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The Ancients Greece (5 th & 4 th Century BC) Greece (5 th & 4 th Century BC) Ancient Greece gives MT the play tradition Ancient Greece gives MT the play.

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Presentation on theme: "The Ancients Greece (5 th & 4 th Century BC) Greece (5 th & 4 th Century BC) Ancient Greece gives MT the play tradition Ancient Greece gives MT the play."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Ancients Greece (5 th & 4 th Century BC) Greece (5 th & 4 th Century BC) Ancient Greece gives MT the play tradition Ancient Greece gives MT the play tradition Annual government-sponsored festival to honor the god Dionysis Annual government-sponsored festival to honor the god Dionysis Like Olympics + Tonys combined Like Olympics + Tonys combined Had plays with songs (singing chorus and solo numbers) Had plays with songs (singing chorus and solo numbers) Our theatre tradition is a direct descendent of ancient Greece Our theatre tradition is a direct descendent of ancient Greece no record of their music no record of their music Rome (4 th Century BC To 5 th Century AD) Rome (4 th Century BC To 5 th Century AD) Ancient Rome gives MT spectacle and dance Ancient Rome gives MT spectacle and dance Copycats of Greek plays replaced with Roman characters Copycats of Greek plays replaced with Roman characters Added lots of spectacle and special effects Added lots of spectacle and special effects Got rid of the chorus Got rid of the chorus Added tap dancing numbers (sabilla – tap shoes) Added tap dancing numbers (sabilla – tap shoes) Still no record of the music Still no record of the music Middle Ages (5th Century to 15 th Century) Middle Ages (5th Century to 15 th Century) Professional theatre was banned as ungodly – (M.A. not much influence on MT) Professional theatre was banned as ungodly – (M.A. not much influence on MT) Catholic church was a dominant power in Europe Catholic church was a dominant power in Europe Sacred Performances Sacred Performances Religious plays – religious poems & songs acting out the life of a saint or the passion of Jesus Religious plays – religious poems & songs acting out the life of a saint or the passion of Jesus Secular Performances Survived Secular Performances Survived Traveling minstrels – performed popular songs & slapstick comedy Traveling minstrels – performed popular songs & slapstick comedy

2 Renaissance – Baroque - Classical Renaissance (1400-1600) Renaissance (1400-1600) Commedia dell’arte (Italy) Commedia dell’arte (Italy) Clowns improvise a story (Harlequin, Pulcinella, Scaramouche) Clowns improvise a story (Harlequin, Pulcinella, Scaramouche) Baroque (1600-1750) Baroque (1600-1750) Opera is Born (Italy) Opera is Born (Italy) they thought they were imitating the ancient Greeks (sung throughout) they thought they were imitating the ancient Greeks (sung throughout) Late Baroque/Pre-Classical (1700s) Late Baroque/Pre-Classical (1700s) Ballad Operas (England, France, Germany) Ballad Operas (England, France, Germany) Comical musical plays with borrowed popular songs of the day and rewritten lyrics (usually satire) Comical musical plays with borrowed popular songs of the day and rewritten lyrics (usually satire) The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay (1728) The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay (1728) Classical (1750-1825) Classical (1750-1825) Europe – ballad operas, pantomimes, comic opera Europe – ballad operas, pantomimes, comic opera America America Ballad operas – comic plays with popular songs (lyrics adapted for the play) Ballad operas – comic plays with popular songs (lyrics adapted for the play) First MT performance in NY in 1750 – British tour of The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay First MT performance in NY in 1750 – British tour of The Beggar’s Opera by John Gay Pantomimes – 1 act works with songs and physical comedy (clowning) Pantomimes – 1 act works with songs and physical comedy (clowning)

3 Romantic (1800-1900) American MT Takes Shape Operettas (1800s) – European light/comic opera toured to America and influenced form Operettas (1800s) – European light/comic opera toured to America and influenced form American Variety (early 1800s) – crude comic musical format alternating jokes, gags, songs (grew out of the beer hall performances) American Variety (early 1800s) – crude comic musical format alternating jokes, gags, songs (grew out of the beer hall performances) Minstrel Shows (mid-1800s) – variety entertainment based on degrading African American culture Minstrel Shows (mid-1800s) – variety entertainment based on degrading African American culture Shameful by today’s standards – However, 1 st American-born form of MT! Shameful by today’s standards – However, 1 st American-born form of MT! Legacy Songs like Camptown Races, O Susannah, Jimmy Crack Corn Legacy Songs like Camptown Races, O Susannah, Jimmy Crack Corn Legacy of the Barbershop Quartet Legacy of the Barbershop Quartet Burlesque (1860s) – variety show that mocked high society through gags, cross-dressing, borrowed music, satire, often scantily dressed women Burlesque (1860s) – variety show that mocked high society through gags, cross-dressing, borrowed music, satire, often scantily dressed women Left us with the formula for the musical until the 1930s-40s Left us with the formula for the musical until the 1930s-40s A story with comic possibilities A story with comic possibilities Great performers – stars and up-and-coming stars Great performers – stars and up-and-coming stars Jokes, wisecracks and sight gags between songs Jokes, wisecracks and sight gags between songs Musical score and hit songs (no plot-song relationship is necessary) Musical score and hit songs (no plot-song relationship is necessary) No offensive content No offensive content Vaudeville (1880s) – clean variety shows Vaudeville (1880s) – clean variety shows 3 levels – small time, medium time, big time 3 levels – small time, medium time, big time Silent acts, small skits, novelty acts (sword swallowing), star act, chorus act, etc. Silent acts, small skits, novelty acts (sword swallowing), star act, chorus act, etc. First Broadway Blockbuster (1866) – The Black Crook (became national hit) First Broadway Blockbuster (1866) – The Black Crook (became national hit) Theatrical Syndicate Organized – (1896) Theatrical Syndicate Organized – (1896) Controlled bookings for more than 700 American theatres Controlled bookings for more than 700 American theatres Producers, agents, writers and actors relied on them to work in the business Producers, agents, writers and actors relied on them to work in the business Built some of Broadways finest theatres Built some of Broadways finest theatres Late 1800s - Gilbert & Sullivan tours inspired a great format for American MT to imitate Late 1800s - Gilbert & Sullivan tours inspired a great format for American MT to imitate Witty, great music and great productions Witty, great music and great productions

4 American MT 1900-1920 Operetta Influences the Musical Operetta Influences the Musical The Merry Widow (import) – Viennese-style operetta toured to US The Merry Widow (import) – Viennese-style operetta toured to US Victor Herbert - imitating European style and sound but with American stories and heart Victor Herbert - imitating European style and sound but with American stories and heart George M. Cohan – American musical with distinctive sound and style George M. Cohan – American musical with distinctive sound and style used extreme nationalism and song and dance numbers (i.e., Yankee Doodle Dandy) used extreme nationalism and song and dance numbers (i.e., Yankee Doodle Dandy) Princess Theatre Shows – low-budget project for more intimate, believable theatre Princess Theatre Shows – low-budget project for more intimate, believable theatre Jerome Kern (composer) & Guy Boulton (lyricist) & P.G. Wodehouse (lyricist-librettist) – timeless melodies, plot more believable, plot and music related Jerome Kern (composer) & Guy Boulton (lyricist) & P.G. Wodehouse (lyricist-librettist) – timeless melodies, plot more believable, plot and music related Williams and Walker – African American, ragtime, vaudeville song-and-dance team Williams and Walker – African American, ragtime, vaudeville song-and-dance team Florenz Ziegfeld Follies – the ultimate stage revue Florenz Ziegfeld Follies – the ultimate stage revue Lavish productions (more elaborate than vaudeville) Lavish productions (more elaborate than vaudeville) Attractive female chorus Attractive female chorus Ultimate variety entertainment Ultimate variety entertainment Jerome Kern – redefined the Broadway show tune - memorable melodies Jerome Kern – redefined the Broadway show tune - memorable melodies Irving Berlin – Broadway show tunes become hit popular hit songs Irving Berlin – Broadway show tunes become hit popular hit songs Tin Pan Alley hit song writer who began composing musicals that started hitting the pop charts Tin Pan Alley hit song writer who began composing musicals that started hitting the pop charts 1918 WWI ends - US profits as a lender nation rather than a debtor nation 1918 WWI ends - US profits as a lender nation rather than a debtor nation

5 American MT - The Roaring 1920s 1920s – Broadways busiest decade 1920s – Broadways busiest decade The Shubert Brothers Syndicate The Shubert Brothers Syndicate Famous for suing actors, writers, producers & sometimes each other Famous for suing actors, writers, producers & sometimes each other Result 1 - theatre is for profit gain not for artistic expression Result 1 - theatre is for profit gain not for artistic expression Result 2 – actors equity organized to strike after abusive work conditions under the Shuberts Result 2 – actors equity organized to strike after abusive work conditions under the Shuberts American musical comedy gains worldwide influence American musical comedy gains worldwide influence Songs, dance and story don’t necessarily support the plot Songs, dance and story don’t necessarily support the plot Funny story or famous star + comedy scene + song & dance number = 1920s musical Funny story or famous star + comedy scene + song & dance number = 1920s musical Biggest Composers Biggest Composers Cole Porter Cole Porter Rodgers and Hart Rodgers and Hart The Gershwin Brothers The Gershwin Brothers British contribute intimate reviews – Noel Coward British contribute intimate reviews – Noel Coward Loosely structured stories featuring songs + stars Loosely structured stories featuring songs + stars Showboat (1927) Showboat (1927) Jerome Kern (composer) & Oscar Hammerstein (lyricist) & Ziegfeld (producer) Jerome Kern (composer) & Oscar Hammerstein (lyricist) & Ziegfeld (producer) The only Ziegfeld show still performed today! The only Ziegfeld show still performed today! Plot - Life on Mississippi show boat from 1880-1920 Plot - Life on Mississippi show boat from 1880-1920 Dealt with taboo MT subjects - racism, marital problems, alcoholism, interracial couple Dealt with taboo MT subjects - racism, marital problems, alcoholism, interracial couple Cohesive story Cohesive story Stock Market Crash (1929) Stock Market Crash (1929)

6 American MT - The Great Depression (1930s) Lighthearted musical comedy reaches its peak Lighthearted musical comedy reaches its peak Musicals still provided escape from reality Musicals still provided escape from reality Also commented on issues of the day like: Also commented on issues of the day like: war criticism war criticism city corruption & politics city corruption & politics rising labor movement rising labor movement struggles between democracy and totalitarianism struggles between democracy and totalitarianism The Gershwin’s Of Thee I Sing (1931) - first musical ever to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama The Gershwin’s Of Thee I Sing (1931) - first musical ever to win the Pulitzer Prize for Drama Rodgers & Hart – lighthearted scripts with great songs (i.e., On Your Toes - 1936) Rodgers & Hart – lighthearted scripts with great songs (i.e., On Your Toes - 1936) Jerome Kern – unforgettable MT melodies that became hit songs like All the Things You Are Jerome Kern – unforgettable MT melodies that became hit songs like All the Things You Are Cole Porter - contributed hit shows and songs (i.e., Anything Goes – 1934) Cole Porter - contributed hit shows and songs (i.e., Anything Goes – 1934) 1930s Revues 1930s Revues Old formula didn’t work - overblown sets, half-naked girl chorus and comic gags were a flop now Old formula didn’t work - overblown sets, half-naked girl chorus and comic gags were a flop now New 1930s formula - Replace with stronger scores, new visual ideas and social and political topics in the skits New 1930s formula - Replace with stronger scores, new visual ideas and social and political topics in the skits Example – Irving Berlin’s As Thousands Cheer used a newspaper format to satirize current events and celebrities Example – Irving Berlin’s As Thousands Cheer used a newspaper format to satirize current events and celebrities Very popular during the ’30s because they were cheaper to produce Very popular during the ’30s because they were cheaper to produce Fizzled out by the end of the ’40s due to radio broadcasting and then TV in the ’50s Fizzled out by the end of the ’40s due to radio broadcasting and then TV in the ’50s

7 American MT - The Integrated Musical (1940s) America still suffering from the depression and now entered into WWII America still suffering from the depression and now entered into WWII Broadway still keeping musicals lighthearted Broadway still keeping musicals lighthearted Some trying to make musicals more meaningful with better plots Some trying to make musicals more meaningful with better plots Rodgers & Hart’s Pal Joey – the main character is an anti-hero Rodgers & Hart’s Pal Joey – the main character is an anti-hero Weill and Ira Gershwin’s Lady in the Dark – uses psychoanalysis as the topic of the plot Weill and Ira Gershwin’s Lady in the Dark – uses psychoanalysis as the topic of the plot Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Oklahoma (1943) was the first fully integrated musical play, using every song and dance to develop the characters or the plot. After Oklahoma, the musical would never be the same – but composers Irving Berlin (Annie Get Your Gun - 1946) and Cole Porter (Kiss Me Kate – 1947) soon proved themselves ready to adapt to the integrated musical. Rodgers and Hammerstein’s Oklahoma (1943) was the first fully integrated musical play, using every song and dance to develop the characters or the plot. After Oklahoma, the musical would never be the same – but composers Irving Berlin (Annie Get Your Gun - 1946) and Cole Porter (Kiss Me Kate – 1947) soon proved themselves ready to adapt to the integrated musical. Oklahoma (1943) – first fully integrated musical play Oklahoma (1943) – first fully integrated musical play By Rodgers and Hammerstein By Rodgers and Hammerstein Used every song and dance to develop the characters or the plot to tell the story Used every song and dance to develop the characters or the plot to tell the story first musical to have original cast recording first musical to have original cast recording After Oklahoma, the musical would never be the same After Oklahoma, the musical would never be the same Irving Berlin (1946) – Annie Get Your Gun Irving Berlin (1946) – Annie Get Your Gun Used the R&H formula to create another integrated musical smash hit Used the R&H formula to create another integrated musical smash hit Cole Porter (1947) – Kiss Me Kate Cole Porter (1947) – Kiss Me Kate Proved, again, that the R&H integrated musical was staying Proved, again, that the R&H integrated musical was staying Rodgers & Hammerstein (1949) – South Pacific Rodgers & Hammerstein (1949) – South Pacific Another R&H formula integrated musical hit Another R&H formula integrated musical hit End of 1940s – US economy stimulated by the war End of 1940s – US economy stimulated by the war 1940s & 1950s – Sometimes called The Golden Age of musicals 1940s & 1950s – Sometimes called The Golden Age of musicals

8 American MT – The Golden Age of MT (1950s) Broadway music of the 1950s was the popular music of the western world! Broadway music of the 1950s was the popular music of the western world! Every season brought fresh hit songs that were eagerly awaited by the public Every season brought fresh hit songs that were eagerly awaited by the public R&H formula continued – great stories with memorable songs and dances serving the plot R&H formula continued – great stories with memorable songs and dances serving the plot Unforgettable hits of the 1950s Unforgettable hits of the 1950s Guys and Dolls (Frank Loesser) Guys and Dolls (Frank Loesser) The King and I (Rodgers and Hammerstein) The King and I (Rodgers and Hammerstein) My Fair Lady (Lerner & Loewe) My Fair Lady (Lerner & Loewe) Gypsy (Jule Styne) Gypsy (Jule Styne) West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein) West Side Story (Leonard Bernstein) These musicals were shaped by three key elements: These musicals were shaped by three key elements: The Composers: Rodgers & Hammerstein, Loesser, Loewe, Bernstein The Composers: Rodgers & Hammerstein, Loesser, Loewe, Bernstein The Directors: George Abbott, Jerome Robbins, Bob Fosse The Directors: George Abbott, Jerome Robbins, Bob Fosse The Female Stars: Gwen Verdon, Mary Martin, Ethel Merman The Female Stars: Gwen Verdon, Mary Martin, Ethel Merman

9 American MT – Rock and Roll & MT Industry (1960s) 60s and Change 60s and Change Early ’60s – minimalism and experimentation Early ’60s – minimalism and experimentation The Fantastics – small cast and minimalist set The Fantastics – small cast and minimalist set Carnival – stage director, Gower Champion, uses auditorium as circus space Carnival – stage director, Gower Champion, uses auditorium as circus space Mid ’60s – Golden Age culminates in superb MT where the human spirit triumphs over a harsh world Mid ’60s – Golden Age culminates in superb MT where the human spirit triumphs over a harsh world Hello Dolly Hello Dolly Fiddler on the Roof Fiddler on the Roof Man of La Mancha Man of La Mancha Cabaret Cabaret Late ’60s – cultural changes affect the musical Late ’60s – cultural changes affect the musical Rock and roll tunes become the pop hits Rock and roll tunes become the pop hits New talent goes into popular (rock) or TV New talent goes into popular (rock) or TV Old R&H formula no longer working Old R&H formula no longer working Devastating to the Broadway industry Devastating to the Broadway industry Rock musical Hair (1968) Rock musical Hair (1968) packed Broadway theatre for 5 years; 2 songs became top popular hits packed Broadway theatre for 5 years; 2 songs became top popular hits Pop composers couldn’t write another hit Pop composers couldn’t write another hit Nobody knew what to do next in the musical industry Nobody knew what to do next in the musical industry

10 American MT – Concept Musicals (1970s) Early 70s - 3-way competition for the direction of musicals: 1) Rock, 2) R&H formula 3) Concept Early 70s - 3-way competition for the direction of musicals: 1) Rock, 2) R&H formula 3) Concept Concept Musicals – shows built around an idea rather than a traditional plot Concept Musicals – shows built around an idea rather than a traditional plot Introduced by Stephen Sondheim (composer/lyricist) and Hal Prince (director) Introduced by Stephen Sondheim (composer/lyricist) and Hal Prince (director) Company (1970) – single life vs. married life Company (1970) – single life vs. married life Follies (1972) – growing older and abandoning life’s dreams Follies (1972) – growing older and abandoning life’s dreams A Little Night Music (1973) – youth vs. aging and musical concept of the waltz A Little Night Music (1973) – youth vs. aging and musical concept of the waltz Overshadowed Rock musicals Overshadowed Rock musicals Peaked with A Chorus Line (1974) – conceived and directed by Michael Bennett Peaked with A Chorus Line (1974) – conceived and directed by Michael Bennett Showbiz Inflation - Shubert Former Attorneys Take Over the Theatre Empire Showbiz Inflation - Shubert Former Attorneys Take Over the Theatre Empire Extremely greedy – productions were $250,000, now over $1M (400% inflation) Extremely greedy – productions were $250,000, now over $1M (400% inflation) Traditional Musical Revivals – for those nostalgic for “the good old days” Traditional Musical Revivals – for those nostalgic for “the good old days” No, No, Nanette – Irene – Gentlemen Prefer Blondes – Gypsy – My Fair Lady – Hello Dolly – Fiddler on the Roof – Man of La Mancha – The King and I – Candide – Very Good Eddie – Guys and Dolls No, No, Nanette – Irene – Gentlemen Prefer Blondes – Gypsy – My Fair Lady – Hello Dolly – Fiddler on the Roof – Man of La Mancha – The King and I – Candide – Very Good Eddie – Guys and Dolls Many musicals were failing – Why? Many musicals were failing – Why? Americans weren’t paying attention to musical theatre anymore - focus was on rock and disco Americans weren’t paying attention to musical theatre anymore - focus was on rock and disco MT was a subculture MT was a subculture Cast albums weren’t selling and major labels stopped recording them Cast albums weren’t selling and major labels stopped recording them B’way musicals costs (now needed to run more than 2 years to make a profit) B’way musicals costs (now needed to run more than 2 years to make a profit) Late 70s: Serious works vs. British Mega-musicals Late 70s: Serious works vs. British Mega-musicals Mega musical - a musical relying on pop rhythms, stage hydraulics and high-tech special effects; light on intellectual content and heavy on special effects and marketing Mega musical - a musical relying on pop rhythms, stage hydraulics and high-tech special effects; light on intellectual content and heavy on special effects and marketing Serious works – won awards but lost money Serious works – won awards but lost money Sweeney Todd - Sondheim (composer) and Hal Prince (director) - Conventional structure, operatic-type singing and bloody tale of revenge that challenges morals and intellect (Won 7 Tonys but lost money) Sweeney Todd - Sondheim (composer) and Hal Prince (director) - Conventional structure, operatic-type singing and bloody tale of revenge that challenges morals and intellect (Won 7 Tonys but lost money) Mega musical (British production) – won awards and made massive profit Mega musical (British production) – won awards and made massive profit Evita – Webber (composer) and Hal Prince (director) - Mega musical using rock elements and disco, biography of the wife of a S. American dictator (Won 7 Tonys, made massive profit and ran 3 times longer than Sweeney Todd) Evita – Webber (composer) and Hal Prince (director) - Mega musical using rock elements and disco, biography of the wife of a S. American dictator (Won 7 Tonys, made massive profit and ran 3 times longer than Sweeney Todd)

11 American MT – Mega Musical Dominates (1980s) Mega Musicals from England win the public Mega Musicals from England win the public light on intellectual content and heavy on special effects and marketing light on intellectual content and heavy on special effects and marketing Cats Cats Revolutionary marketing that sold the Cats “things” everywhere and did wonders for advertising the show Revolutionary marketing that sold the Cats “things” everywhere and did wonders for advertising the show Les Miserables Les Miserables Phantom of the Opera Phantom of the Opera Miss Saigon Miss Saigon Other Broadway Non-Mega Successes Other Broadway Non-Mega Successes BOOK/FILM MUSICALS BOOK/FILM MUSICALS Lullaby of Broadway (1980) – based on classic film + vintage songs – Gower Champion (director) Lullaby of Broadway (1980) – based on classic film + vintage songs – Gower Champion (director) Nine (1982) – Mary Yeston (composer) – based on Fellini’s foreign film 8-1/2 Nine (1982) – Mary Yeston (composer) – based on Fellini’s foreign film 8-1/2 Little Shop of Horros (1982) – Alan Menken (composer) Little Shop of Horros (1982) – Alan Menken (composer) funny sci-fi story based on 1960 film about a man-eating plant - toured for years funny sci-fi story based on 1960 film about a man-eating plant - toured for years Other Notable ’80s musicals Other Notable ’80s musicals Les Cages Aux Folles (1983) – Jerry Hermann – gay couple’s son marrying into a bigoted family Les Cages Aux Folles (1983) – Jerry Hermann – gay couple’s son marrying into a bigoted family The Big River (1985) – Roger Miller – adapted Huckleberry Finn stories with country western music The Big River (1985) – Roger Miller – adapted Huckleberry Finn stories with country western music Into the Woods (1987) – Stephen Sondheim’s – based on fairy tales with non-happy endings Into the Woods (1987) – Stephen Sondheim’s – based on fairy tales with non-happy endings City of Angels (1989) – Cy Coleman – screenwriter interacting with his fictional characters City of Angels (1989) – Cy Coleman – screenwriter interacting with his fictional characters Mega Musicals were still running long after the others had closed! Mega Musicals were still running long after the others had closed!

12 American MT – The Corporate Musical (1990s) MT Crowd Now a sub-culture MT Crowd Now a sub-culture National media ignored Broadway and only 5% of population attended theatre National media ignored Broadway and only 5% of population attended theatre 1990s musicals targeting the MT subculture – students, aging suburbanites, tourists, gay men 1990s musicals targeting the MT subculture – students, aging suburbanites, tourists, gay men Revivals – Guys & Dolls, Carousel, Showboat, Chicago, Cabaret, Annie Get Your Gun Revivals – Guys & Dolls, Carousel, Showboat, Chicago, Cabaret, Annie Get Your Gun Gay pleasers – Falsettos, Kiss of the Spider Woman Gay pleasers – Falsettos, Kiss of the Spider Woman One successful ’90s Composer One successful ’90s Composer Frank Wildhorn – based on classic novels or history Frank Wildhorn – based on classic novels or history The Scarlet Pimpernel (1997) The Scarlet Pimpernel (1997) Jekyll and Hyde (1997) Jekyll and Hyde (1997) The Civil War (1999) The Civil War (1999) Mega-musicals losing popularity Mega-musicals losing popularity Production costs were now so high that a 2-3 year run still took a loss Production costs were now so high that a 2-3 year run still took a loss It now required multi-million dollar corporations to succeed in producing MT It now required multi-million dollar corporations to succeed in producing MT The Corporate Musical is Born! The Corporate Musical is Born! Corporate Musical: a musical produced by a corporate giant with tremendous marketing clout. Most of each project is developed by corporate sponsors – like the anonymous department store, assembly-line efficiency. They look impressive, flow with ease, provide pop ballads, can be replicated for foreign markets with no high-priced stars. What is missing? - individual vitality and care, creative individuality, cultural rebellion Corporate Musical: a musical produced by a corporate giant with tremendous marketing clout. Most of each project is developed by corporate sponsors – like the anonymous department store, assembly-line efficiency. They look impressive, flow with ease, provide pop ballads, can be replicated for foreign markets with no high-priced stars. What is missing? - individual vitality and care, creative individuality, cultural rebellion Some Hit 1990s Corporate Musicals Some Hit 1990s Corporate Musicals Beauty and the Beast – Disney corporation Beauty and the Beast – Disney corporation Lion King – Disney corporation Lion King – Disney corporation Rent – fostered by a smaller corporate national touring company; tour productions reproduce as easy as a photocopy Rent – fostered by a smaller corporate national touring company; tour productions reproduce as easy as a photocopy Titanic – foster by smaller corporate entity Titanic – foster by smaller corporate entity

13 American MT – 2000 + Broadway trying to find its audience to pay the bills Broadway trying to find its audience to pay the bills Corporate Musicals Corporate Musicals Disney – Aida, Tarzan Disney – Aida, Tarzan Book/Movie Musicals bring new life! – based on a hit book or movie Book/Movie Musicals bring new life! – based on a hit book or movie Full Monty – The Producers – Thoroughly Modern Millie – Dirty Rotten Scoundrels – Hairspray – The Color Purple – Young Frankenstein – Shrek - Billie Eliot Full Monty – The Producers – Thoroughly Modern Millie – Dirty Rotten Scoundrels – Hairspray – The Color Purple – Young Frankenstein – Shrek - Billie Eliot Jukebox Musicals – new shows built around existing pop songs; usually songs first & plot second Jukebox Musicals – new shows built around existing pop songs; usually songs first & plot second Mamma Mia – Movin’ Out – Jersey Boys Mamma Mia – Movin’ Out – Jersey Boys Revivals Revivals Other Other OTHER OTHER Urinetown (2001) – innovative comic satire about drought-plagued city Urinetown (2001) – innovative comic satire about drought-plagued city La Boheme (2002) – update production of this 19 th century opera La Boheme (2002) – update production of this 19 th century opera Wicked (2003) – sortof a book musical but from the loser’s perspective Wicked (2003) – sortof a book musical but from the loser’s perspective Avenue Q (2003) – Low-budget musical comedy using puppets to depict NY life among struggling 30-something individuals Avenue Q (2003) – Low-budget musical comedy using puppets to depict NY life among struggling 30-something individuals Monty Python’s Spamalot (2005) – parody of the Arthurian legend of the Holy Grail Monty Python’s Spamalot (2005) – parody of the Arthurian legend of the Holy Grail A Light in the Piazza (2005) – Music in the traditional B’way genre. Enjoyed profitable run A Light in the Piazza (2005) – Music in the traditional B’way genre. Enjoyed profitable run The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee (2005) – A very showtuny production - profitable run The 25th Annual Putnam County Spelling Bee (2005) – A very showtuny production - profitable run In the Heights (2008) – features salsa, hip-hop and soul music In the Heights (2008) – features salsa, hip-hop and soul music Next to Normal (2008) – rock musical - still running! Next to Normal (2008) – rock musical - still running! 2008 Offers only pop musicals 2008 Offers only pop musicals

14 American MT What is the Future? Stephen Sondheim was blunt – Stephen Sondheim was blunt – "You have two kinds of shows on Broadway – revivals and the same kind of musicals over and over again, all spectacles. You get your tickets for The Lion King a year in advance, and essentially a family comes as if to a picnic, and they pass on to their children the idea that that's what the theater is – a spectacular musical you see once a year, a stage version of a movie. It has nothing to do with theater at all. It has to do with seeing what is familiar. We live in a recycled culture... I don't think the theatre will die per se, but it's never going to be what it was. You can't bring it back. It's gone. It's a tourist attraction. - as quoted by Frank Rich in Conversations With Sondheim (New York Times Magazine, March 12, 2000), pp. 40 & 88. "You have two kinds of shows on Broadway – revivals and the same kind of musicals over and over again, all spectacles. You get your tickets for The Lion King a year in advance, and essentially a family comes as if to a picnic, and they pass on to their children the idea that that's what the theater is – a spectacular musical you see once a year, a stage version of a movie. It has nothing to do with theater at all. It has to do with seeing what is familiar. We live in a recycled culture... I don't think the theatre will die per se, but it's never going to be what it was. You can't bring it back. It's gone. It's a tourist attraction. - as quoted by Frank Rich in Conversations With Sondheim (New York Times Magazine, March 12, 2000), pp. 40 & 88. MT will go on as long as people like to tell stories with songs MT will go on as long as people like to tell stories with songs


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