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Unit 1 How to Fight an Infection. Bioinformatics The collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 How to Fight an Infection. Bioinformatics The collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 How to Fight an Infection

2 Bioinformatics The collection, classification, storage, and analysis of biochemical and biological information using computers especially as applied in molecular genetics and genomics Sue and the outbreak of Neiserria meningitidis – We collected information from individuals to try to track the infection

3 BLAST We identified the possible organisms infecting the college students with BLAST – Provides you with a match to your sequence of DNA. – The higher the percentage, the greater the match that it is that organism.

4 ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay – Quantitative and Qualitative results – ons/content/ELISA.html ons/content/ELISA.html

5 Attack of the Superbugs 1.2.2 - This activity investigates the mechanisms by which DNA from one bacterial cell is transferred to another bacterial cell. – This process is called CONJUGATION.

6 Attack of the Superbugs To see if we can induce conjugation making an antibiotic resistant bacterium We are using two strains of Escherichia coli – Strain 1 – has a gene on its DNA that codes for streptomycin resistance – Strain 2 – has a gene found on the plasmid DNA that codes for ampicillin resistance.

7 Results We had growth on three plates. If conjugation had not occurred, we would not have seen growth on the plate with strep and amp in it. Plasmid was conjugated.

8 Transduction and Transformation Transduction is the process by which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another by a virus

9 Bacterial transformation is the process by which bacterial cells take up naked DNA molecules from the surrounding media. – Not sure how this occurs.

10 Antibiotic Resistance Lab showed how bacteria can establish antibiotic resistance. Bad!

11 Hearing Loss Put a pic of the ear on your sheet with structures labeled – Sensionuerial vs conductive Related to the use of Sue’s use of antibiotics due to Neiserria meningitidis

12 Conductive hearing problems are those that disrupt the conduction of sound through the outer and middle ear.

13 Conductive Hearing Loss Affects hearing before the sound reaches the cochlea and the nerve receptors of the inner ear.

14 Sensorineural deafness Sensorineural deafness is decreased hearing or hearing loss that occurs from damage to the inner ear, the auditory nerve, or the brain.

15 Sensorineural hearing loss is most often due to a loss of hair cells (sensory receptors in the inner ear).

16 Treatment Cochlear Implant Hearing Aid

17 Causes of Conduction Deafness Otitis Media Middle ear infection Chronic suppurative otitis media – 1.Peferation of the tympanic membrane 2. Bacterial infection l

18 Otosclerosis Ossicles of the middle ear harden and become less able to vibrate.

19 Otosclerosis Approximately one-third of all persons with impaired hearing have this condition. Hereditary Damage to the ossicles, e.g. by serious infection or head injury. Perforated (pierced) eardrum, which can be caused by an untreated ear infection (chronic suppurative otitis media), head injury or a blow to the ear, or from poking something in your ear.

20 Interventions Hearing aids -usually effective for conductive hearing loss.

21 Vaccines – 3 major, out of 6 Types of Vaccines – Attenuated – live virus, slightly weakened, changed so that you get an immune response but not the disease – Killed – virus is dead but still elicites an immune response – Toxoid - vaccine is designed to trigger an immune response to a toxin produced by a bacterium or virus, not to the organism itself.

22 Unit 2 How To Screen What Is in Your Genes

23 Genetic Testing Genetic testing is the use of molecular methods to determine if someone has a genetic disorder, will develop one, or is a carrier of a genetic illness and involves sampling a person’s DNA and examining the chromosomes or genes for abnormalities.

24 2.1.1. Genetic Counselor 2.1.2 Screening our own genes - PTC gene – PCR content/pcr.html content/pcr.html Know the steps and the temps for each step 2.1.3 Restriction Enzymes – What are they – Sticky vs blunt -SNPs

25 2.2 Gene Therapy – Gene therapy is the practice of inserting functional genes into a person’s genome to replace faulty genes – Viral Vectors vs Non-viral Viral – can be engineered, enters cells easily but can cause an immune response Non-viral – plasmids, don’t enters cells as easily

26 2.3 Reproductive Technology – in vitro fertilization (IVF) – preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)



29 Unit 3 How to Conquer Cancer

30 3.1 Regulation in the cell cycle

31 Proto-oncognes become oncogenes through a disruption in the cell cycle. Normally, cells will detect a mutation or that a certain point in the cell cycle has been disrupted and cause the cell to undergo apoptosis Oncogenes lead to cancerous cells

32 DNA Microarray - What Are They? Technology in which the activity (whether a gene is turned on or off) of thousands of genes can be measured.

33 mRNA is attached to the wells Conjucated with cDNA (complimentary) along with a flourescent tag. Color that is emited is detected. Detects for the level of expression of mRNA

34 3.2 Cancer Screens and 3.3 Treating Cancer Why do we do screens? How do we treat cancer? – Radiation – Chemotherapy – Biofeedback therapy

35 3.4 Building a Better Cancer Treatment Personalized Medicine – SNPS, haplotypes – How do you determine which medication to give looking at SNPs?

36 Clinical Trials Random Double Blind ** Orphan Single Blind

37 Nanotechnology What can nanotechnology do? How can we use it in cancer?

38 Unit 4 How To Prevail When Organs Fail GFP Lab – Why hdyrophobic column – Why CaCl2 and heat shock – Why lysozyme – Why binding buffer

39 ESRD and Organ Transplantation Know the tests that are used to diagnose ESRD

40 Kidney Vs Heart Transplant Both are used for patients that are ill and in need of an organ. Both must utilize tissue typing. Both can have organ rejection.

41 Heart Transplant  More extreme of a surgery Kidney = laproscopic Heart = opening entire chest cavity  Blood has to be rerouted during surgery to a bypass machine Kidney = just clamp the vessels to the kidney that is to be removed  Longer recovery time  Needs to be performed ASAP vs wait time on a kidney – WHY?

42 Transplantation of Other Tissues  Which of the following can we currently transplant? Heart Intestine Kidney Liver Pancreas Lung Bone/Tendons Cornea Skin

43 Which of the following organs is the only organ that can regenerate itself? – Heart – Intestine – Kidney – Liver – Pancreas – Lung

44 The Liver! A portion of a liver can be transplanted and can grow while the donor ‘s original liver can grow back to normal as well.

45 Those Involved  Anesthesiologist Provides medicine to put patient under during surgery  Transplant Surgeon Specializes in the transplant of a certain organ  Preoperative Nurse Works with the surgeon handing her tools and provides help when needed  Pharmacist Provides ant-rejection medication to patient after surgery

46 Xenotransplantation Using animal parts for humans – Plenty of animals, plenty of parts Problem – we can reject the organ (HLA) – Introduction of animal viruses into humans Problem – clone the animals – can lead to inferior structures

47 Tissue Engineering Using patients cells to grow organs and tissues in the lab – Could grow a replacement organ?? – Bladder would be easier than intestines – due to the multiple functions of intestines What are some negatives? science/cloned-organ-transplant.htm

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