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Age of the Cosmos: The Biblical Model

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1 Age of the Cosmos: The Biblical Model
Image Description: the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), the deepest image of the universe ever taken in visible light. Pictured above, the HUDF shows a sampling of the oldest galaxies ever seen, galaxies that formed just after the dark ages, 13 billion years ago, when the universe was only 5 percent of its present age. Our universe is at least 78 billion light years radius or 156 billion light years across, minimum. Age of the Cosmos: The Biblical Model by Chris Ashcraft Northwest Creation Network CreationWiki Image sources:CreationWiki / NASA (public domain) With special thanks to Mike Riddle for helpful content. Christopher W. Ashcraft M.S., M.Ed.

2 Solar System: Evidence of Design
Creation Cosmology Big Bang vs. Creation Origin of Stars Solar System: Evidence of Design Age of the Cosmos Outline Are we being told all the evidence or just selected information to support a particular idea?

3 Days of Creation in Genesis One 00825

4 The Flood occurred on the year 1656
Biblical Chronology Name (NIV) Age Upon 1st Son Age at Death Years Lived References Adam 130 930 Genesis 5:3-5 Seth 105 912 Genesis 5:6-8 Enosh 90 905 Genesis 5:9-11 Kenan 70 910 Genesis 5:12-14 Mahalalel 65 895 Genesis 5:15-17 Jared 162 962 Genesis 5:18-20 Enoch 365 Genesis 5:21-24 Methuselah 187 969 Genesis 5:25-27 Lamech 182 777 Genesis 5:28-31 Noah 950 The Flood occurred on the year 1656 Genesis 7:11

5 Biblical Chronology Luke 3: Now Jesus himself was about thirty years old when he began his ministry. He was the son, so it was thought, of Joseph, the son of Heli, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melki, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of the son of Naggai, the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Josech, the son of Joda, the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, the son of Melki, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmadam, the son of Er, the son of Joshua, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonam, the son of Eliakim, the son of Melea, the son of Menna, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon, the son of Amminadab, the son of Ram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalalel, the son of Kenan, the son of Enosh, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

6 Evidence for a Young Cosmos
Recession of the moon Comets Age of the sun Supernova remnants Is selected information being given in the textbooks.

7 Heavens Declare Moon The moon is about 240,000 miles away from the earth (384,400 km). Image Source: NASA (Public Domain)

8 Harrison Schmidt a trained geologist taking rock sample.

9

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11 Recession of the Moon Earth’s force of gravity pulls on the moon
The moon pulls back on the earth (Newton’s 3rd law of motion) This causes the moon to accelerate in its orbit so that it slowly spirals away from the earth (4 cm/ year) The Earth and moon are masses that are both pulling on each other. Newton’s 3rd Law - "For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction." The moon is about 240,000 miles away from the earth (384,400 km).

12 Moon Recession

13 Lunar recession The Moon is receding at about 4 cm (1.5 inches) per year Looking backwards in time, the recession rate was faster The Moon would have been touching the Earth just 1.5 billion years ago

14 Earth – Moon Distances 1,000 years ago 125 feet closer
1 million years ago 28.4 miles closer 10 million years ago 284 miles closer 100 million years ago 2,840 miles closer 1 billion years ago 28,400 miles closer 1.4 billion years ago contact The moon is about 240,000 miles away from the earth (384,400 km). The solar system is believe to be about 4.5 billion years old, but based on the current rate of recession, the moon would be in contact with the Earth 1.4 billion years ago.

15 Recession of the Moon Distance from Earth Contact today Time 1.0 bya
The separation rate dr/dt, is strongly dependent on the total earth-moon distance r. Back to about 1 billion years the recession is linear. After 1-billion years it accelerates using the equation 1/R6 The separation rate is strongly dependent on the total earth-moon distance. dr/dt = k/r6 where k is a constant and r is the distance. Roche limit (11,500 miles) Moon could never have been closer – Earth’s tidal forces would have destroyed it (moon)

16 Origin of the Moon “The origin of the moon is still unresolved.”
International Geology Review, 1998 “The origin of the moon is still unresolved.” A. Snyder Ruzicka and L. A. Taylor, “Giant Impact and Fission Hypotheses for the origin of the moon: a critical review of some geochemical evidence, International Geology Review, 1998, p. 851. The best explanation is the moon was created in its present orbit about 6,000 years ago

17 Evidence for a Young Cosmos
Recession of the moon Comets Age of the sun Supernova remnants Is selected information being given in the textbooks.

18 Comets

19 Comets Long-period comets Short-period comets
Each time they circle around the sun they lose some mass. If the solar system is 4.5 billion years old, the comets should have burned-up long ago. Short period comet – circle around the sun every 200 years or less. Long period comets – circle around the sun ever 200 years or more. Haley's comet is a short-period comet that comes by earth every years. Comets are big dirty ice cubes. (Comet in picture - Hale-Bopp from 1997) (http://www.asterism.org/tutorials/tut25-1.htm) When comets pass close to a massive body like the Sun or Jupiter, they may break up due, at least in part, to the tidal forces encountered. Recall that tidal forces occur from differential gravity forces created on an object because of the difference in distance on either side of say, a comet from a planet or Sun. In 1846, Biele’s comet split in two while passing close to the Sun. Comet XIV passed within 10 million miles of the Sun in 1947 and also split in two. In 1976 Comet West broke into four pieces near the Sun. Shoemaker-Levy 9 disintegrated into a 20+ fragments after passing too close to Jupiter, and then spectacularly plunged into the surface. On July 23, 1995, an unusually bright comet outside of Jupiter's orbit (7.15 AU!) was discovered independently by Alan Hale, New Mexico and Thomas Bopp, Arizona. The new comet, designated C/1995 O1, is the farthest comet ever discovered by amateurs and appeared 1000 times brighter than Comet Halley did at the same distance. Long-period comets Short-period comets

20 Kuiper belt and Oort cloud
Video shows Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, the Kuiper belt and the theoretical position of the Oort cloud. Credit: NASA (public domain) Original filename - ssc v1

21 Oort Cloud and Kuiper belt
Evolutionists therefore postulate that long-period comets are being replaced by ring of comets called the Oort cloud. The Kuiper belt is thought responsible for short-period comets. (pronounced /kaɪpɚ) Oort cloud is a ring of comets so far out that nobody has ever seen it. Problems: Never been observed, no evidence it exists, there wouldn’t be enough mass for the Oort cloud to exist for very long. Image Source: CreationWiki

22 Image Source: NASA (Public Domain)

23 Comets and the Oort Cloud
“Many scientific papers are written each year about the Oort Cloud, its properties, its origin, its evolution. Yet there is not yet a shred of direct observational evidence for its existence.” Carl Sagan is a firm evolutionist making a clear statement of faith. Who said this? Carl Sagan and A. Druyan, Comets, 1985, pp. 201.

24 Comets and the Oort Cloud
Timothy Ferris, The Whole Shebang: A State-of-the-Universe Report, 1997, p. 123. “Though the Oort cloud has yet to be observed, the theory accounts so well for the distribution of comets’ orbits that most astronomers today accept its existence,…” This sounds like a declaration of faith. The Oort cloud of comets is an example of belief without proof or observation Definition of faith An unquestioning belief that does not require proof or observation.

25 Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt
Danny Faulkner, Ph.D. Astronomy, More problems for the ‘Oort comet cloud’ , 2001, TJ 15(2):11 “Since it cannot be detected, the Oort cloud is not a scientific concept. This is not bad science, but non-science masquerading as science. The existence of comets is good evidence that the solar system is only a few thousand years old .” More problems for the ‘Oort comet cloud’ by Danny FaulknerTJ 15(2):11 August 2001

26 Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt
Don DeYoung, Ph.D. Physics, Astronomy and the Bible, 2000, p “The existence of the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud of comets has not been verified. Perhaps there is an alternative: The presence of comets may be evidence that the solar system is not as old as is often assumed.” About 600 Kuiper Belt Opjects (KBOs) have been discovered as of However, these objects are about 100 to 500 kms in diameter. This is too large for a comet. The diameter of the nucleus of a typical comet is 10kms. If we were to see a comet 100kms in size it would make a very impressive sight. We see none of these. The largest comet nucleus ever observed was that of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997 with a diameter estimated to be about 40 km (25 miles). Halley's is about 15 kilometers long. All of the Kuiper belt objects allegedly discovered are far bigger than this. 100 – 500 km KBO Comets (10 km)

27 Kuiper Belt Objects The largest objects in the Kuiper belt (using Pluto and its moon Charon for comparison) are depicted in this schematic: Image Source: NASA

28 Wild 2 (about three miles in diameter)
Dirty Snowballs Wild 2 (about three miles in diameter)

29 They come in two flavors
Long-period: more than 200 years to orbit the Sun. Short-period: less than 200 years Short period comets burn out quickly, can’t last for hundreds of millions of years So why are there still so many short-period comets left? Kuiper Belt objects are too big and too few

30 What you aren’t being told about comets
No proven source for short-period comets Shouldn’t be there, unless the Solar System is only thousands of years old

31 Protective Magnetic Field

32 Causes of Magnetic Field?

33 Dynamo Theory “The mechanism for generating the geomagnetic field remains one of the central unsolved problems in geoscience.” quoting the report from the National Geomagnetic Initiative, as of 19 Dec 2002

34 Young Magnetic Field Since its first measurement in 1829, its total energy has fallen by 14%. Loses half its energy every 700 years or so. Archaeomagnetic and paleomagnetic measurements show wild fluctuations of polarity in the past. Field can only be tens of thousands of years old, not billions (Dynamo theories can’t explain these facts.)

35 Planetary Magnetism “Magnetism is almost as much of a puzzle now as it was when William Gilbert ( ) wrote his classic text ‘Concerning Magnetism, Magnetic Bodies, and the Great Magnet, Earth’ in 1600.” Taylor, Destiny or Chance: our solar system and its place in the cosmos, p

36 Evidence for a Young Cosmos
Recession of the moon Comets Age of the sun Supernova remnants Is selected information being given in the textbooks.

37 The Early Faint Sun Paradox
The Sun is burning by thermonuclear reactions. Over time, this changes the composition of the core of the Sun, and alters its temperature. If the Sun is 4.6 billion years old, it should have brightened by nearly 40% over this time. Life supposedly arose 3.8 billion years ago. Back then, the Sun would have been 25% dimmer.

38 Faint Sun Paradox cont’d
The average temperature on Earth would have been about 30 degrees F: below the freezing point of water. Earth would have been an ice planet. Yet evolutionists believe the average temperature of Earth hasn’t changed. Of course, this isn’t a problem if the Sun is really thousands of years old.

39 The Early Faint Sun Paradox
40% Brighter Energy by thermonuclear fusion “…the sun will last about for about 10 billion years before the fusion of hydrogen ceases in its core.” John D. Fix, Astronomy: Journey to the Cosmic Frontier, 2001, p. 389. The core of the sun should alter and the sun should grow brighter with age If the sun is 4.6 billion years old, it should have brightened by about 40%

40 The Early Faint Sun Paradox
Freezing Earth average temperature (59O F or 15O C) “…the sun will last about for about 10 billion years before the fusion of hydrogen ceases in its core.” John D. Fix, Astronomy: Journey to the Cosmic Frontier, 2001, p. 389. A 25% increase in brightness increases the average temperature by about 32O F (18O C) (59o – 32o = 27o F (-2.78o C) Avg. temp

41 The Alternative V838 Mon V838 Mon
Credit: NASA, ESA, and H.E. Bond (STScI) V838 Mon

42 Evidence for a Young Cosmos
Recession of the moon Comets Age of the sun Supernova remnants Is selected information being given in the textbooks.

43 Evidences for a Young Universe
Supernova remnants (SNRs) Star cores fuse helium into carbon, then oxygen, and continue upward to the element iron. However iron atoms will not undergo fusion to heavier elements. With the nuclear energy process extinguished, gravity then causes the star to collapse upon itself. This sudden contraction heats the star and triggers a destructive explosion. Crab Nebula was observed by Chinese astronomers in The star explosion was as bright as Venus in the night sky. It could be seen for several months. One of the last supernovas was recorded by astronomers Kepler and Galileo in 1604. In 1987 a more distant supernova made headlines when it was observed in the Magellanic Cloud, a neighboring galaxy about 180,000 light years away. Crab Nebula Light from the supernova reached the earth in 1054

44 Supernova in Spiral Galaxy M100
Image Source: NASA (Public Domain)

45 Supernova Remnant The supernova remnant1E (inset) sits next to the nebula N76 in a bright, star-forming region of the Small Magellanic Cloud, a satellite galaxy to our Milky Way galaxy located about 200,000 light-years from Earth. A supernova remnant is made up of the messy bits and pieces of a massive star that exploded, or went supernova. The image on the right shows glowing dust grains in three wavelengths of infrared radiation: 24 microns (red) measured by the multiband imaging photometer aboard NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope; and 8.0 microns (green) and 3.6 microns (blue) measured by Spitzer's infrared array camera. The red bubble is a dust envelope around the supernova remnant E0102, which is being heated by the shock wave created in the explosion of the remnant's massive progenitor star some 1,000 years ago. Most of the blue stars are in the Small Magellanic Cloud, though some are in our own galaxy. The close-up of E0102 on the left is a composite of the infrared observations by Spitzer (red), an optical image (0.5 microns) captured by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (green), and X-ray measurements by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (blue). The X-ray ring is generated when the reverse shock slams into stellar material that was expelled during the explosion. Image Source: NASA (public domain)

46 Supernova Remnant Stages
First stage - (free expansion ) debris hurtling outwards at 7000 kilometers per second. Characterized by constant temperature and constant expansion velocity. It lasts a years and reaches a diameter of 7-21 light years. Second stage - material begins to decelerate and cool. Characterized by mixing that enhances the magnetic field, and is a very powerful emitter of radio waves. Lasts from thousand years and reach a diameter of about 350 light years. Third stage – (snowball stage) begins after the shell has cooled down to about 106 K (-167C). At this stage, electrons and atoms begin recombining with the heavier atoms making the SNR shrink and become more dense. The velocity decreases, outward expansion stops and the SNR starts to collapse under its own gravity. This lasts a few hundreds of thousands of years. After millions of years, the SNR will be absorbed into the interstellar medium at a diameter of about 1800 light years. The first stage starts with debris hurtling outwards at 7000 kilometers per second. After the material has expanded for about 300 years, a blast wave forms, ending the first stage. By this time it reaches a diameter of about 7 light years up to 7 parsecs (parsec = 3.26 light years). Since the first stage should last about 300 years and one SNR should occur every 25 years in a galaxy like the Milky Way, there should now be 300/25 first stage SNRs in our galaxy, or about 12. We should not expect to see them all — astronomers calculate that only about 19% of SNRs should be visible, that is about two of the 12. Second stage SNR is a very powerful emitter of radio waves, which is predicted to expand for about 120,000 years and reach a diameter of about 350 light years. The third stage is theorized to emit mainly heat energy, and would last about one million to six million years. The SNR would end when it became so dispersed that it would be indistinguishable from the ֹvacuum’ of space at a diameter of about 1800 light years. Exploding stars point to a young universe by Jonathan Sarfati What are the Stages of a SNRs Life? In the first phase, free expansion, the front of the expansion is formed from the shock wave interacting with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). This phase is characterized by constant temperature within the SNR and constant expansion velocity of the shell. It lasts a couple hundred years. During the second phase, known as the Sedov or Adiabatic Phase, the SNR material slowly begins to decelerate by 1/r(3/2) and cool by 1/r3 (r being the radius of the SNR). In this phase, the main shell of the SNR is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, and the SNR's ejecta becomes mixed up with the gas that was just shocked by the initial shock wave. This mixing also enhances the magnetic field inside the SNR shell. This phase lasts 10, ,000 years. The third phase, the Snow-plow or Radiative phase, begins after the shell has cooled down to about 106 K (-167C). At this stage, electrons begin recombining with the heavier atoms (like Oxygen) so the shell can more efficiently radiate energy. This, in turn, cools the shell faster, making it shrink and become more dense. The more the shell cools, the more atoms can recombine, creating a snowball effect. Because of this snowball effect, the SNR quickly develops a thin shell and radiates most of its energy away as optical light. The velocity now decreases as 1/r3. Outward expansion stops and the SNR starts to collapse under its own gravity. This lasts a few hundreds of thousands of years. After millions of years, the SNR will be absorbed into the interstellar medium due to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities breaking material away from the SNR's outer shell.

47 Evidences for a Young Universe
Supernova remnant Number of observable SNRs predicted if our galaxy is: Actual number observed Billions of years old 7000 years old 1st yrs 2nd 120 K 3rd 1-6 mya Stage 5 2 2260 5000 2 125 All the observed supernova remnants appear to be less than 10,000 years old. This is controversial because the data is 2 decades old 200

48 The Bible and the Time of Creation
The plain reading of the text Words used to indicate time Day with a number Evening and morning Genesis 1:14 (ref) Sabbath - Exodus 20:11(ref) , 31:17(ref) Sentence structure Statement by Jesus - Mark 10:6(ref) Genealogies - Gen 5, 1 Chron 1, Luke 3 Plants and sunlight The sun Refuting Compromise

49 Creation Cosmology Universe By Design By Danny Faulkner

50 What About Distant Starlight?
Proposed Solutions Light Created in Transit Variable Speed of Light Gravitational Time Dilation The speed of light is represented mathematically by the letter C. (As in: E=MC2) Light travels at 186,000 miles per second / 670 million miles per hour (300,000 kilometers per second / or roughly 1 trillion kilometers per hour.). A light year is the distance that light can travel in a year, or: 186,000 miles/second * 60 seconds/minute * 60 minutes/hour * 24 hours/day * 365 days/year = 5,865,696,000,000 miles/year A light year is 5,865,696,000,000 miles (9,460,800,000,000 kilometers). The Moon light seconds from the Earth The Sun - 8 light-minutes from Earth

51 Gravitational Time Dilation
General relativity predicts that gravity field would slow time. The stronger the gravitational field the greater the effect on time. There are identical atomic clocks at both the Royal Observatory in Greenwich England and the National Bureau of standards in Boulder Colorado. The one in Greenwich England ticks 5 microseconds / year slower than the one in Boulder Colorado The atomic clock in Boulder Colorado runs 5 microseconds / year faster than the one in Greenwich England.

52 Space-Time Distortion
Source: CreationWiki

53 Book DVD Starlight and Time
The speed of light is represented mathematically by the letter C. (As in: E=MC2) It is exactly 299,792,458 meters per second or 1,079,252,848.8  kilometers per hour. This is equivalent to 186, miles per second, or 670,616, miles per hour. Book DVD

54 Starlight and Time Video clip from Starlight and Time

55 Distant Starlight and Time
A Major Problem for Evolution No explanation for the first star The horizon problem (light-travel-time problem)

56 Horizon Problem A A B B Maximum distance light could travel
Early in the alleged big bang, points A and B start out with different temperatures. The temperature of the CMB is essentially the same everywhere5—in all directions (to a precision of 1 part in 100,000).6 However (according to big bang theorists), in the early universe, the temperature of the CMB7 would have been very different at different places in space due to the random nature of the initial conditions. These different regions could come to the same temperature if they were in close contact. More distant regions would come to equilibrium by exchanging radiation (i.e. light8). The radiation would carry energy from warmer regions to cooler ones until they had the same temperature. The problem is this: even assuming the big bang timescale, there has not been enough time for light to travel between widely separated regions of space. So, how can the different regions of the current CMB have such precisely uniform temperatures if they have never communicated with each other?9 This is a light-travel–time problem.10 Today, points A and B have the same temperature

57 Closing Statements The big bang is NOT a fact
Most evidence contradicts the big bang The Bible does NOT teach the big bang The Bible teaches a young earth (universe) which agrees with science Many scientists (including astronomers) disagree with the big bang

58 Scientists Danny Faulkner Ph.D. Astronomy John Byl Ph.D. Astronomy
Tom Greene Ph.D. Astronomy Dave Harrison Ph.D. Astrophysics James Dire Ph.D. Astrophysics Jason Lisle Ph.D. Astrophysics John Rankin Ph.D. Mathematical Physics Keith Wanser Ph.D. Condensed Matter Physics Russell Humphreys Ph.D. Physics Barbara Helmkamp Ph.D. Physics Don DeYoung Ph.D. Physics Robert Gentry Ph.D. Physics Eugene Chaffin Ph.D. Nuclear Physics Ron Samec Ph.D. Physics John Cimbala Ph.D. Aeronautics Andrew McIntosh Ph.D. Combustion Theory Hee-Choon No Ph.D. Nuclear Engineering Jay Wile Ph.D. Nuclear Chemistry

59 A God of Miracles God created trees mature with fruit
God created mature animals God created Adam mature Jesus fed the 5,000 Jesus turned water into wine Jesus withered the fig tree (Matt 21:18-19) Instant learning of language (Tower of Babel) Instant healing of soldier’s ear (Luke 22:51)

60 The Bible and the Time of Creation
The plain reading of the text Sentence structure Words used to indicate time Day with a number Evening and morning Sabbath - Exodus 20:11(ref) , 31:17(ref) Statement by Jesus - Mark 10:6(ref) Genealogies - Gen 5, 1 Chron 1, Luke 3 Plants and sunlight The sun Refuting Compromise Removed the following reference: use unclear Genesis 1:14 (ref)

61 Age of the Cosmos: The Biblical Model
by Chris Ashcraft Northwest Creation Network Image Explanation: Galaxies like colorful pieces of candy fill the Hubble Deep Field - one of humanity's most distant optical views of the Universe. The dimmest, some as faint as 30th magnitude (about four billion times fainter than stars visible to the unaided eye), are very distant galaxies and represent what the Universe looked like in the extreme past, perhaps less than one billion years after the Big Bang. To make the Deep Field image, astronomers selected an uncluttered area of the sky in the constellation Ursa Major (the Big Bear) and pointed the Hubble Space Telescope at a single spot for 10 days accumulating and combining many separate exposures. With each additional exposure, fainter objects were revealed. The final result has been used to explore the mysteries of galaxy evolution and the infant Universe. Image sources:CreationWiki / NASA (public domain) Christopher W. Ashcraft M.S., M.Ed.


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