Presentation on theme: "Indonesia’s Second National Communication and Non-Binding Emission Reduction Target Dra. Masnellyarti Hilman, M.Sc. Deputy for Nature Conservation Enhencement."— Presentation transcript:
Indonesia’s Second National Communication and Non-Binding Emission Reduction Target Dra. Masnellyarti Hilman, M.Sc. Deputy for Nature Conservation Enhencement and Environmental Degradation Control Ministry of Environment
Background 1992 Indonesia signed the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 1994 Act of Ratification of UNFCCC (Number: 6/1994) GoI prepared & submitted of National Communication report as a Party to the Convention
National Communication to the UNFCCC UNFCCC Art. 12.1 In accordance with Article 4, paragraph 1, each Party shall communicate to the COP: a.A national inventory of anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of all greenhouse gases b.A general description of steps taken or envisaged by the Party to implement the Convention c.Any other information that the Party considers relevant to the achievement of the objective of the Convention and suitable for inclusion in its communication UNFCCC Art. 4.3 The developed country Parties and other developed Parties included in Annex II shall provide new and additional financial resources to meet the agreed full costs incurred by developing country Parties in complying with their obligations under Article 12.1
The differences between Natcom from Annex I and Natcom from non-Annex I parties to the convention Non-Annex I parties 1. Art. 12.1 of the Convention 2. Depending on the availability of financial resources 3. Not subject to “in-depth” review. 4. Aren’t required to submit separate annual GHG inventories to the secretariat Annex I parties 1. Art. 12. (1) and (2) of the Convention 2. Subject to “in-depth” review by the expert team (stated in decisions) 3. Should submit separate annual GHG inventories to the secretariat
Indonesia’s First National Communication 1st NatCom report produced & submitted in 1999. It covered: 1994s emission inventory of greenhouse gas (GHG) in Indonesia Recommended strategies to limit emissions by each sector1 Ongoing activities on climate change issues Constraints for financial support & environmentally friendly technology transfer
Indonesia’s Second National Communication (SNC) 1.National circumstances, other informations, and constraint/gaps related financial, technical and capacity needs focuses on National Circumstances 2.Greenhouse Gases Inventory focuses on GHG Inventory ( 3.Vulnerability Assessment and Adaptation focuses on developing a programme for Climate Change Adaptation 4.Greenhouse Gases Abatement focuses on developing a programme on Climate Change Mitigation
Organization System of the SNC 1, 5 and 6 23 4 OUTPUTS
Working Groups WORKING GROUP INSTITUTIONS WORKING GROUP A (Others) Ministry of Environment, National Planning and Development Agencies (BAPPENAS), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Home Affairs, APKASI (Asosiasi Pemerintahan Kabupaten Seluruh Indonesia), APKESI (Asosiasi Pemerintahan Kota Seluruh Indonesia), APPSI (Asosiasi Pemerintah Propinsi Seluruh Indonesia), and BPS (Badan Pusat Statistik). WORKING GROUP B (Inventory) Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Industry, and national experts WORKING GROUP C (V&A) Ministry of Environment, Research Agencies within the Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Marine Affair and Fisheries, Ministry of Public Works, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Research and Technology, Environmental Division of the State Electricity Company (PLN), BMG (Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics), LAPAN (Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautic and Space), BPPT (Agency for Technology Assessment and Application) and scientists from universities and national experts WORKING GROUP D (Mitigation) Ministry of Environment, Ministry of Transportation, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Trade and Industry, Ministry of Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Research and Technology, and national experts
Process for the Preparation of Indonesian SNC Other Agencies: Univ, Res. Agencies, etc Ministry of Transport. Ministry of Industry Ministry of Agriculture Ministry of Forestry Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Reviewed by external entities Working Groups From related ministries Documents on National Communication V&A Division at the MOE Development of SNC GHG Mitigation Division at the MOE National Workshop (Public Consultation) After addressing Public Comments, the document submitted to UNFCCC Secretariat Sectoral Consultation Process
GHG Inventory: Summary of 2000 GHG emission and removal (in Gg) 1 Note: Emission from peat fire was taken from van der Werf et al (2008). Source: MoE (2009) The National Greenhouse Gases Inventory (NGHGI) was estimated using Tier 1 and Tier 2 of the 2006 IPCC Reporting Guidelines. In 2000, total GHG emissions for the three main greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) without LULUCF (LUCF and peat fires) reached 546.499 Gg CO2e. With the inclusion of LULUCF, total net GHG emissions from Indonesia increase significantly to about 1,377,754 Gg CO2e.
GHG Inventory: Share of Sector to total national GHG emission in 2000 The main contributing sectors were Land Use Change and Forestry, followed by energy, peat fire related emissions waste, agricultural and industry
1 Note: Emission from peat fire was taken from van der Werf et al (2008). Source: MoE (2009). * Estimated based from MoF (2009) and Bappenas (2009). GHG Inventory: Contribution and trend of emission from 2000-2005 for all sectors
Emission Projection: Energy Sector The energy projection scenario used as baseline in the SNC is the business as usual (BAU) level of Energy Outlook 2009 Assumptions used: Population growth 1.1%, Economic growth 5.5% (2005-2015) and 6% (2015 – 2030) Energy elasticity of 1.2 Oil price 80 US$/bbl (other energy prices follow international prices), Energy supply sources (domestic resources: oil, coal, natural gas, hydro, geothermal, CBM, and biofuel and import: oil product and LNG) Power plant crash program I (10,000 MW coal power plant) Power plant crash program II (10,000 MW coal and other renewable power plants) Kerosene to LPG substitution Biofuel mandatory
Emission Projection: Energy Sector Mitigation Scenarios: Energy Outlook Additional effort in energy conservation Presidential Regulation no. 5/2006 (Perpres) New and renewable energy development Enhance geothermal program Micro-hydro Second generation biofuel Waste to energy Solar photovoltaic Wind energy Coal bed methane Coal liquefaction
Emission Projection: Industry Sector Covers only emissions associated to industrial processes mineral production processes (cement, lime, carbonate products) chemical production processes (ammonia, nitric acid, caprolactam) metal production processes (iron/ steel production and aluminum smelter) Assumption used for BAU: GDP growth of industry sector 6.4% per year Mitigation scenarios Private through CDM (increasing the efficiency in production processes, introduction of new technology, or change of the raw materials) CDM + dissemination program + other international funds
Emission Projection: Forestry Sector Emission projection based on historical data Assumption used for BAU: Emission from biomass removal due to deforestation was projected to be constant at a rate of about 0.898 Gt CO2 per year Rate of sequestration is assumed to increased from 0.505 Gt CO2 per year in 2005 to 0.753 Gt CO2 in 2020 As results of regeneration of secondary forests, land rehabilitation (afforestation and reforestation), and regrowth of woody vegetation
Emission Projection: Forestry Sector Mitigation Scenarios Scenario 1 increase the rate of planting from 196 thousand hectare per yer to 500 thousand ha per year Scenario 2 progressive target with rate of planting of between 1.6 and 2.2 Mha per year Based on this scenario this sector will become net sinker after 2015 Potential funding support for this target: REDD fund CDM Private investment Grants through ODA Grants thorugh mulitilateral channels DNS Adaptation fund under Kyoto Mechanism Global Forest Fund (GFF)
Emission Projection: Agriculture Sector Main sources of CH 4 are rice fields and livestock Assumption used for BAU from rice paddy: BAU 1: All irrigated rice fields are continuously flooded Applied inorganic fertilizers with Cisadane variety No change on irrigated rice paddy area in Java Increasing 50,000 ha/year of rice paddy area outside Java BAU 2: Similar to BAU1 but the rice paddy area in Java is assumed to be converted with a rate 50,000 ha/year and outside Java it will increase at a rate 150,000 ha/year Assumption used for BAU from livestock: Projection emission followed the projection of population growth Population growth: beef cattle and dairy cattle 5%, broiler and layer 3%, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig and local chicken 2%, horse and duck 1%
Emission Projection: Agriculture Sector Mitigation scenarios for rice paddy Rice variety used was changed from Cisadane to IR64 In 2030, total rice paddy area that applied the mitigation technologies are all less than 30%--namely 21% for S1, 5% for S2, 15% for S3, 14% for S4, 6% for S5 and 1.6% for S6 Mitigation scenarios for livestock Suplementation applied on beef cattle 1% and Dairy Cattle 3% of population per year Improvement feeding practices beef cattle 2% and Dairy Cattle 5% of population per year Manure management/Biogas beef cattle 1% and Dairy Cattle 1% of population per year Long term breeding program dairy Cattle 1% of population per year Tree legume introduction Dairy Cattle 1% of population per year
Emission Projection: Agriculture Sector Emission projection from rice paddy fields The most effective mitigation scenario would be the adoption of less methane-emission varieties would drop the rate of methane emission from BAU by about 20%.
Emission Projection: Agriculture Sector Emission projection from livestock Improvement feeding practices of beef and dairy cattle will reduce up to 20% of methane emission coefficient
Emission Projection: Waste Sector Municipal solid waste is the most significant emission source in this sector National generation is about 47.8 million tons in 2000 and increased to 48.7 million tons in 2005 Assumption used for BAU: Emissions growth will follow historical trend, without any efforts or programs related to climate change mitigation Mitigation scenario: Implementation of Municipal Solid Management Law No18/2008 Implementation of Municipal Solid Management Law No18/2008 combined with International funding
Indonesia’s Non-binding Emission Reduction Target 26% and 41%
Mitigation Strategies Non-binding emission reduction target of 26% will be equal to 0.767 Gt. Reduce further to 41%, an additional emission reduction of about 0.422 Gt. Key source categories are peat emission, forestry, energy and waste 2020
Program Activity of each Sector for 26% reduction scenario SECTOR/ACTIVITYER Target (Gt CO2e) REMARK ENERGY SECTOR0.030Equivalent to 40 TWh or 4,651 MW capacity Energy Conservation Program in DSM: - Development of standards - Development of regulation/policy - Labeling program, - energy manager training, - energy audit (pilot), - R&D, - Dissemination activities in all sectors All the energy conservation program will be implemented by GOI together with private sector and households sector to achieve energy conservation through housekeeping, routine maintenance & repair and small investment TRANSPORT SECTOR0.008Equivalent to 24 MMBOE ₋ Standardization to achieve more energy efficient vehicles (higher fuels economy), i.e. passenger and freight transportation ₋ Enhance public transport infrastructure such as Bus Rapid Transit or city train system, pedestrian and bicycle road ₋ Improvement of transport management and planning ₋ Improvement traffic demand management ₋ Integration of transport and land use plan All the programs will be implemented by GOI together with private sector and community. Key actors: - Dep. of Transportation, - Ministry of Energy - City Planning - Public transport operators - Private sector, - Community - City planning by local government - Public work
SECTOR/ACTIVITYER Target (Gt CO2e) REMARK INDUSTRIAL SECTOR0.001- ₋ Process improvement ₋ Operation system improvement ₋ Technology change ₋ Raw material substitution ₋ Dissemination/Promotion Program All the programs will be implemented by GOI together with private sector and community. Key actors: - Department of Transportation, - Ministry of Energy - City Planning Community AGRICULTURE SECTOR0.008 - Improvement of water management (increasing water use efficiency such as SRI, PTT) - Introduction of new rice varieties with less methane emissions - Feeding quality improvement and food supplement for ruminants - Biogas energy All program will be implemented by the government and private sector (CSR)
SECTOR/ACTIVITYER Target (Gt CO2e) REMARK FORESTRY SECTOR0.392 - Rehabilitation of land and forests in watershed - Development of community forest and village forest - Establishment of timber plantation and private forest - Restoration of production forest ecosystem - Development of partnership forest - Fire management and combating illegal logging - Avoid deforestation - Community empowerment The programs will be implemented by government, private and community. Private sectors will dominate the efforts for establishing timber plantation, community and CSR dominate the effort for establishing partnership forests, while government dominates land and forest rehabilitation programs.
SECTOR/ACTIVITYER Target (Gt CO2e) REMARK WASTE SECTOR0.048- ₋ Implementation of MSW management law ₋ government program for the improvement of ₋ existing solid waste landfill ₋ domestic liquid waste management ₋ industrial liquid waste management ₋ Capacity building for waste collection and transportation ₋ Program to enhance 3R activities (reuse, recycle, recovery) ₋ Encourage private sector involvement in MSW treatment All the programs will be implemented by GOI together with private sector and community. Key actors: - Ministry of Environment, - Ministry Public Works, - Local Government, and - Private sector - Community PEAT EMISSIONS0.280 ₋ Development of fire early warning system ₋ Strengthening community based fire fighting team ₋ Improvement of peatland management ₋ Mapping of peat characteristics ₋ Community empowerment ₋ Law enforcement for policy compliance ₋ Generation of more economic activities of communities such fishery management in peat water Most of program will be implemented by governments national and international NGOs and private (CSR).
Program Activity of each Sector for the additional 15% emission reduction target SECTOR/ACTIVITYAdditional ER Target (Gt CO2e) REMARK ENERGY SECTOR0.010Equivalent to 13 TWh or 1550 MW capacity 1. Energy Conservation Program in demand side - Energy conservation for minor investment - Overhaul for maintenance and repair EE will be achieved through minor investment in industry, building/ commercial sector, etc 2. Deployment of clean coal technologySupercritical or Fluidized Bed coal Power plant (350 MW) 3. Accelerated Geothermal (1000 MW)Additional 1000 MW to the existing government plan 4. BiofuelAdditional to achieve the government target (mandatory) TRANSPORT SECTOR0.008Equivalent to 24 MMBOE Further Improvement in Transportation Sector - Enhance public transport infrastructure such as Bus Rapid Transit or city train system, pedestrian and bicycle road - Integration of transport and land use plan The program will further improve more efficient public transport infrastructure (road, pedestrian, public transport vehicle, information system for public transport management - City planning by local government - Public work
SECTOR/ACTIVITYAdditiona l ER Target (Gt CO2e) REMARK INDUSTRIAL SECTOR0.004- Further improvement of industrial processesMore investment to reduce GHG emission fro the processes AGRICULTURE SECTOR0.003 Up-scaling and expanding the improved water management programs (SRI, PTT), introduction of new rice varieties with less methane emissions, feeding quality improvement and food supplement, and biogas energy. More investment for conducting long-term breeding program for livestock and introduction of other technologies for reducing methane and nitrous oxide emission from rice cultivation FORESTRY SECTOR0.031 Up-scaling and expanding the land and forest rehabilitation, timber plantation, and community empowerment REDD+ implementation, establishment of MRV system WASTE SECTOR0.030- Wider coverage of the waste management improvementMore investment for new land fill and other waste management infrastructure PEAT EMISSIONS0.057 Further improvement of peat land management and enhancement of institutional and community capacity in managing peat fire International support required to improve peat land management and monitoring system
Rencana Aksi Nasional Penuruanan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca (RAN GRK) 2010-2020 KLH bersama Bappenas dan DNPI mengkoordinasikan penyusunan secara rinci RAN GRK 2010-2020 dari seluruh instansi terkait dan pemerintah daerah Uraian secara detail dari masing-masing kegiatan seluruh instansi terkait dan pemerintah daerah dalam pencapaian penurunan emisi GRK 26% sebagai berikut:
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