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1 Professional Preparation and Participation of Culturally Diverse Practitioners in Rehabilitation Dr. Madan M. Kundu, Project Director Dr. Alo Dutta,

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Presentation on theme: "1 Professional Preparation and Participation of Culturally Diverse Practitioners in Rehabilitation Dr. Madan M. Kundu, Project Director Dr. Alo Dutta,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Professional Preparation and Participation of Culturally Diverse Practitioners in Rehabilitation Dr. Madan M. Kundu, Project Director Dr. Alo Dutta, Principal Investigator Rehabilitation Research Institute for Underrepresented populations (RRIUP) Department of Rehabilitation and Disability Studies Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA

2 2 Learning Objectives The participants will: comprehend the changing demography and prevalence of disabilities in the U.S. learn about the employment and unemployment rates of persons with disabilities from diverse background. understand the composition of practitioners in state-federal VR, their academic preparation, and its probable effects on the quality of employment outcome for persons with disabilities.

3 3 RESIDENT POPULATION OF THE U.S.: 2000 CaucasiansAfrican Americans Asian Americans/ Pacific Islanders American Indians/ Eskimos 226,861,00035,470,00011,279,0002,448, %12.8%4.1%0.9%

4 4 1 in 5 community dwelling adults in the U.S. report some type of disability Persons with disabilities are more likely to have: Self-reported fair to poor health Serious psychological distress More co-morbid health conditions Lower income/Fewer resources PREVALENCE OF DISABILITIES IN THE U.S.

5 5 Age-adjusted percent Total Black Hispanic Asian American Indian White Prevalence of Disabilities Among Adults in the U.S.: 2005 I= 95% confidence interval. NOTE: Data are for civilian non-institutionalized adults 18 and over, and are age adjusted to the 2000 standard population. Age-specific estimates are not age-adjusted. American Indians includes Alaskan Native. Asian includes Pacific Islander. The black and white categories exclude persons of Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be any race. Respondents were asked to select one or more races. Data for the single race categories are for persons who reported only one racial group. SOURCE: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), CDC, NCHS FemaleMale

6 6 Employment In 2006: Total employment (146.1 million) The employment-population ratio=63% The labor force participation rate=66.1% Caucasians (66.5%) African Americans (64.4%) Asians (67.1%) Hispanics (68.7%) Women held: 56.3% of all professional and related jobs 42.5% of management-related, business and finance positions Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006)

7 7 Employment In 2006: 1.4 million were marginally attached to the labor force They wanted and were available to work and had looked for a job sometime during the prior 12 months. They were not counted as unemployed because they had not searched for work in the 4 weeks preceding the survey. Among the marginally attached, 367,000 discouraged workers Discouraged workers were not currently looking for work specifically because they believed no jobs were available for them. The remaining 1.0 million persons marginally attached to the labor force in July for reasons such as school attendance and family responsibilities Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006)

8 8 Unemployment In 2006: 7.1 million unemployed in the U.S. Unemployment rate – 4.7% Adult men (4.2%) and adult women (4.1%) Teenagers (15.2%) Caucasian men (4.2%) African Americans (8%) Hispanic Americans (5.9%) Asian Americans (3%) 1.3 million unemployed 27 weeks+ (18.4% percent of total unemployment – up since 2005) 50.9% of the total unemployed population was comprised on those unemployed due to job loss. Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006)

9 9 Unemployment In 2006: Unemployment rate of minorities reduced to 5.4% from almost 9.4% in 2005 Number of minorities in professional and managerial positions has steadily increased Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006)

10 10 Black Percent 60 Obj. 6-8 Race/ethnicity 0 WhiteMaleFemale 1997 Total Parity Target: 80 Gender Hispanic I= 95% confidence interval. NOTE: Data are for civilian non-institutionalized persons aged 18–64 years with disabilities who are employed. The black and white categories exclude persons of Hispanic origin. Persons of Hispanic origin may be any race. Prior to 1999, respondents were asked to select one race category; selection of more than one race was not an option. For 1999 and later years, respondents were asked to select one or more races. Data for the single race categories are for persons who reported only one racial group. SOURCE: National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), CDC, NCHS. 30 Employment Parity Among Adults with Disabilities Increase desired

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14 14 Employment: The employment rate of working age people with disabilities decreased from 37.9% in 2003 to 37.5% in million people with disabilities are currently in the U.S. work force. Full-Time/Full-Year Employment: The percentage of working age people with disabilities working full-time/ full-year decreased* from 23% in 2003 to 22.4% in Annual Labor Earnings: The median annual labor earnings of working age people with disabilities working full-time/full-year was unchanged from $30000 in 2003 to $30000 in 2004, in the US. Household Annual Income: The median household annual income of working age people with disabilities increased from $34200 in 2003 to $34300 in Poverty: The poverty rate of working age people with disabilities increased* from 23.3% in 2003 to 24.1% in Source: Cornell RRTC, 2005

15 15 Diverse Populations in Labor Force Work evenings, nights, and weekends Part-time schedule Higher unemployment rate Low paid, dead end jobs Un- or under-insured Source: Hamermesh (1996)

16 16 Average Weekly Hours: Workers With vs. Workers Without Disabilities ( ) Disability Without Disability 1981: : : : : : : : : : Source: U.S. Bureau of Census (2000)

17 17 Economic Well-Being of Working Age Population with Disabilities Change ( ) in mean household income: People without disabilities: Men: +9.4% Women: +12.6% Employment rate in pro-cyclical People with disabilities: Men: -2.9% Women: +5.6% Employment rate fell during recession and recovery Mean income from SSI and SSDI Men: +33.8% Women: +13.8% Source: Stapleton and Burhauser (2003)

18 18 Possible Reasons for Low Participation More women than men with disabilities Jobs may have changes in ways that make it more difficult for this population to compete Decline in job security → job change+reduced attachment to one employer Rising health care cost → employers less willing → reduced attractiveness for this population Increase in the number of working age population with significant disabilities Able to work at all vs. total population with disabilities Source: Stapleton and Burkhauser (2003)

19 19 Many jobs are destroyed, but many jobs also are created than is apparent from the changes in total employment. Since August 2003, more than 8.3 million jobs have been created. Source: Klien, Schuh and Triest (2003); Bureau of Labor Statistics (2006)

20 20 Since as many as 25% - 40% of the workforce lack the basic skills to understand written or verbal communications, it is little wonder they have problems adapting to changes in the workplace. Source: Hollenbeck (1993)

21 21 Status 26 by Ethnicity (RSA 911) EthnicityYear 2000Year 2001 Caucasian Am.78.2%77.6% African Am.19.6%20.2% American Indian0.9% Asian/Pacific Is.1.3%

22 22 Status 30 by Ethnicity (RSA 911) EthnicityYear 2000Year 2001 Caucasian Am.73.6%72.4% African Am.23.6%24.5% American Indian1.3% Asian/Pacific Is.1.5%1.8%

23 23 Status 28 by Ethnicity (RSA 911) EthnicityYear 2000Year 2001 Caucasian Am.75.5%73.6% African Am.21.6%23.3% American Indian1.5% Asian/Pacific Is.1.4%

24 24 VR SERVICE DELIVERY SYSTEM 79 state agencies (general and blind) A 2003 CSAVR Survey of 32 agencies 50% said CRC eligibility a priority 56% said extension of D-4 deadline necessary Planned funds for VR counselor training: $0 - $236, American Indian VR Programs A 2003 CANAR Survey of 32 programs HS = 30%; AA = 21% Bachelor's = 26%; Master’s = 20% 7.2% has CRC The nearest school is on average 58 miles away 74% has staff development program for employees

25 25 STATE-FEDERAL VR AGENCIES

26 26 Ethnicity by Position: State Office Staff 1997

27 27 Ethnicity by Position: State Office Staff DirectorAdministrator Supervisor CAAAHAAsianP. IsNA

28 28 Educational Attainment of State Offices Staff 1997

29 29 Educational Attainment of State Offices Staff 2002

30 30 ETHNICITY BY POSITION: District Offices Staff 1997

31 31 ETHNICITY BY POSITION: District Offices Staff 2002

32 32 Educational Attainment of District Office Staff 1997

33 33 Educational Attainment of District Offices Staff 2002

34 34 ETHNICITY BY POSITION: Training Facilities Staff 1997

35 35 ETHNICITY BY POSITION: Training Facilities Staff 2002

36 36 Educational Attainment: Training Facilities Staff 1997

37 37 Educational Attainment: Training Facilities Staff 2002 Rehabilitation % Allied Health % Other %

38 38 Salary of Personnel: 1997 About 43% of state-federal personnel earn below median State Office Staff (37% earn below median) Directors-36% earn below $60,000 Administrators-48% earn below $50,000 Supervisors-28% earn below $35,000 District Offices Staff (45% earn below median) Administrators-48% earn below $45,000 Supervisors-42% earn below $40,000 Rehab. Couns.-46% earn below $30,000 Training Facilities Staff (33% earn below median) Supervisors-40% earn below $35,000 Job Pl. Sp.-28% earn below $25,000 Training Personnel-33% earn below $25,000 & & & & & & & & & & & & &

39 39 Salary of Personnel: 2002 About 33% of state-federal personnel earn below median State Office Staff (42% earn below median) Director-34% earn below $80,000 Administrators-46% earn below $55,000 Supervisors-40% earn below $55,000 District Offices Staff (48%earn below median) Administrators-43% earn below $55,000 Supervisors-47% earn below $50,000 Rehab. Coun.-38% earn below $35,000 Training Facilities Staff (48% earn below median) Supervisors-47% earn below $50,000 Job Pl. Sp.-49% earn below $45,000 Training Pers.-42% earn below $30,000 & & & & & & & & & & & & &

40 40 GENDER BY DISABILITY STATUS - TOTAL 1997

41 41 GENDER BY DISABILITY STATUS – TOTAL 2002

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43 43 Total State-Federal System

44 44 RECOMMENDATIONS Pre- and in-service training to inculcate: clinical and direct services provision skills, administrative skills, and organizational skills knowledge in non-disability related areas such as human resource development VR minimize/discontinue evaluation of counselors on the basis of Status 26 closures Evaluation based on the overall quality of their performance: Weighted Case Closures Offering of a productive career path with commensurate remuneration Private agencies & VA pay at least $5,000-$15,000 more than state VR agencies

45 45 RECOMMENDATIONS (contd.) State agencies need to increase salary, reduce caseload, and improve working conditions for rehabilitation counselors. State agencies/CRPs offer paid internships Establish national On-line JOB BANK and TALENT BANK

46 46 RECOMMENDATIONS (Cont’d) RSA enhance funding of Long-Term Training programs in 2-year colleges that are most accessed by people with disabilities and minorities. Utilize Rehabilitation Capacity Building initiatives to develop new and support existing rehabilitation counselor training programs in HBCUs, HSIs, NASIs, and APISIs. Rehabilitation Counselor Education Programs infuse the concept of multiculturalism across curriculum. Replication of the study in Section 121 American Indian VR Programs. Longitudinal research on the effects of counselor-client racial identity on VR outcome.

47 47 Collective Vision for the Future A number of functions performed by rehabilitation counselors may soon be consolidated under one broad- based organizational consultant. Rehabilitation counselors should be prepared to horizontally expand their role in the world of work. As the arena of disability management evolves, these competencies will enable professionals to secure and maintain involvement as the primary facilitators of services for people with disabilities. CORE and CRCC should take an active role in re- defining and expanding the professional/educational standards in rehabilitation counseling.

48 48 “Reasonable People Adapt to the world around them; unreasonable people make the world adapt to them. Therefore, progress is made by unreasonable people.” Samuel Butler Educator


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