## Presentation on theme: "ATMOSPHERE APPLICATION QUESTIONS CHECK YOUR ANSWERS AS WE DISCUSS."— Presentation transcript:

Altitude Sickness As altitude increases, there is less air above you (less mass) Less mass means less density (molecules are farther apart) Air is only 21% oxygen Less density means less oxygen Less oxygen leads to death of cells, tissues, and organs Symptoms include headache, dizziness, fatigue and vomiting Airlines pump additional oxygen into their planes to avoid this while people fly

High–Altitude Training As altitude increases, there is less oxygen (more oxygen at low altitudes) Cell respiration uses oxygen to burn sugar to create energy to run the cells (muscle cells use a lot of oxygen to make a lot of energy) Red blood cells carry oxygen on a molecule called hemoglobin. People who train at high altitudes make more red blood cells over time (usually takes a minimum of 4 weeks). When they return to lower altitudes, they can work their muscles harder and longer without getting tired due to the extra oxygen. The benefits can last for up to 2 or 3 weeks.

Airplane Max Altitude - 1 As altitude increases, there is less air above you (less mass) Less mass means less air pressure (less force because force = mass x acceleration) Plane wings need high pressure under the wing and low pressure above the wing to provide lift (unbalanced forces cause objects to move) At high enough altitudes, the air pressure is not high enough to keep the plane in the air.

Airplane Max Altitude - 2 As altitude increases, there is less air above you (less mass) Less mass means less density (molecules are farther apart) Air is only 21% oxygen Less density means less oxygen The burning of fuel (or any material) requires oxygen At high enough altitudes, there is not enough oxygen in the air to keep the plane engines running

Airplane Altitude Benefit As altitude increases, there is less air above you (less mass) Less mass means less density (molecules are farther apart) Friction is caused by objects colliding with molecules of air Friction slows objects down & doesn’t let them travel as far In order to overcome friction, planes must use more fuel Flying at higher altitudes, in thinner air, uses less fuel

Deep Sea Diving – Going down Density and pressure decrease as altitude increases (due to the lower mass of air above you) Diving under water adds a column of water to the column of air above you The deeper you dive, the more the pressure and density of your environment increase (more mass above you) Submarines, submersibles, and scuba tanks are pressurized in order to avoid crushing under the additional pressure

Effects of Pressure on the Body Pressure is a force Unbalanced forces cause objects to move Pressure decreases as altitude increases (less mass above you) Pressure increases as depth below water increases (more mass above you) The body has its own internal pressure that must be maintained (ears popping is one way this happens)

Deep Sea Diving – coming up Returning to the surface too fast causes pressure to drop faster than the body can keep up with. Gases (mainly nitrogen) bubble out of solution and gather in joints and organs. Condition commonly called decompression sickness. Symptoms include joint pain, numbness in arms and legs, difficulty breathing, fatigue and dizziness. In order to avoid this, divers usually come back to the surface in stages (just like people climb mountains in stages to avoid altitude sickness).