plan as Napoleon depart in the spring quick victory) destruction of 1 million Soviet troops and 2000 Russian aircraft it was not as successful as it should have been – Bailing out the Italians in Greece –

48 1942 Stalingrad and Kursk These were the turning point in the war in Europe and Russia’s first victories These were the turning point in the war in Europe and Russia’s first victories Stalingrad cost the Germans an entire army The attack on Stlaingrad started with 300,000 German troops in 1943 a year after the battles in around Stalingrad began 90,000 Germans surrendered of this number, 50,000 would be killed or die from disease in Russian POW camps Stalingrad cost the Germans an entire army The attack on Stlaingrad started with 300,000 German troops in 1943 a year after the battles in around Stalingrad began 90,000 Germans surrendered of this number, 50,000 would be killed or die from disease in Russian POW camps

49 1942 Stalingrad and Kursk The battle for KURSK – this was the world’s largest tank battle over a 10-mile front – 2,700 German tanks vs. 3,600 Russian tanks – it was a Russian Victory – ½ million German casualties and 1,500 tanks destroyed The battle for KURSK – this was the world’s largest tank battle over a 10-mile front – 2,700 German tanks vs. 3,600 Russian tanks – it was a Russian Victory – ½ million German casualties and 1,500 tanks destroyed Germany is pushed back all along the Russian Front –Stalin begs the allies to open up a second front in Europe (allies especially the US believe it is to early and they are not ready to invade – rather see the Germans and the Russians Kill each other off Germany is pushed back all along the Russian Front –Stalin begs the allies to open up a second front in Europe (allies especially the US believe it is to early and they are not ready to invade – rather see the Germans and the Russians Kill each other off

50 Africa 1940 –41 Germans lead by Rommel the Desert Fox Conquered all of Northern Africa From Egypt to the Atlantic 1940 –41 Germans lead by Rommel the Desert Fox Conquered all of Northern Africa From Egypt to the Atlantic November 1942 US and British troops drive Rommel out of Africa November 1942 US and British troops drive Rommel out of Africa

51 Montgomery captures Tripolli

52 ITALY July 1943 Allies are in Italy By the end of July 43 Mussolini was hanged by his people and by Sept 43 Italy surrendered – July 1943 Allies are in Italy By the end of July 43 Mussolini was hanged by his people and by Sept 43 Italy surrendered – the Germans in Italy continued to fight--- Monte Casino –and its bombing fighting thought the mountains (Nisei Japanese American unit 99 th ) by the end of 1944 Italy belonged to the allies the Germans in Italy continued to fight--- Monte Casino –and its bombing fighting thought the mountains (Nisei Japanese American unit 99 th ) by the end of 1944 Italy belonged to the allies

53 1943 Landing in Sicily

54 Operation Overlord June 6 th 1944 After having the Russians fight in Europe sine 1939 the US lead allies finally invaded mainland Europe in June Operation Overlord – D Day June 6 th After having the Russians fight in Europe sine 1939 the US lead allies finally invaded mainland Europe in June Operation Overlord – D Day June 6 th

55 June 6 th 1944 Omaha Beach U.S Omaha Beach U.S Utah Beach U.S Utah Beach U.S Sword Beach UK Sword Beach UK Gold Beach UK Gold Beach UK Juno Beach UK Juno Beach UK Prior to landings massive Airborne drop Prior to landings massive Airborne drop

56 D Day June 6 th 1944

57 D DAY PHOTOS

58 OPERATION MARKET GARDEN 1944 An attempt to break into Germany by going through the Netherlands and crossing three rivers – required allies to control three bridges – on captured two – it failed 1944 An attempt to break into Germany by going through the Netherlands and crossing three rivers – required allies to control three bridges – on captured two – it failed

59 BASTOGNE

60 Crossing the Rhine March 1945 the last natural obstacle to Germany and Berlin was crossed at Remagden March 1945 the last natural obstacle to Germany and Berlin was crossed at Remagden

61 Fall of Berlin April 1945 Soviets surround Berlin April 1945 Soviets surround Berlin Roosevelt Dies and Truman becomes president Roosevelt Dies and Truman becomes president April 30 th Hitler Suicide and marriage Eva Braun April 30 th Hitler Suicide and marriage Eva Braun May 2 nd Germany surrenders under Admiral Donitz a non- Nazi May 2 nd Germany surrenders under Admiral Donitz a non- Nazi

62 Hitler’s Last public appearance

63 Russian’s capture Berlin

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