4Maritime vs Land Empire Define when is an Empire – Maritime or Land?Slavery vs Serfdom – Similarities and differencesTrade Routes – what role do they play in each type of Empire?What makes an Empire powerful? – Natural Resources, Military might, People’s jobs, Trade, etc.
5Russia – large, agriculturally based serfdom, multi-ethnic Empire – political overview) Kievan Rus ( CE) – First kingdom of “Rus” based in city of Kiev in modern day Ukraine, that gain much of its culture from the Byzantine Empire (Orthodox Christianity, “Emperor / Caesar / Czar”, etc.)Golden Horde (Mongols / Tatars) conquest (1240s – 1470s) – Rise of Muscovy as chief cityRussian Empire-Ivan III (The Great) ( CE) – throws out the Tatars and Nogovad Kingdoms and establishes Rurik Dynasty-Ivan IV (The Terrible) ( CE) – extends Russian Empire to the Pacific but erratic behavior leads to period of chaos called the Time of Troubles-Peter The Great ( ) – emphasizes modernization of Russia looking to Europe (Navy, technology, education, trade, wars, etc.)-Catherine the Great ( ) – Russian Empire reaches largest extent. Uses Enlightenment ideals to further European emphasis
7Russian Empire – overview continued Agricultural economy where 90% of people live in rural areas and on large farmsSome Nobles are control very large lands and are thus very powerful acting as almost regional rulers since the Tsar is far awayRussian serfs are often treated worse than serfs in any other “European” country that is located west of Russia and thus closer to Western EuropeRussian Empire is territorially largest Empire in world BUT it is mostly relatively empty east of the Ural Mountains (Asia) and 90% of the population lives West of the Ural Mountains (Europe)Russian Empire is technologically behind the rest of Europe so it is often not as militarily powerful as its smaller Western counterparts – if it ever had gained technologically it could have become the most powerful country in Europe (this is what happens after World War II)
8The Rise of the Russian Empire Ivan III (aka Ivan the Great) stopped paying tribute to the Mongol Empire in 1480Established a strong central government ruled by a czar who ruled by divine rightAfter the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Romanov dynasty ruled Russia for 300 years
10Peter I (Peter the Great) Reign:Strict autocrat and firm believer in military powerBegan the “westernization” movement in RussiaBeard TaxDeveloped “Secret Police” who prevented dissent and supervise bureaucracyGained territory on eastern coast of Baltic SeaCreated first Russian navyMoved capital from Moscow to St. PetersburgAgriculture was the focus of the economy; serfdom encouraged
11Catherine The Great Reign : 1762- 1796 Westernization policies (art, architecture, justice)Reduced severe punishments for crimesAdvanced Russia’s borders to Black Sea & waged 2 successful wars against Ottoman EmpireFounded Russia’s first college of medicineBrought ideas of the Enlightenment to RussiaStrictly enforced serfdom
12QuestionsWhich Tsar was the most important in the Russian Empire and why?Why doesn’t the Tsar try to change Russia’s “backwards” society and make Russia the dominant power in Europe?Why don’t the peasants revolt against the nobles and Tsar since they are over 90% of the population?
13The Ottomans Gain Strength Gunpowder made the Ottomans powerfulJanissaries (elite fighting force made up of enslaved Christian boys)Janissaries selected by a process called devshirmeLearn more about the selection process of the Janissaries!Jannisary
14The Ottoman Empire Expands Ottomans started out as semi-nomadic Turks1453 captured Constantinople, ended the Byzantine Empire (woohoo, lower taxes!)Added Syria, Egypt, North Africa to their empireOttomans were a threat to the Hapsburg dynasty (Austria) until 1683
16Constantinople renamed Istanbul Sophisticated city- aqueducts, marketplace, religious schools, hospitalsMerchants and artisansGovernment carefully monitored tradeHaghia Sophia turned into a mosqueHaghia Sophia
17Religious, but Tolerant The Ottoman Sultan was a political and religious ruler (incorporated the idea of “caliph”)Europeans were afraid of the Ottomans, but admired them as well“He tramples the soil of Hungary with 200,000 horses, he is at the very gates of Austria, threatens the rest of Germany…”-1555 Excerpts from Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq: Ambassador of the Hapsburg EmpireQ: Who do you think Busbecq is describing here?
18Jean Bodin (16th cen. French philosopher) “The King of the Turks who rules over a great part of Europe safeguards the rites of religion as well as any prince in this world. Yet he constrains no one, but on the contrary permits everyone to live as his conscience dictates.”Q: Which aspect of Ottoman rule does Bodin admire?Ways of the World p.649
20Women in the Ottoman Empire Patriarchal societyDepending on the economic situation, women did domestic work or supervised their servantsWomen were restricted from leaving the home but could legally attend weddings, cemeteries, and public bathsMarriages were arrangedFew women were literateWomen could earn a living, own industries, and practice medicinehttps://www.reconstructinghistory.com/rh406-ottoman-turkish-woman.php?s=&c=22&d=34&p=433&w=21
21The Harem Private domain for the sultan Concubines and relatives of sultan lived thereWomen close to the sultan were powerfulSlave origin, non-MuslimTrained in sewing, music, reading, KoranRead about a powerful woman in the Ottoman harem!
23The Mughals (1526-1700s) Founded by Babur in 1526 First Islamic ruler to use muskets and artilleryGrandson- Akbar the Great
24Akbar the Great Akbar abolished the jizya Encouraged intermarriage between Hindus and MuslimsEstablished Din-i-llahi (“The religion of God”)as a universal religion- had elements of Zoroastrianism (i.e. divine kingship), and Jainism (respect for all living things)Akbar the Great
25The Red Fort Built in Agra in1565 by Akbar the Great It is one of the most obvious symbols of the Mogul grandeur under Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.Allposters.com
26Other Mughal Rulers: Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb Shah Jahan- patron of the artsBlend of Islamic domes, arches, minarets, with Hindu decorationsBuilt Taj Mahal (tomb for his deceased second wife, Mumtaz Mahal)Shah Jahan’s son, Aurangzeb, imprisoned him in Agra Fort for 8 years(where he died)Aurangzeb tried to rid India of Hindu influences and he brought back the jizya
29The Songhay Empire ( )Sunni Ali consolidated empire, expanded former Mali empire (conquered Timbuktu and Jenne)Promoted IslamTimbuktu- city of learning (mosques, schools, Islamic university)Jenne- major trading cityOrganized army, navyTrans-Saharan trade brought salt, textiles, and metal in exchange for gold and slaves)Largest empire in African historyDefeated by Moroccans in 1591Wsu.eduKaplan
30Jenne: Center of Trade“The town of Jenne (Djenne) was founded near Jenne-jeno between 800 and 1250 A.D. and grew to become an even more significant trans-Saharan trading center than its neighbor. By the fourteenth century, gold, kola, and slaves from the southern savanna, salt and manuscripts from the Sahara, and the staple foods of the Inland Niger Delta were bartered here in an extensive web of trade reaching as far as northern Africa and Europe. By the sixteenth century, Jenne had become one of the foremost market centers on the African continent.” Source: Inland Niger Delta | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
31Architecture in Timbuktu Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion?Newsrescue.com
33Kongo14th century- Kongo was a centralized state along the west coast of central Africa1482- Portuguese arrive and establish relations with the kingKing Affonso I converted to Catholicism and tried to convert all of his subjectsPortuguese brought textiles and weaponsAfricans supplied Portuguese with gold, silver, ivory, and slaves (dealt with local leaders)King felt undermined, and was defeated in a war by the Portuguese in 1665
34Learn more about the Christian Influences in the Kongo!
36The Spanish Empire 1492- voyages of Columbus Papal lines of demarcation made Spain in charge of the New WorldConquistadors (i.e.Cortes, Pizarro) expanded Spanish Empire1535- viceroyalty system started in New SpainSpread CatholicismExtracted gold and a lot of silverInstituted a system of forced labor, the encomienda system. Clergy protested.When the encomienda system was abolished in 1542, African slaves were imported
37Portugal Brazil- major territory for the Portuguese Discovered by accident by Pedro CabralPortuguese had superior technology and diseasesExploited natives for laborMass conversions to CatholicismPlantations produced sugarcaneAfrican slaves imported to work on plantationsBrazil was the last country in the Americas to outlaw slavery (1888)
38China – OverviewSince early 1400s – China (Ming) stops “Sinification” focus and voyages of Zheng He and works on internal issues.China is self sufficient, lots of natural resources, large population and markets , enough agriculture – so it does not need to trade with others – thus it is the “Middle Kingdom” and China-centeredNomadic (conquerors and conquered) had always assimilated to Han Chinese culture
39Questions - overviewWhy did China not value merchants as much as Western Europeans?Why did China ultimately fall technologically behind Europe by 1750?Which direction historically does China focus its attention on? Why?
40Qing Dynasty ( )A.k.a The Manchus- nomads from the north of ChinaManchus had the highest positions in government but kept the civil service exams (Neo-Confucianism)Maintained China’s patriarchal society and footbindingHan Chinese men had to wear a queue braidManchus could not perform manual laborIntermarriage between Chinese and Manchus forbiddenChinese could not enter the Manchu homelandTechnological innovation slowedWriting Assignment: Compare and contrast Manchu (Qing Dynasty) rule to Mongol (Yuan Dynasty) – 2 ways similar and 2 ways different
41Learn more about the queue! A Chinese man with a traditional Chinese queue hair design getting a pedicure
43The Tokugawa Shogunate (A.K.A. the Edo Period) Excerpts from the Closed Country Edict of 1635Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to leave for foreign countries.No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. If there is anyone who attempts to do so secretly, he must be executed. The ship so involved must be impounded and its owner arrested, and the matter must be reported to the higher authority.If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death.If there is any place where the teachings of the [Catholic] priests is practiced, the two of you must order a thorough investigation.All incoming ships must be carefully searched for the followers of the priests.1640- Every member of a Portuguese delegation was executed upon arrival to Japan
44Some cultural achievements during the Tokugawa Era Haiku poetry (17 syllable poem)Kabuki theater (musical drama)Woodblock artBunraku (plays using puppets- 3 puppeteer operation)
45Kabuki Theater Woodblock image of Kabuki Theater
46The Japanese Feudal System Code of Bushido!Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion in this social pyramid?
47The Code of BushidoThe Tale of the 47 Ronin demonstrates the Code of Bushido. There is a lesson that people need to live their lives honorably.The story is about a group of samurai who were left masterless in 1701 by the execution of their master, for assaulting a court official whom he felt had insulted him. After over a year of patient waiting and plotting, they succeeded in avenging him by killing the court official. Although they had committed murder, they had done so for that most noble of reasons (to the Japanese) - in obedience to their duty. As a result, they were allowed an honorable death (seppuku).The story was turned into a series of Kabuki playsQ: What central lesson do you think the Tale of 47 Ronin is trying to convey?
48Women during the Tokugawa Period Wives had to obey their husbands or face a death penaltyWomen received less education than menWomen were encouraged to pursue artistic and cultural activitiesSometimes girls were sold into prostitution by their families (they were less valued than boys)Some gained status as geishas who were especially talented musicians, artists, and conversationalists
49The Western Influence on Japan Western ideas penetrated Japan via the Dutch despite the Tokugawa policy of isolationism.Except for books on Christianity, a ban on western books was removed in 1720.In 1736 the importation and translation of Dutch literature on astronomy were ordered by the shogun Yoshimune Tokugawa.There were translations of western books on physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography, navigation and military tactics.
50Monarchies in France and England Estates GeneralDivine RightStrong military, wars for expansionHigh taxesOrganized bureaucracyEnglandParliamentary monarchyGlorious Revolution 1689 limited power of monarchHigh taxesOrganized bureaucracy
51Louis XIV (r. 1661-1715) The Sun King Built Versailles Revocation of Nantes 1683Mercantilism (under finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert)Q: Why was Louis XIV known as the “Sun King?”
53It’s not as glamorous as it seems… Versailles reservations…Yes, I have a room available.Well, we have 226 roomsAltogether. Of course, we doHave 1000 nobles and their4000 servants occupying them…Not all rooms have windows, Sir.We do have some rooms withWindows, but the smell of theOutdoor latrines seep through them…
54Decisions, Decisions… Sir, if you prefer we Do have the Closet-like roomsWithout windows…Would you like toCome in the winter soYou can freeze? Or doYou prefer to stay hereIn the summer so youCan broil?Perspectives on the Past
55Now for the Comparative Essay… 2007 AP World Exam