Presentation on theme: "EU Environmental approximation in the WB and Turkey- ETNAR Conference Natural resources policy analysis in Croatia Hrvoje Radovanović, Marko Košak Zelena."— Presentation transcript:
EU Environmental approximation in the WB and Turkey- ETNAR Conference Natural resources policy analysis in Croatia Hrvoje Radovanović, Marko Košak Zelena akcija / FoE Croatia Palic, September 24 th to 26 th 2013
Legal framework LAWYES or NO Nature protectionYES Water protectionYES ForestsYES Agricultural landYES Agriculture lawYES Law on soil protection (regulation)YES Law on GMOsYES Environmental lawYES Sea protectionYES EIA (regulation)YES SEA (regulation)YES IPCC (transposed into Croatian legislation through other laws and regulations)YES
Legal framework Nature Protection Act still isn’t harmonised with the EU Habitats Directive; The Water Act still isn’t in compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive; also, some terms used in the Act are not defined, and some of them need additional clarification so future versatile interpretation can be avoid; sediment extraction from riverbeds is still favoured which will lead inevitably to further deterioration of river ecosystems in Croatia implementation of all acts linked to the natural resources has still not reached the European level
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas From the aspect of biodiversity, Croatia is one of the richest European countries Large number of endemic species The number of known species is around 38,000, while the estimated number is from 50,000 to more than 100,000.
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas Despite the high biodiversity of Croatia, many of its components are threatened The red list of threatened species lists 2,235 threatened taxa The greatest threats to wild species in Croatia include: the destruction and loss of habitat, habitat fragmentation, overexploitation, tourism, intensive agriculture, pollution of water, soil and air, and the introduction of alien species.
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas Forests and forest land cover 47.5% of Croatian territory (2.688.687 ha) Wery well preserved and natural in composition 81% of forests are state-owned Majority of state-owned forests are managed by the public company Hrvatske šume (95.8%) Among the private owners small owners predominate (less than 100 ha)
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas Forests managed by Hrvatske šume are exploited sustainably (5,8 million m3 annual yield vs. 8 million m3 annual increment) Last year HŠ generated around 2.8 million EUR of profit 70% of raw materials are sold to domestic wood industry by way of long-term contracts, while the rest is sold through domestic and foreign bids.
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas The main threats to forests in Croatia are: pollution of air, soil and water, changes in water regime due to inadequate water- management activities, construction of roads through large forest complexes, forest fires, mines left after the last war (still some 48,000 ha of mine suspicious areas), different forest pests and plant diseases
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas A total of 420 protected areas Protected areas account for 8,19% of the total area of RH (11,61% of the terrestrial territory and 1,97% of territorial sea) The Nature Protection Act prescribes that all strict and special nature reseves, national, nature and regional parks and significant landscapes must have management plans Currently, management plans for 4 national parks and 3 nature parks have been adopted, those for 3 additional nature parks are in the process of public discussion, while those for further 4 national parks and 4 nature parks are in the process of being made
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas National ecological network was proclaimed in in October 2007 Croatia's National Ecological Network covers 47% of the terrestrial land area and 39% of the marine territory, in addition to two corridors: the sea turtle corridor and the Palagruža-Lastovo-Pelješac corridor (important for bird migrations)
Biodiversity, Forests and Protected areas SINP has drafted the proposal for Natura 2000 network in Croatia The presence of 222 Natura 2000 species and 73 habitat types was determined, including some priority species such as the wolf, brown bear, sea turtles, adriatic sturgeon and the olm Croatia has requested for amendments of Annexes I and II of the Habitats Directive for certain species and habitat types which are specific for Croatia and neighbouring countries
Agriculture Agricultural land: 23,43% (13260,83 km 2 ) of land area Land use in Croatia, 2012
Organic farms: 2,42% (320,36 km 2 ) of agricultural land Networks of organic farmers: Croatian organic farmers association, Dalmatian organic farmers association “DALMACIJA EKO”, Istrian organic farmers association “Istrian eko-product”, “Ecologica” Zagreb, “Eko Liburnia” Rijeka etc. GMO legislation and limitation: Act on Genetically Modified Organisms (2005); limit imports of food containing genetically modified organisms Number of organic farms by counties in Croatia, 2008
Freshwaters and Sea Major river basins : Adriatic (38%, Black Sea (62%) Rivers: Sava(23 243 km 2 ), Kupa(10 032 km 2 ), Drava 6 038(km 2 ), Lonja-Trebeš(5 944 km 2 )etc. Lakes : Vransko(30,7 km 2 ), Dubravsko(17,1 km 2 ) Peruča (artificial)(13,0 km 2 ) etc. Wetlands: Lonjsko polje(506,5 km 2 ), Kopački rit (177 km 2 ) etc. WFD in correlation with national legislation: EU-Twinning Project “Building and Development of Guidelines for the Implementation of Water Framework Directive” with Germany and Netherlands The Water Act still isn’t in compliance with the EU Water Framework Directive; f.e. sediment extraction from riverbeds is still allowed which will lead inevitably to further deterioration of river ecosystems in Croatia River Basin management plans: were integrated in document “Building and Development of Guidelines for the Implementation of Water Framework Directive”
Firms for bottled water: Jamnica,Prima,Podravka Total production of bottled water: about 360 million liters of water annually Imported bottled water: about 19 million liters of bottled water annually; main import partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina (95%), Slovenia, Italy, France, Hungary Exported bottled water: about 25 millions liters of bottled water annually (Jamnica 90%); main export partners: Bosnia and Herzegovina (about 70%), Hungary, Serbia, Slovenia, USA, Romania How drinkable is water: Among 188 countries only Norway and Iceland are richer with water supplies than Croatia Croatia has 32 818 cubic meters of annual renewable fresh water per capita and is one of the 30 richest countries in the world Croatia is among the few countries that guarantee and provide drinking water to its citizens via public water supply About 80 percent of the population has access to water from public water supply Croatia provides about 90 percent of water from groundwater supplies
Total sea area: 31 067 km 2 % of protected marine area: 3,9% (1 211,06 km 2 ) Major problems: fishery: - the protected fishing zone problem (illegal activities under no control) - excessive fishing (especially of small pelagic fish) - renewal of the fleet, which is old and unsuitable industry: - salt industry - misunderstanding of state institutions (no subvetions) shipbuilding: - overdue, insolvent, unprofitable, with no plan for restructuring - import of raw materials - poor quality and unskilled labor tourism: - strong seasonal concentration of tourism traffic - illegal construciton
Case study NATURE PROTECTION ACT -adopted with minimal possibility of public participation Some crucial objections : 1.Ecological network Natura 2000 covers a much smaller area of the territory than the ecological network, which means that many areas of national importance are going to be excluded from the procedure of impact assessment of strategies, plans, programs and projects.
2. Management of economic activities in protected areas The new Act doesn’t define clear legal mechanism for regulation of commercial fisheries and management of marine resources in protected areas. 3. Public participation If public participation is defined in the Act during the main assessment in the Ecological network impact assessment, than it also needs to be defined during the screening of the Ecological network, what the new Act doesn’t define. 4. The Nature Protection Act doesn’t deal with ICCA areas ("Indigenous peoples' conserved territories and community conserved areas" - areas preserved by the efforts of indigenous peoples and communities)