Concept 8.1: An organism’s metabolism transforms matter and energy, subject to the laws of thermodynamics Metabolism is the totality of an organism’s chemical reactions Metabolism is an emergent property of life that arises from interactions between molecules within the cell
LE 8-2 On the platform, the diver has more potential energy. Diving converts potential energy to kinetic energy. Climbing up converts kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy. In the water, the diver has less potential energy.
LE 8-3 Chemical energy Heat CO 2 First law of thermodynamicsSecond law of thermodynamics H2OH2O The cheetah will convert the chemical energy of the organic molecules in its food to kinetic and other forms of energy as it carries out biological processes. What happens to this energy after it has performed work? The second law helps to answer this question
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Energy PP P PP P i Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) Inorganic phosphate H2OH2O + + The bonds between the phosphate groups of ATP’s tail can be broken by hydrolysis Energy is released from ATP when the terminal phosphate bond is broken
LE 8-10 Endergonic reaction: G is positive, reaction is not spontaneous Exergonic reaction: G is negative, reaction is spontaneous G = +3.4 kcal/mol G = –7.3 kcal/mol G = –3.9 kcal/mol NH 2 NH 3 Glu Glutamic acid Coupled reactions: Overall G is negative; together, reactions are spontaneous AmmoniaGlutamine ATP H2OH2O ADP P i + + +
LE 8-11 NH 2 Glu P i P i P i P i NH 3 P P P ATP ADP Motor protein Mechanical work: ATP phosphorylates motor proteins Protein moved Membrane protein Solute Transport work: ATP phosphorylates transport proteins Solute transported Chemical work: ATP phosphorylates key reactants Reactants: Glutamic acid and ammonia Product (glutamine) made + + +
LE 8-12 P i ADP Energy for cellular work (endergonic, energy- consuming processes) Energy from catabolism (energonic, energy- yielding processes) ATP + Because both directions of a reversible process cannot go downhill, the regeneration of ATP from ADP and P i is necessarily endergonic
LE 8-15 Course of reaction without enzyme E A without enzyme G is unaffected by enzyme Progress of the reaction Free energy E A with enzyme is lower Course of reaction with enzyme Reactants Products
LE 8-16 Substrate Active site Enzyme Enzyme-substrate complex
LE 8-17 Enzyme-substrate complex Substrates Enzyme Products Substrates enter active site; enzyme changes shape so its active site embraces the substrates (induced fit). Substrates held in active site by weak interactions, such as hydrogen bonds and ionic bonds. Active site (and R groups of its amino acids) can lower E A and speed up a reaction by acting as a template for substrate orientation, stressing the substrates and stabilizing the transition state, providing a favorable microenvironment, participating directly in the catalytic reaction. Substrates are converted into products. Products are released. Active site is available for two new substrate molecules.
LE 8-18 Optimal temperature for typical human enzyme Optimal temperature for enzyme of thermophilic (heat-tolerant bacteria) Temperature (°C) Optimal temperature for two enzymes Rate of reaction Optimal pH for pepsin (stomach enzyme) Optimal pH for trypsin (intestinal enzyme) pH Optimal pH for two enzymes 0 Rate of reaction
LE 8-19 Substrate Active site Enzyme Competitive inhibitor Normal binding Competitive inhibition Noncompetitive inhibitor Noncompetitive inhibition A substrate can bind normally to the active site of an enzyme. A competitive inhibitor mimics the substrate, competing for the active site. A noncompetitive inhibitor binds to the enzyme away from the active site, altering the conformation of the enzyme so that its active site no longer functions.
LE 8-20a Allosteric enzyme with four subunits Regulatory site (one of four) Active form Activator Stabilized active form Active site (one of four) Allosteric activator stabilizes active form. Non- functional active site Inactive form Inhibitor Stabilized inactive form Allosteric inhibitor stabilizes inactive form. Oscillation Allosteric activators and inhibitors Allosteric regulation is the term used to describe cases where a protein’s function at one site is affected by binding of a regulatory molecule at another site
LE 8-20b Substrate Binding of one substrate molecule to active site of one subunit locks all subunits in active conformation. Cooperativity another type of allosteric activation Stabilized active form Inactive form
LE 8-21 Active site available Initial substrate (threonine) Threonine in active site Enzyme 1 (threonine deaminase) Enzyme 2 Intermediate A Isoleucine used up by cell Feedback inhibition Active site of enzyme 1 can’t bind theonine pathway off Isoleucine binds to allosteric site Enzyme 3 Intermediate B Enzyme 4 Intermediate C Enzyme 5 Intermediate D End product (isoleucine)