Presentation on theme: "Is punctuation necessary? Read the following sentence: Cora said John is acting silly. Add some punctuation and the sentence means something entirely different:"— Presentation transcript:
Is punctuation necessary? Read the following sentence: Cora said John is acting silly. Add some punctuation and the sentence means something entirely different: “Cora,” said John, “is acting silly.”
If you were reading these sentences aloud, you’d make them sound different. Try it! Cora said John is acting silly. “Cora,” said John, “is acting silly.” When you write, you need a way to show where the stops and starts and pauses go. That’s what punctuation is for!
Commas You know many of the comma rules, so we will not go over them in depth. You know that commas come before items in a series: She put on Chap Stick, sun screen, and a visor before heading to the beach. You also know that a comma comes before a coordinating conjunction in a compound sentence: She likes him, and he likes her.
Comma Rules (notes) 1. Use commas to set apart opening words. Example: Of course, she kept her favorite pen with her notebook. 2. Use commas to surround information that interrupts a sentence. Example: Her favorite pen, the blue one with yellow stripes, was a gift from Mrs. Patterson.
Comma Rules (notes) 3. Use commas to surround which information. Example: Harriet returned to her room, which was on the third floor, after finishing dinner.
Semicolon 1. Use a semicolon to tie together simple sentences. Example: She likes him; he likes her. 2. Use a semicolon to clear up a confusing series. Example: The party included Jo, who poured the tea; her mother, Marmee; John Brooke, the tutor; Laurie; Meg, who baked the cookies; and the other March girls.
Colon (notes) 1. Use a colon to introduce a list. Example: Peter and Edmund changed back into their school uniforms: jackets, pants, ties, and caps. 2. Use a colon to explain or expand on a statement. Example: The children found themselves back where their adventure began: on a bench in a railroad station, surrounded by luggage.
Parentheses (notes) 1. Use parentheses to make a detour in your writing. The detour can be its own sentence. Example: Encyclopedia Brown’s dad was the chief of police in Idaville. (He was Chief Brown’s secret weapon.) Or make the detour within your sentence. Example: Leroy’s nickname was Encyclopedia (he had a head full of facts).
Dash (notes) 1. Just like a colon, one dash can emphasize information in your writing. Example: It was what Dorothy dreaded most—a cyclone. 2. Just like parentheses, two dashes can show a detour in your writing. Example: The house whirled around two or three times—Dorothy wasn’t sure how many—then rose in the air like a balloon.
Apostrophes (notes) 1. Apostrophes signify a contraction—the joining of two words. Example: couldn’t = could + not. 2. Apostrophes show possession. If the word showing possession is singular, add an apostrophe and an –s. Examples: Opal’s and Otis’s. If the word is plural and ends in an –s, just add an apostrophe. Example: The animals’ cages stood empty. If the word is plural and doesn’t end in an –s, add an apostrophe and an –s. Example: The children’s arms wrapped around Winn-Dixie.