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Globalising Manufacturing Research (in relation to Production Economics) Robert W. Grubbström: GMRG Istanbul, Turkey July 8, 2004.

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Presentation on theme: "Globalising Manufacturing Research (in relation to Production Economics) Robert W. Grubbström: GMRG Istanbul, Turkey July 8, 2004."— Presentation transcript:

1 Globalising Manufacturing Research (in relation to Production Economics) Robert W. Grubbström: GMRG Istanbul, Turkey July 8, 2004

2 6 Subject 6 History 6 Milestones 6 New Endevours 6 Subject 6 History 6 Milestones 6 New Endevours

3 v An engineering discipline v Courses generally belong to engineering faculties v Focus on topics treating interface between technology/engineering and economics/management v Subject interdisciplinary in nature v All aspects related to manufacturing and processing industries, and to production in general v Treats allocation problems strongly linked with the optimal distribution of production resources (especially within manufacturing industries) v Methodological approach based on the Theory of Production v Gradual integration with mathematical and statistical models and methods from Operational Research and Management Science v Quantitative economic approach has a natural firm footing v Strong links with industrial activities v Globalisation of manufacturing  increasing interest in strategic issues of production v Production = process of transforming one set of resources (inputs) into a second set (outputs) having greater value to society v An engineering discipline v Courses generally belong to engineering faculties v Focus on topics treating interface between technology/engineering and economics/management v Subject interdisciplinary in nature v All aspects related to manufacturing and processing industries, and to production in general v Treats allocation problems strongly linked with the optimal distribution of production resources (especially within manufacturing industries) v Methodological approach based on the Theory of Production v Gradual integration with mathematical and statistical models and methods from Operational Research and Management Science v Quantitative economic approach has a natural firm footing v Strong links with industrial activities v Globalisation of manufacturing  increasing interest in strategic issues of production v Production = process of transforming one set of resources (inputs) into a second set (outputs) having greater value to society Subject Area of Production Economics:

4 A general theory of production must necessarily be abstract, but the cultures of various branches of technology have been so concrete, detailed and far apart that probably no need has ever been experienced for such a broad approach enabling a wide variety of interpretations: Agriculture, mechanical manufacturing, chemical engineering, etc. The economic science on the other hand - although dealing with many other issues apart from production - has had an essential need to include analyses of the opportunities to utilise resources and for that purpose to develop a framework more independent of particular areas of application. Subject Area of Production Economics II:

5 Whereas the technological aspects of production concern the opportunities of transformation, the economic aspects concern the process of choosing a best alternative. From an optimisation point of view, these sets of aspects are dual, one set being the constraint when achieving the other. Both technology and economics are also normative (prescriptive) disciplines, aiming at finding, in some sense, best solutions to recommend for implementation. Subject Area of Production Economics III:

6 Integration of Economics and Technology Technology

7 Production Economics attempts to integrate technology/engineering and economics/management. The way in which this is done, is on the one hand to adopt methods, principles and procedures from one field and apply them in the other. In particular, the application of mathematical and statistical methodology, widely used in engineering, is applied to economic and managerial problems. On the other hand, technical questions and technical alternatives are analysed, applying economic principles. The attempt to integrate economic and engineering disciplines has a history of at least a century. One may note that this development is a difficult and painstaking process, and not without controversy. In the preface of the fourth edition of Eléments d’économie politique pure by Léon Walras, dated June 1900, the author argues that the historical fault in this lies in the idea of dividing academic education into two compartments (natural and social sciences):

8 Léon Walras, 1834-1910

9 ”In any case, the establishment sooner or later of economics as an exact science is no longer in our hands and need not concern us. It is already perfectly clear that economics, like astronomy and mechanics, is both an empirical and a rational science. And no one can reproach our science with having taken an unduly long time in becoming rational as well as empirical. It took from a hundred to a hundred and fifty or two hundred years for the astronomy of Kepler to become the astronomy of Newton and Laplace, and for the mechanics of Galileo to become the mechanics of d’Alembert and Lagrange. On the other hand, less than a century has elapsed between the publication of Adam Smith’s work and the contributions of Cournot, Gossen, Jevons and myself.” Léon Walras, in Preface to Elements of Pure Economics, dated June 1900:

10 ”We were, therefore, at our post, and have performed our duty. If nineteenth century France, which was the cradle of the new science, has completely ignored it, the fault lies in the idea, so bourgeois in its narowness, of dividing education into two separate compartments; one turning out calculators with no knowledge whatsoever of sociology, philosophy, history, or economics; and the other cultivating men of letters devoid of any notion of mathematics. The twentieth century, which is not far off, will feel the need, even in France, of entrusting the social sciences to men of general culture who are accustomed to thinking both inductively and deductively and who are familiar with reason as well as experience.” Léon Walras, continued:

11 At least three motives for striving to integrate the two disciplines: v Often students of technology eventually will find themselves in leadership positions in which economic and managerial skills are essential v Using techniques from a more advanced science in a less advanced discipline develops the latter v Attempts to find analogies, by which results derived or developed in one discipline can be applied in the other v Whenever this is made possible, scientific shortcuts are achieved creating efficiency At least three motives for striving to integrate the two disciplines: v Often students of technology eventually will find themselves in leadership positions in which economic and managerial skills are essential v Using techniques from a more advanced science in a less advanced discipline develops the latter v Attempts to find analogies, by which results derived or developed in one discipline can be applied in the other v Whenever this is made possible, scientific shortcuts are achieved creating efficiency Motives for integration:

12 u Mechanical Engineering u Electrical Engineering u Chemical Engineering u Computer Science u (Chemical Engineering) Technological Bases for Production Economics

13 Specialisation and Efficiency Efficiency

14 Adam Smith, 1723-1790

15

16 The First Industrial Engineer The First Industrial Engineer

17 Vilfredo Pareto, 1848-1923

18 The Italian Marquis and engineer Vilfredo Pareto, 1848-1923, was born i Paris. He wrote a thesis in solid mechanics with the title Principes fondamentaux de l’équilibre de corps solides, which he defended at the Technical University of Turin in 1869. He was appointed ”ordinary” Professor of economie politique at the University of Lausanne in 1894. He created ”Pareto’s law”, which later has become known as the ”80/20-rule”. He contributed to the foundation of welfare economics, by defining optimality in an economic system as a state from which no one can become better off without somebody else becoming worse off (Pareto Optimality).

19 Human Capital

20 Frederick Winslow Taylor, 1856-1915

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22 C. Tarras Sällfors, 1898-1960

23 Robert Emanuel Kristensson, 1896-1975

24 John Maynard Keynes, 1883-1946

25 (Originally published 1935-36) Despite treating a general theory of employment, not a single word about production!!!

26 Marcus Wallenberg, 1899-1982

27 Marcus Wallenberg: ” Tekniskt framåtskridande och ekonomisk växttakt” Föredrag vid Finska Industriförbundets höstmöte den 22 november 1962 Marcus Wallenberg: ” Tekniskt framåtskridande och ekonomisk växttakt” Föredrag vid Finska Industriförbundets höstmöte den 22 november 1962 ”De tekniska högskolorna och universitetens naturvetenskapliga forskningsinstitut måste fortsätta att utvidgas och undervisningen måste alltmer avse att lära ut metoder, med vilka man dels kan följa med i den tekniska utvecklingen, dels även bidraga till att skapa denna utveckling. Det blir allt viktigare att förstå helt nya produkter och hur en innovation skall kunna leda till en helt ny produkt. För detta kräves, att den tekniska och naturvetenskapliga utbildningen alltmera måste läggas på de grundläggande vetenskaperna och kanske mindre tid måste ägnas åt kunskaper om maskiner, som finns idag men som inte kommer att finnas i morgon. Över huvud taget måste man inom de allra flesta vetenskapliga disciplinerna främja den kvantitativa vetenskapen, dvs. man måste alltmera lära ut analysmetoder och allt mindre mata in institutionella fakta som mycket snart är obsoleta.” ”The institutes of technology and the natural science research institutes of the universities must continue to expand and the education must increasingly concern the teaching of methods, by which, on the one hand, one may follow the technical development, on the other, also contribute to the creation of this development. It will be increasingly important to understand completely new products and how an innovation will be able to lead to a completely new product. This requires that education in technical and natural sciences must more and more focus on basic sciences and possibly less time be devoted to knowledge about machines existing today, but not existing tomorrow. Over all, in the vast majority of scientific disciplines one has to give priority to the quantitative science, i.e. that one must increasingly teach analytical methodology and to a lesser extent feed institutional facts which very soon are obsolete.” quantitative science analytical methodology

28 Market Orientation

29 Curt R. Nicolin, b. 1921

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31

32 Technology and Finance Technology

33 u Ultimate economic consequences of any industrial activity are financial consequences u Financial Engineering financial

34 TechnologyandArtTechnologyandArt

35 Abraham Maslow, 1908-1970

36 (To be added)

37 Science and Art

38 InformationTechnologyInformationTechnology

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40 Phases in the development of Information Technology (mainly following Kerstin Severinson Eklundh) 1950’sComputers used mainly by engineers and researchers, who had developed them 1960’sLarge administrative systems making their entry. Batch processing, punch cards, etc. 1970’sInteractive systems introduced. Terminals connected to mainframe beginning to be applied. Local desk calculators, pocket calculators introduced. Word processing 1980’sTerminals to mainframes more in use, e-mail beginning to be common Personal computers (32 Kb, 64 Kb) introduced. text replaced successively by graphics, colour graphics 1990’sGraphics, windows, Local Area Networks. Internet, WWW, common infrastructure. Personal computers and home computers usual

41 Roles of computers u Computers as talking partners, dialogs u Databases u Tools, mouse, drag and drop u Agent and adviser u Language processing u Communication u Search and contact, knowledge base u Robots u Virtual reality u Games, playing and art u Everyday use in domestic applications

42 ManufacturingvsServiceManufacturingvsService

43 Development of employment (from Avi Mandelbaum, Technion, Haiffa):

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45

46 EnvironmentalIssuesEnvironmentalIssues

47 Oxygen content of the Baltic Sea 19001910 19201930 194019501960 1970 Per cent of saturation

48 DDT flows in the environment 40 60800020 DDT in soilDDT in fish

49 Energy-Economic Issues

50 u There still is no complete energy-economic theory This one should be ashamed of! u There is certainly at least one major energy crisis around the corner (within the next 7-10 years)

51 Summary 6 basic focus on integration remains 6 technology and finance 6 technology and art - design 6 information technology applied wherever possible 6 attention to service production 6 awareness of environmental issues 6 attention to energy issues Summary 6 basic focus on integration remains 6 technology and finance 6 technology and art - design 6 information technology applied wherever possible 6 attention to service production 6 awareness of environmental issues 6 attention to energy issues

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