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Aim: How were empires successfully built in the period of ?

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1 Aim: How were empires successfully built in the period of 1450-1750?
State Building

2 Maritime Empires AP ALERT!

3 Land Empires AP ALERT!

4 Maritime vs Land Empire
Define when is an Empire – Maritime or Land? Slavery vs Serfdom – Similarities and differences Trade Routes – what role do they play in each type of Empire? What makes an Empire powerful? – Natural Resources, Military might, People’s jobs, Trade, etc.

5 Russia – large, agriculturally based serfdom, multi-ethnic Empire – political overview)
Kievan Rus ( CE) – First kingdom of “Rus” based in city of Kiev in modern day Ukraine, that gain much of its culture from the Byzantine Empire (Orthodox Christianity, “Emperor / Caesar / Czar”, etc.) Golden Horde (Mongols / Tatars) conquest (1240s – 1470s) – Rise of Muscovy as chief city Russian Empire -Ivan III (The Great) ( CE) – throws out the Tatars and Nogovad Kingdoms and establishes Rurik Dynasty -Ivan IV (The Terrible) ( CE) – extends Russian Empire to the Pacific but erratic behavior leads to period of chaos called the Time of Troubles -Peter The Great ( ) – emphasizes modernization of Russia looking to Europe (Navy, technology, education, trade, wars, etc.) -Catherine the Great ( ) – Russian Empire reaches largest extent. Uses Enlightenment ideals to further European emphasis

6 Social System of the Russian Empire

7 Russian Empire – overview continued
Agricultural economy where 90% of people live in rural areas and on large farms Some Nobles are control very large lands and are thus very powerful acting as almost regional rulers since the Tsar is far away Russian serfs are often treated worse than serfs in any other “European” country that is located west of Russia and thus closer to Western Europe Russian Empire is territorially largest Empire in world BUT it is mostly relatively empty east of the Ural Mountains (Asia) and 90% of the population lives West of the Ural Mountains (Europe) Russian Empire is technologically behind the rest of Europe so it is often not as militarily powerful as its smaller Western counterparts – if it ever had gained technologically it could have become the most powerful country in Europe (this is what happens after World War II)

8 The Rise of the Russian Empire
Ivan III (aka Ivan the Great) stopped paying tribute to the Mongol Empire in 1480 Established a strong central government ruled by a czar who ruled by divine right After the reign of Ivan the Terrible, the Romanov dynasty ruled Russia for 300 years

9 The Expansion of the Russian Empire

10 Peter I (Peter the Great)
Reign: Strict autocrat and firm believer in military power Began the “westernization” movement in Russia Beard Tax Developed “Secret Police” who prevented dissent and supervise bureaucracy Gained territory on eastern coast of Baltic Sea Created first Russian navy Moved capital from Moscow to St. Petersburg Agriculture was the focus of the economy; serfdom encouraged

11 Catherine The Great Reign : 1762- 1796
Westernization policies (art, architecture, justice) Reduced severe punishments for crimes Advanced Russia’s borders to Black Sea & waged 2 successful wars against Ottoman Empire Founded Russia’s first college of medicine Brought ideas of the Enlightenment to Russia Strictly enforced serfdom

12 Questions Which Tsar was the most important in the Russian Empire and why? Why doesn’t the Tsar try to change Russia’s “backwards” society and make Russia the dominant power in Europe? Why don’t the peasants revolt against the nobles and Tsar since they are over 90% of the population?

13 The Ottomans Gain Strength
Gunpowder made the Ottomans powerful Janissaries (elite fighting force made up of enslaved Christian boys) Janissaries selected by a process called devshirme Learn more about the selection process of the Janissaries! Jannisary

14 The Ottoman Empire Expands
Ottomans started out as semi-nomadic Turks 1453 captured Constantinople, ended the Byzantine Empire (woohoo, lower taxes!) Added Syria, Egypt, North Africa to their empire Ottomans were a threat to the Hapsburg dynasty (Austria) until 1683

15 Ottoman Empire at the end of the 17th Century

16 Constantinople renamed Istanbul
Sophisticated city- aqueducts, marketplace, religious schools, hospitals Merchants and artisans Government carefully monitored trade Haghia Sophia turned into a mosque Haghia Sophia

17 Religious, but Tolerant
The Ottoman Sultan was a political and religious ruler (incorporated the idea of “caliph”) Europeans were afraid of the Ottomans, but admired them as well “He tramples the soil of Hungary with 200,000 horses, he is at the very gates of Austria, threatens the rest of Germany…” -1555 Excerpts from Ogier Ghiselin de Busbecq: Ambassador of the Hapsburg Empire Q: Who do you think Busbecq is describing here?

18 Jean Bodin (16th cen. French philosopher)
“The King of the Turks who rules over a great part of Europe safeguards the rites of religion as well as any prince in this world. Yet he constrains no one, but on the contrary permits everyone to live as his conscience dictates.” Q: Which aspect of Ottoman rule does Bodin admire? Ways of the World p.649

19 Jews in the Ottoman Empire

20 Women in the Ottoman Empire
Patriarchal society Depending on the economic situation, women did domestic work or supervised their servants Women were restricted from leaving the home but could legally attend weddings, cemeteries, and public baths Marriages were arranged Few women were literate Women could earn a living, own industries, and practice medicine

21 The Harem Private domain for the sultan
Concubines and relatives of sultan lived there Women close to the sultan were powerful Slave origin, non-Muslim Trained in sewing, music, reading, Koran Read about a powerful woman in the Ottoman harem!

22 The Mughal Empire

23 The Mughals (1526-1700s) Founded by Babur in 1526
First Islamic ruler to use muskets and artillery Grandson- Akbar the Great

24 Akbar the Great Akbar abolished the jizya
Encouraged intermarriage between Hindus and Muslims Established Din-i-llahi (“The religion of God”)as a universal religion- had elements of Zoroastrianism (i.e. divine kingship), and Jainism (respect for all living things) Akbar the Great

25 The Red Fort Built in Agra in1565 by Akbar the Great
It is one of the most obvious symbols of the Mogul grandeur under Akbar, Jahangir and Shah Jahan.

26 Other Mughal Rulers: Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb
Shah Jahan- patron of the arts Blend of Islamic domes, arches, minarets, with Hindu decorations Built Taj Mahal (tomb for his deceased second wife, Mumtaz Mahal) Shah Jahan’s son, Aurangzeb, imprisoned him in Agra Fort for 8 years(where he died) Aurangzeb tried to rid India of Hindu influences and he brought back the jizya

27 The Islamic Gunpowder Empires

28 The Songhay Empire

29 The Songhay Empire ( ) Sunni Ali consolidated empire, expanded former Mali empire (conquered Timbuktu and Jenne) Promoted Islam Timbuktu- city of learning (mosques, schools, Islamic university) Jenne- major trading city Organized army, navy Trans-Saharan trade brought salt, textiles, and metal in exchange for gold and slaves) Largest empire in African history Defeated by Moroccans in 1591 Kaplan

30 Jenne: Center of Trade “The town of Jenne (Djenne) was founded near Jenne-jeno between 800 and 1250 A.D. and grew to become an even more significant trans-Saharan trading center than its neighbor. By the fourteenth century, gold, kola, and slaves from the southern savanna, salt and manuscripts from the Sahara, and the staple foods of the Inland Niger Delta were bartered here in an extensive web of trade reaching as far as northern Africa and Europe. By the sixteenth century, Jenne had become one of the foremost market centers on the African continent.” Source: Inland Niger Delta | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art

31 Architecture in Timbuktu
Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion?

32 The Kongo Kingdom (1300s-1600s)

33 Kongo 14th century- Kongo was a centralized state along the west coast of central Africa 1482- Portuguese arrive and establish relations with the king King Affonso I converted to Catholicism and tried to convert all of his subjects Portuguese brought textiles and weapons Africans supplied Portuguese with gold, silver, ivory, and slaves (dealt with local leaders) King felt undermined, and was defeated in a war by the Portuguese in 1665

34 Learn more about the Christian Influences in the Kongo!

35 Latin America Before Independence

36 The Spanish Empire 1492- voyages of Columbus
Papal lines of demarcation made Spain in charge of the New World Conquistadors (i.e.Cortes, Pizarro) expanded Spanish Empire 1535- viceroyalty system started in New Spain Spread Catholicism Extracted gold and a lot of silver Instituted a system of forced labor, the encomienda system. Clergy protested. When the encomienda system was abolished in 1542, African slaves were imported

37 Portugal Brazil- major territory for the Portuguese
Discovered by accident by Pedro Cabral Portuguese had superior technology and diseases Exploited natives for labor Mass conversions to Catholicism Plantations produced sugarcane African slaves imported to work on plantations Brazil was the last country in the Americas to outlaw slavery (1888)

38 China – Overview Since early 1400s – China (Ming) stops “Sinification” focus and voyages of Zheng He and works on internal issues. China is self sufficient, lots of natural resources, large population and markets , enough agriculture – so it does not need to trade with others – thus it is the “Middle Kingdom” and China-centered Nomadic (conquerors and conquered) had always assimilated to Han Chinese culture

39 Questions - overview Why did China not value merchants as much as Western Europeans? Why did China ultimately fall technologically behind Europe by 1750? Which direction historically does China focus its attention on? Why?

40 Qing Dynasty ( ) A.k.a The Manchus- nomads from the north of China Manchus had the highest positions in government but kept the civil service exams (Neo-Confucianism) Maintained China’s patriarchal society and footbinding Han Chinese men had to wear a queue braid Manchus could not perform manual labor Intermarriage between Chinese and Manchus forbidden Chinese could not enter the Manchu homeland Technological innovation slowed Writing Assignment: Compare and contrast Manchu (Qing Dynasty) rule to Mongol (Yuan Dynasty) – 2 ways similar and 2 ways different

41 Learn more about the queue!
A Chinese man with a traditional Chinese queue hair design getting a pedicure

42 Japan overview

43 The Tokugawa Shogunate (A.K.A. the Edo Period)
Excerpts from the Closed Country Edict of 1635 Japanese ships are strictly forbidden to leave for foreign countries. No Japanese is permitted to go abroad. If there is anyone who attempts to do so secretly, he must be executed. The ship so involved must be impounded and its owner arrested, and the matter must be reported to the higher authority. If any Japanese returns from overseas after residing there, he must be put to death. If there is any place where the teachings of the [Catholic] priests is practiced, the two of you must order a thorough investigation. All incoming ships must be carefully searched for the followers of the priests. 1640- Every member of a Portuguese delegation was executed upon arrival to Japan

44 Some cultural achievements during the Tokugawa Era
Haiku poetry (17 syllable poem) Kabuki theater (musical drama) Woodblock art Bunraku (plays using puppets- 3 puppeteer operation)

45 Kabuki Theater Woodblock image of Kabuki Theater

46 The Japanese Feudal System
Code of Bushido! Q: Where do you see evidence of cultural diffusion in this social pyramid?

47 The Code of Bushido The Tale of the 47 Ronin demonstrates the Code of Bushido. There is a lesson that people need to live their lives honorably. The story is about a group of samurai who were left masterless in 1701 by the execution of their master, for assaulting a court official whom he felt had insulted him. After over a year of patient waiting and plotting, they succeeded in avenging him by killing the court official. Although they had committed murder, they had done so for that most noble of reasons (to the Japanese) - in obedience to their duty. As a result, they were allowed an honorable death (seppuku). The story was turned into a series of Kabuki plays Q: What central lesson do you think the Tale of 47 Ronin is trying to convey?

48 Women during the Tokugawa Period
Wives had to obey their husbands or face a death penalty Women received less education than men Women were encouraged to pursue artistic and cultural activities Sometimes girls were sold into prostitution by their families (they were less valued than boys) Some gained status as geishas who were especially talented musicians, artists, and conversationalists

49 The Western Influence on Japan
Western ideas penetrated Japan via the Dutch despite the Tokugawa policy of isolationism. Except for books on Christianity, a ban on western books was removed in 1720. In 1736 the importation and translation of Dutch literature on astronomy were ordered by the shogun Yoshimune Tokugawa. There were translations of western books on physics, chemistry, mathematics, geography, navigation and military tactics.

50 Monarchies in France and England
Estates General Divine Right Strong military, wars for expansion High taxes Organized bureaucracy England Parliamentary monarchy Glorious Revolution 1689 limited power of monarch High taxes Organized bureaucracy

51 Louis XIV (r. 1661-1715) The Sun King Built Versailles
Revocation of Nantes 1683 Mercantilism (under finance minister Jean Baptiste Colbert) Q: Why was Louis XIV known as the “Sun King?”

52 The Royal Palace Versailles, France

53 It’s not as glamorous as it seems…
Versailles reservations… Yes, I have a room available. Well, we have 226 rooms Altogether. Of course, we do Have 1000 nobles and their 4000 servants occupying them… Not all rooms have windows, Sir. We do have some rooms with Windows, but the smell of the Outdoor latrines seep through them…

54 Decisions, Decisions… Sir, if you prefer we Do have the
Closet-like rooms Without windows… Would you like to Come in the winter so You can freeze? Or do You prefer to stay here In the summer so you Can broil? Perspectives on the Past

55 Now for the Comparative Essay…
2007 AP World Exam

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